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TABLE 27.-Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race.

*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

It appears from the above table that almost all of the female employees 18 years of age or over for whom information was secured, earn $2.50 or over per week; that 77.4 per cent earn $5 or over; that 46.5 per cent earn $7.50 or over; that 23.6 per cent earn $10 or over; that 11.6 per cent earn $12.50 or over; and that only 2.3 per cent earn $15 or over. The proportions of individuals earning $5 or over, $7.50 or over, and $15 or over per week, respectively, are largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the native-born of native father, and smallest for the native-born of foreign father; and the proportions of individuals earning $10 or over and $12.50 or over per week, respectively, are largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the native-born of native father. The North Italians, English, and Germans have the largest proportions of individuals earning $7.50 or over, $10 or over, $12.50 or over, and $15 or over per week, respectively.

The earnings of male children between the ages of 14 and 18 years are presented in the table following, which shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 14 but under 18 years of age who were earning each specified amount per week.

TABLE 28.-Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

*

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the male employees 14 and under 18 years of age for whom information was secured, 96.9 per cent earn $2.50 or over per week; 35.6 per cent earn $5 or over; 12.2 per cent earn $7.50 or over; and only 3.1 per cent earn $10 or over. The proportion of individuals earning $5 or over, $7.50 or over, and $10 or over per week, respectively, is largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the native-born of native father.

The table next submitted shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age who were earning each specified amount each week.

TABLE 29.-Per cent of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the female employees 14 and under 18 years of age for whom information is given in the above table, 90.9 per cent earn $2.50 or over per week; 22.6 per cent earn $5 or over; 4.2 per cent earn $7.50 or over; and 1.1 per cent earn $10 or over. The proportion of employees earning each specified amount is largest for the foreignborn, second largest for the native-born of native father, and smallest for the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born, the Dutch and North Italians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Poles the smallest proportion of individuals earning $5 or over per week. The proportion of individuals earning $7.50 or over per week is largest for the North Italians and Dutch, in the order mentioned, and the proportion earning $10 or over per week is much larger for the North Italians than for any other race.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The progress of male and female employees of foreign birth in industrial efficiency or earning ability after designated periods of residence in the United States is considered in the next two tabulations, which show, by race and length of residence in the United States, the percentage of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week. By grouping the proportions in each period of residence under the several races it is possible to study the progress in earning ability made by the foreign-born male employees of each race.

TABLE 30.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.**

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the following table the same data are presented as in the preceding one, but in a different form:

TABLE 31.-Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

The foregoing table shows that the earnings of the English and Germans are higher than those of the North Italians regardless of length of residence in the United States, and that as a general rule the earnings of all races increase with length of residence.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of husband, the number and percentage of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

TABLE 32.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of the 237 husbands in this industry for whom information was obtained, 99.6 per cent are at work with average earnings of $448, the foreign-born reporting 99.5 per cent at work with average earnings of $426, as compared with the whites, native-born of native father, who report 100 per cent at work, with average earnings of $668. Among the foreign-born all husbands of each race, with the exception of a small proportion of Armenians, are at work. As regards the average earnings of these husbands the Armenians, with $587, report the highest. Following the Armenians are the Syrians, who show a considerably larger average than do the North Italians or South Italians, and a very much larger average than do the Hebrews or Poles, the last named reporting average earnings of $332.

The range in annual earnings of male heads of families is set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of individual.

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