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bers closely reflects the situation in the foreign-born families. The employment of the wife or the keeping of boarders or lodgers is less frequent among the native-born of foreign father.

The proportion of wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers in South Italian families steadily decreases as the husbands' earnings increase. Among most of the races, however, a greater proportion of wives are employed or keep boarders or lodgers in families where the husband earns $400 and under $600 than in families where the husband gets under $400. In Polish families the practice is most prevalent where the husband gets $600 or over.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The two tables next presented exhibit the sources of family income in detail. The first of these, which immediately follows, shows by general nativity and race of head of family the per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources. The past year referred to in the table means the twelve months immediately preceding the collection of the data.

TABLE 46.Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife,

children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of 796 families selected for study in the preceding table 97.5 per cent have an income from earnings of husband; 8 per cent from earnings of wife; 24.7 per cent from the contributions of children; 19.1 per cent from payments of boarders or lodgers, and 9.5 per cent from other sources. A larger proportion of the families whose heads are native-born of foreign father than of those whose heads are foreign-born have an income from earnings of husband and from earnings of wife, while the reverse is true with regard to those having an income from the contributions of children, payments of boarders or lodgers, and other sources. The families the heads of which are Polish show a larger proportion than the families the heads of which are of any other given race having an income from the earnings of husband and of wife. The families the heads of which are Bohemian and Moravian show the largest proportion having an income from the contributions of children and sources not specified, while the proportion of families whose heads are Lithuanians and who have an income from payments of boarders or lodgers is noticeably large.

The table next presented also shows the sources of family income according to general nativity and race of head of family, but differs from the preceding table in that each specified source is exclusive of all other sources. Table 47.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the total number of families selected for study in the above table, 48.2 per cent have their entire income from husband, husband and children contribute the entire income to 17.3 per cent of the families, and 14.6 per cent have their entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers. Comparatively small proportions have their entire income from each other specified source. No households derive their entire income from wife and boarders or lodgers, or boarders or lodgers, while 12.6 per cent have their entire income from sources or combination of sources not specified in the table. Comparing the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father with those the heads of which are foreign-born it is seen that the former show a larger proportion of families having entire income from husband, as well as from husband and wife, while the latter shows the larger proportion having entire income from each other source. Except the Lithuanian, each group of families whose heads are foreignborn shows a larger proportion of their families having entire income from husband than any other source. The Lithuanian shows a larger proportion from husband and boarders or lodgers. The families whose heads are Hebrews or Lithuanians, alone show a proportion of families entirely dependent upon the wife, and the families whose heads are Bohemian and Moravian, Hebrew, and South Italian are the only ones showing a proportion entirely dependent upon the children.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The extent to which the families studied depend upon the designated sources of income is set forth in the table next submitted, which shows by general nativity and race of head of family the per cent of total yearly income from husband, wise, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources. TABLE 48.--Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children,

boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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A total of 796 families were selected for the foregoing study of sources of family income. For these families 72.5 per cent of the total income comes from the earnings of the husband, 17.3 per cent from the contributions of children, and less than 6 per cent from any of the other specified sources. Over 95 per cent of the income of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, comes from the earnings of the husband. The proportion is much greater than that shown for the households whose heads are foreignborn. The families whose heads are foreign-born show a much greater

a proportion of income from contributions of children and from payments of boarders or lodgers than do the native-born. Among the families whose heads are foreign-born, the South Italians show the largest proportion of income from earnings of husband and the Lithuanians show the smallest proportion. Less than 5 per cent of the income of any of the selected families is from the earnings of the wife. The families whose heads are Bohemians and Moravians show the largest proportion of income from contributions of children. The next largest is shown by the Ilebrew families, while the Lithuanians show the smallest proportion. Excepting the Lithuanians, who show 27.7 per cent, no families show as high as 10 per cent of their income as coming from the payments of boarders or lodgers.

CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment–The immigrant and organized labor—[Text Tables 49 to

52 and General Tables 22).

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

A detailed discussion of working conditions will be found in the several localities studied, which it is not considered necessary to summarize for the industry as a whole. As regards the regularity of employment offered, however, the following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the year past by males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over. TABLE 49.— Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the 1,135 males included in the preceding table, 37.8 per cent have worked the entire year; 73.7 per cent have worked nine months or over; 95.4 per cent six months or over, and 98.9 per cent three months or over-leaving only 1.1 per cent who worked less than three months. The native-born of foreign father show a larger proportion than the foreign-born having worked twelve months, while little difference is shown with regard to those having worked each of the other specified numbers of months. Among the foreign-born races the Bohemian and Moravian and Lithuanian are the only ones not showing a proportion who have worked less than three months, 48296o — VOL 11-11-21

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