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The greater proportion of the total number of selected families have a total yearly income under $750. This is characteristic of both the native-born of native father and the foreign-born. A majority of the families of all races but the Armenian have a yearly income of less than $750. More of the Armenians than of any other race have an income of at least $1,500 a year. Relatively small yearly incomes are most general among the Hebrews, 72.7 per cent having under $500.

WIVES AT WORK.

The extent to which the wives of the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home, together with their average annual earnings, is shown in the following table according to general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 37.— Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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It appears that of the 38 wives at work the average yearly earnings were $285. The percentage of North Italian women at work and the size of their earnings are the notable figures of the table. All the other races, except the Poles, show less than 10 per cent of wives at work.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE

OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

Although a considerable proportion of the wives of the families the heads of which were silk operatives, as well as other female members of the families, seek regular employment outside the home as a means of contributing to the family support, a much larger proportion of the wives add to the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home. The extent to which the wives of the families find it necessary to supplement in this way the earnings of their husbands, is set forth in the following tables, which show the number and percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, according to yearly earnings of husband and general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 38.— Number of families in which wife has employment cr keeps boarders or lodgers,

by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Table 39.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers,

by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for

all races. For selection of families, see p. 142. of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.)

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It will be noticed that 28.2 per cent of all wives, regardless of the amount of the husband's yearly earnings, are employed as wageearners or are keeping boarders or lodgers. Where the income of the husband is under $400 a year, 31.9 per cent of wives are working or keeping boarders or lodgers; where the husband earns between $400 and $600, 28.4 per cent are so engaged; and where the husband earns $600 or over, 20.4 per cent are similarly situated. In cases where the husband earns under $400 a year it appears that almost 60 per cent of the Polish and North Italian wives, about 20 per cent of the South Italian wives, and a trifle over 10 per cent of the Hebrew wives are reported as working for wages or keeping boarders or lodgers, but no Syrian wives at all are shown in this class. Where the husband earns between $400 and $600 a year the North Italians show 60 per cent of wives working or keeping boarders or lodgers, and the Syrians and Armenians about 35 per cent, while with the South Italians and Hebrews the proportion is about 20 per cent. No Syrian wives whose husbands are earning $600 or over a year, are found working or keeping boarders or lodgers, but the North Italians, Armenians, and Hebrews show 50, 33.3, and 20 per cent, respectively, so reported. Regardless of amount annually earned by the husband the North Italians and Poles show over 50 per cent, the Armenians 30 per cent, the South Italians over 20 per cent, and the Syrians and Hebrews each less than 15 per cent, of wives working or keeping boarders or lodgers.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The two tables next presented exhibit the sources of family income in detail

. The first of these, which follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families who had an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources. The past year referred to in the table means the twelve months preceding the collection of the data.

TABLE 40.--Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife,

children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The native-born exceed the foreign-born in the proportion receiving income from husband, and are below them in all the other classes except the last. The proportions for the foreign-born do not vary widely from the general averages, but among the races it is observable that the North Italians have a much higher proportion receiving income from the wife than the average, and the Hebrews and Syrians much lower. Two other wide variations from the average are seen in the low percentage of Hebrews having contributions from children and the high proportion of Poles having payments from boarders and lodgers.

The table next presented also shows the sources of family income according to general nativity and race of head of family, but differs from the preceding table in that each specified source is exclusive of all other sources.

Table 41.–Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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This table shows that of 248 selected families reporting 46 per cent get their entire income from the husband, 12.1 per cent from the husband and wife, 14.9 per cent from the husband and children, 1.2 per cent from husband, wife, and children, 10.1 per cent from husband and boarders and lodgers, 3.6 per cent from the children alone, while 12.1 per cent receive their entire income from source or combinations of sources not specified. With over 60 per cent of families having their entire income from the husband, the native-born white of the native father show a higher proportion in this regard than any foreign-born race, except the Hebrews, who show 77.3 per cent. Of Syrian families, 59.1 per cent have their income from such a source, while the South Italian families show 46.9 per cent. The Armenians and Poles are next with over 30 per cent, and the North Italians, with less than 15 per cent, come last. Over 38 per cent of the North Italian families get their entire income from the husband and wife combined; the next highest figure in this respect is the 13 per cent of the Poles, all other races showing under 10 per cent. No nativeborn whatever appear in this class. Again, where the source of income is from the husband and children, the North Italian is ahead, with 21.3 per cent; his neighbor, the South Italian, is next, with somewhat less than that proportion. The Syrians, Poles, and Armenians show between 10 and 15 per cent, while the Hebrew comes below the 10 per cent mark. The native-born show over 14 per cent getting an income from husband and children. Two races only, North Italian and Polish, each with 4.3 per cent, appear to have families whose incomes come entirely from the husband, wife, and children. The Poles, with over 26 per cent of families receiving their income from the husband and boarders or lodgers, show by far the highest proportion in that class, the next highest figure being the 14.8 per cent shown by the Armenians. The South Italians have over 10 per cent, but all other races are under that figure; also, the native-born come under that figure. A remarkably large proportion, over 14 per cent, of Armenians obtain their entire income from the children.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY

INCOME.

The extent to which the families studied depend upon the designated sources of income is set forth in the table next submitted, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of total yearly income from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

Table 42.- Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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