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ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS

STUDIED.

In the table next submitted the average and range of annual earnings of all males in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over are shown by general nativity and race of individual. TABLE 40.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

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Of the native-born males of foreign father 71.3 per cent earn under $600 per year. The corresponding proportion of foreign-born is 66.5 per cent." In every instance, moreover, the foreign-born have the smaller proportion earning less than the specified amount. Consequently, there is a higher level of earnings among the foreign-born than among the native-born of foreign father.

The greater part of the males of each race reporting earn under $600, the proportion ranging from 58.6 per cent of the Poles, who have the highest average earnings, to 80.6 per cent of the Lithuanians, who have the lowest average earnings.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS

STUDIED.

The following table shows by general nativity and race of individual the yearly earnings of all females in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over and who were working for wages: Table 41.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

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Of the native-born females of foreign father, 50 per cent earn under $300 per year. The corresponding proportion of foreign-born females is 64.6 per cent. Moreover, in every instance the foreign-born show the larger proportion earning less than the specified amount. Consequently, there is a higher level of earnings among the native-born females of foreign father than among the foreign-born females.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tabulations which are next presented the average amount and range of annual family income are studied, together with the different source of family income and their relative importance. The following table, which is the first submitted in this connection, shows by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount:

Table 42.--Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by

general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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The greater portion of the total number of families have a total income under $750. This is characteristic both of the native-born of foreign father and of the foreign-born. However, except in one instance, the proportion of native-born of foreign father having an income less than each specified amount exceeds the corresponding proportion of foreign-born. Relatively larger incomes are general among the latter class.

The greater number of families of each specified race have a total income under $750. Comparatively small incomes are most general among the Polish, 45 per cent having less than $500. Relatively large incomes, on the contrary, are most general in Bohemian and Moravian and South Italian families.

WIVES AT WORK.

The extent to which the wives of the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home, together with their average annual earnings, is shown in the following table according to general nativity and race of head of family:

Table 43.— Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of the 794 wives in the 796 families selected for study in the preceding table, 64, or 8.1 per cent, are at work and earn an average of $128 per annum. A larger proportion of the wives of native-born of foreign father than of foreign-born husbands are at work. Considering the foreign-born by race it is seen that the Poles show the largest and the Hebrews the smallest proportion of wives at work.

RELATION BETWEEN EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF

WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

Although a proportion of the wives of the families the heads of which were clothing operatives, as well as other female members of the families, seek regular employment outside the home as a means of contributing to the family support, a much larger proportion of the wives add to the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home. The extent to which the wives of the families find it necessary to supplement in this way the earnings of their husbands is set forth in the following tables which show the number and per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, according to yearly earnings and general nativity and race of head of family.

TABLE 44.—Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.)

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a For selection of families, see p. 470.
o This column includes 3 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."

c This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as “none." TABLE 45.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for

all races. For selection of families, see p. 470. of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.)

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a This column includes 3 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as “none."
o Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The largest proportion of wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers is of families where the husbands earn $400 and under $600. However, it is only a slightly less frequent practice among families where the husbands earn under $400. The figure for the total num

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