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TABLE 60.- Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the 906 households studied in the above table, 19 per cent contain 5 persons each; 17.5 per cent, 13.4 per cent, and 7.7 per cent containing 4, 3, and 2 persons, respectively, and 16.2 per cent, 11.8 per cent, and 8.2 per cent containing 6, 7, and 8 persons, respectively. There are no households of 1 person, and only 3 per cent and 3.2 per cent are households of 9 and 10 or more persons, respectively. Comparing the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father with those whose heads are foreign-born, it is seen that the former shows a larger proportion of households of 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 persons, while the latter shows a larger proportion of households of 5, 6, 9 and 10 or more persons. Among the households whose heads are foreignborn, over 50 per cent of each contain less than 6 persons, the Lithuanians showing the largest proportion of households of 6 or more persons.

CONGESTION.

The extent to which crowding prevails in the households of the employees of the clothing manufacturing industry has already been indicated in the foregoing tables. In the series of tabulations following the degree of congestion and its effect upon living arrangements is more directly set forth.

The following table brings together the data of the preceding tables and shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms:

TABLE 61.- Average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The average number of persons occupying 6-room apartments is 5.58, while the average for the 5-room apartment is 6.07 persons. In the 2-room apartments the average is 3.62 persons and in the apartments of 7 or more rooms, 6.35 persons. Only two races show a number of households sufficiently large for computation, who occupy 2-room apartments. The Hebrews have an average of 3.60 persons to each 2-room apartment and the South Italians 3.72 persons. In the 3-room households the Poles show an average 5.17 persons as compared with 4.52 persons in South Italian households and 5 persons in Lithuanian households of 3 rooms.

An average of slightly more than 6 persons occupy the 4-room apartments of the Lithuanian race, while the Bohemian and Moravian average only 4.9 persons to apartments of that size. The Hebrews and South Italians each show between 5 and 6 persons in the 4-room apartments. The Bohemians and Moravians show an average of between 5 and 6 persons, or 5.28, occupying 5-room apartments, while the Lithuanians show an average of 7 persons and the Hebrews 7.23 persons per apartment. The average number of Bohemians and Moravians in the 6-room apartments studied is 5.38 and of the Hebrews 7 persons.

The Bohemians and Moravians show an average of 5.89 persons in apartments of 7 rooms.

The following table shows, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room: Table 62.- Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The total number of households average 5.26 persons per apartment, 1.32 persons per room, and 2.57 persons per sleeping room. The foreign-born have a larger average number of persons in each instance than the native-born of foreign father.

The Bohemians and Moravians have a relatively small average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room. The Russians, on the contrary, have a comparatively large average number of persons in each particular. The Poles, it should be noted, have a relatively small number of persons per apartment, but a high average number of persons per room and per sleeping room.

The following table shows by general nativity and race of head of household the range in the number of persons per room: TABLE 63.—Persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The preceding table shows the living conditions prevailing among 906 households in the clothing industry. As far as this table goes it does not show great congestion; the average for all is less than 1.5 persons per room. The per cent of households who have 3 or over to a room is very small, and for those having 2 or over to the room it is not large, being less than one-quarter of the entire number. Among the foreign-born the Lithuanians show the greatest degree of crowding, the Hebrews coming next. The foreign-born Bohemians and Moravians are more crowded than the second generation of the same race.

The table next presented shows the range in the number of persons per sleeping room, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 64.-Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of a total of 906 households, which show an average of 2.57 persons per sleeping room, 85.5 per cent have 2 or more, 41.9 per cent 3 or more, 15.8 per cent 4 or more, 5.7 per cent 5 or more, and 2.4 per cent 6 or more persons per sleeping room. The foreign-born show a slightly larger proportion having each specified number, except 4 or more, per sleeping room than do the native-born of foreign father. It should be noted, however, that the native-born of foreign father are only Bohemians and Moravians.

The last table in the series which immediately follows indicates the effect upon living arrangements of congestion within the households studied. It shows by general nativity and race of head of household the number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms.

Table 65.-- Number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each

specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of the 906 households studied in the preceding table only 5.6 per cent use all rooms for sleeping purposes, 33.1 per cent having 1 room and 35.4 per cent 2 rooms used for other than sleeping purposes. The native-born of foreign father shows none as compared with 5.8 per cent of the foreign-born households using all rooms for sleeping purposes. The foreign-born also show a larger proportion of their households sleeping in all except 1 as well as all except 2 rooms, consequently a smaller proportion having more than 2 rooms which are used for other than sleeping purposes.

Among the foreign races the Polish shows the largest and the Bohemian and the Moravian the smallest proportion of their households sleeping in all rooms as well as in all except 1 room, while the South Italian shows the largest and the Polish the smallest proportion sleeping in all except 2 rooms.

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