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TABLE 30.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the following table the same data are presented as in the preceding one, but in a different form:

TABLE 31.-Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)
IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

The foregoing table shows that the earnings of the English and Germans are higher than those of the North Italians regardless of length of residence in the United States, and that as a general rule the earnings of all races increase with length of residence.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of husband, the number and percentage of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

Table 32.--Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of the 237 husbands in this industry for whom information was obtained, 99.6 per cent are at work with average earnings of $448, the foreign-born reporting 99.5 per cent at work with average earnings of $426, as compared with the whites, native-born of native father, who report 100 per cent at work, with average earnings of $668. Among the foreign-born all husbands of each race, with the exception of a small proportion of Armenians, are at work. As regards the average earnings of these husbands the Armenians, with $587, report the highest. Following the Armenians are the Syrians, who show a considerably larger average than do the North Italians or South Italians, and a very much larger average than do the Hebrews or Poles, the last named reporting average earnings of $332.

The range in annual earnings of male heads of families is set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of individual.

Table 33.— Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 142.)

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Of 236 male heads of families, 47.9 per cent earn under $400, 76.7 per cent earn under $600, 95.8 per cent earn under $800, and 99.2 per cent earn under $1,000 per annum, the average earnings being $448. The foreign-born show a larger proportion than the native-born earning each specified amount, consequently a lower average earning. Of the several foreign-born races the North and South Italians are the only ones showing a proportion earning as high as $800, while the South Italian shows the largest and the Armenian the smallest proportion earning under $600 per annum. Over 50 per cent of each race, except the Armenian and Syrian, earn under $400, and less than 5 per cent of any race, except the North Italian and Polish, earn under $200 per annum. Only 3 races-the Hebrew, South Italian, and Polishshow a proportion earning under $100.

48296°—VOL 11-11

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the table next submitted the average and range of annual earnings of all males in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over, are shown by general nativity and race of individual: TABLE 34.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Of the total number of males 18 years of age or over, 49.2 per cent earn under $400 per year; 78.5 per cent earn less than $600. The highest level of earnings is among the native-born of native father, 38.1 per cent earning under $600. The lowest level of earnings is among the foreign-born, the greater proportion of whom earn less than $400. There is, however, wide variation in the earnings common among the specified races. Of the Poles, for example, 71.1 per cent earn even less than $400, while 46.3 per cent of the Armenians earn under $600. The greater proportion of Syrians earn less than $600. The remaining races, in the greater proportion of cases, earn under $400.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table following shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of all females, in the households studied, who were 18 years of age or over and who were working for wages.

Table 35.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individuai.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. The average earnings of the 63 females for whom information was obtained in this industry amount to $318, the total foreign-born females reporting an average of $315. · Because of the small numbers reported by most of the races, computation has been made for the females of only one race--the North Italian-who report average earnings of $303.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME. In the series of tabulations which are next presented the average amount and range of annual family income are studied, together with the different sources of family income and their relative importance. The following table, the first submitted in this connection, shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount: TABLE 36.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by

general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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