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Table 51.— Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and

race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

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Of 272 households studied in this industry, 42 keep boarders or lodgers. The average number of boarders or lodgers per household based on the total number of households, is 0.24, while the average number based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, is 1.52. The foreign-born report an average number of boarders or lodgers per household slightly in excess of that shown in the total. As compared with the foreign-born the native-born of native father show a very low average number of boarders or lodgers per household. Among the foreign-born the Poles report an average number of boarders or lodgers per household slightly lower than the average shown by all other households combined.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

As regards the range in size of apartments occupied, the following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms: Table 52.- Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of

rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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None of the 272 households studied in the preceding table occupy apartments of 1 room; 2.9 per cent occupy apartments of 2 rooms; 23.2 per cent occupy apartments of 3 rooms; 48.2 per cent occupy apartments of 4 rooms; 19.5 per cent occupy apartments of 5 rooms; 4.4 per cent occupy apartments of 6 rooms; and 1.8 per cent occupy apartments of 7 rooms or more. A smaller proportion of the households the heads of which are native-born than of the households the heads of which are foreign-born occupy apartments of each specified number of rooms under 5, while the reverse is true as regards the proportion occupying apartments of each other specified number of rooms. None of the households the heads of which are Hebrew or Syrian, as compared with 10.7 per cent of the households the heads of which are Armenian and 1.5 per cent of the households the heads of which are South Italian, occupy apartments of 6 rooms. The households the heads of which are South Italians show the smallest and the households the heads of which are Armenians show the largest proportion occupying apartments of 5 rooms. The households the heads of which are Armenians show 10.7 per cent, as compared with over 20 per cent of the households of each other race, occupying apartments of 3 rooms.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED,

The range in size of households is set forth in the table following, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households of each specified number of persons.

Table 53.Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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A larger proportion of the total number of households are composed of 3 persons than of any other number. Households of 4 or 5 persons are also relatively common. The most frequent size of the households of the native-born of native father is 5 persons, but a comparatively large number have 2 or 3 persons. The most frequent size of the foreign-born households is 3 persons, but an almost equally large proportion are composed of 4 persons. Large households are more common on the whole among the South Italians than any other race.

CONGESTION. Although the tabulations and discussion preceding are primarily concerned with congestion, the series of tables next submitted sets forth in a more direct way the degree of crowding within the households studied and its bearing upon living conditions. The first table which follows shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms: TABLE 54.- Average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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This table shows that 4.58 was the average number of persons to each apartment occupied by the 272 families included in the inquiry. This percentage is closely equaled by that of the foreign-born, but is higher by a fraction than that of the native-born. The races do not exhibit any wide variation from the general average.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room:

TABLE 55.- Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The total number of households average 4.58 persons per apartment, 1.13 persons per room, and 2.19 persons per sleeping room. The households of the foreign-born average a larger number of persons in each particular than the households of the native-born of native father. Moreover, none of the specified races averages as small a number of persons per apartment, per room, or per sleeping room as the native-born of native father. The South Italians and Poles show the greatest degree of crowding, the first named averaging 5.20 persons per apartment, 1.43 persons per room, and 2.42 persons per sleeping room, while the Poles average 4.80 persons per apartment, 1.30 persons per room, and 2.50 persons per sleeping room.

The range in number of persons per room is shown in the table following, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 56.—Persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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In the 272 households studied the average number of persons per room is 1.13. When compared with the native-born, the foreign-born group shows a much higher average number of persons per room. Slightly less than 75 per cent of all households studied have 1 or more persons per room, while only 8.8 per cent have 2 or more persons per room. None of the households the heads of which are native-born has as many as 2 persons per room, and only 33.3 per cent have 1 or more persons per room, leaving 66.7 per cent of the households who have less than 1 person per room.

Of the foreignborn, 77.7 per cent have 1 or more persons per room and only 9.6 per cent have 2 or more persons per room. Slightly more than 20 per cent of the South Italian households have 2 or more persons per room, as compared with none of the Armenians and 1.9 per cent of the North Italians. Of the households in which the number of persons per room is 1 or more, the Poles show the largest proportion, which is 92 per cent. The South Italian households, of which 89.4 per cent have 1 or more persons per room, show the second largest proportion. The Armenians, who show 60.7 per cent, present the smallest proportion of households the heads of which are foreignborn having 1 or more persons per room.

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