Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied - Principal

occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States—General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied-Weekly earningsRelation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied—Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income_Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgersSources of family income-Relative importance of the different sources of family income.- [Text Tables 18 to 42 and General Tables 6 to 21).

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

In order that a comparison may be made of the condition in this country and the condition abroad of the immigrant silk operatives, it is necessary to point out their general industrial status and the principal occupations followed by them before emigrating from their native countries. This is done in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 18.- Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males

who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

[blocks in formation]

Of the total number of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over when they came to the United States, 82.3

per

cent had been working for wages; 10.2 per cent had been working for profit. Working for wages was the most common industrial condition of each specified race, the proportion so occupied ranging from 93.3 per cent of the North Italians to 65.6 per cent of the Armenians. The Armenians and Syrians show larger proportions working for profit and larger proportions without occupation than does any other race.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 19.Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who

were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

[merged small][graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

Of 294 foreign-born male employees who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming 4.4 per cent were without occupation before coming to the United States. Ten and two-tenths per cent were working for wages as farm laborers, 0.3 per cent as general labor

52.7 per cent as textile factory operatives, 7.5 per cent in hand trades, and 11.6 per cent in other occupations. Two and four-tenths per cent were working without wages as farm laborers and 0.7 per cent in other occupations. Three and seven-tenths per cent were working for profit as farmers and 6.5 per cent in other occupations. The Syrian and Armenian male employees show the highest per cent who were without occupation, while none of the Poles were without occupation before coming to the United States. Of those working for wages the South Italians show the highest per cent who were farm laborers and general laborers; the Hebrews the highest per cent and the South Italians the lowest per cent who were textile factory operatives. The Syrians show the highest per cent in hand trades and the Armenians the highest per cent in other occupations. Of the foreign-born male employees who were working without wages before coming to the United States the South Italians show the highest per cent who were farm laborers and the North Italians the highest per cent who were in other occupations. Of those who were working for profit before coming to this country, the South Italians show the highest per cent who were farmers and the Armenians the highest in other occupations.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 20.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

[blocks in formation]

Of the total number of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States 65.2 per cent were without occupation abroad and 32.4 per cent were working for wages.

“Without occupation” was the most common industrial condition of the females of each specified race excepting the North Italians, of whom 72.1 per cent were working for wages.

The following table analyzes the preceding table into the principal occupations followed before coming to the United States by foreignborn females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. The presentation is by race of individual.

Table 21.Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

The greater proportion of the total number of foreign-born females who had worked for wages abroad were textile factory operatives. That was likewise the common occupation of the Hebrews, North Italians, and Poles who were working for wages. . The Armenians

working for wages were in other than the specified occupations; the Syrians were most commonly occupied in sewing and embroidering. In the case of each race the persons working without wages were farm laborers. Four-tenths per cent were working for profit as farmers and 0.8 per cent were in other occupations.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

The table next presented shows the percentage of foreign-born male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States. The exhibit is by race. TABLE 22.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.

[blocks in formation]

Of the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured, 73.9 per cent were employed abroad in textile manufacture, 6.5 per cent in farming or farm labor, 5.4 per cent in hand trades, 4.1 per cent in trade, 4 per cent in manufactures other than textile, and 1.4 per cent in general labor. The proportion of individuals who were employed abroad in textile manufacturing is largest for the Russian Hebrews and smallest for the South Italians.

The following table shows, by race, the percentage of foreign-born female employees who were in each specified occupation before comng to the United States. TABLE 23. ---Per cent of foreign-born female employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

[blocks in formation]

It appears from the data presented in the foregoing table that 76.1 per cent of the female employees for whom information was secured were employed abroad in textile manufacturing; 1.6 per cent in other manufacturing; 7.5 per cent in farming or farm labor; 4.7 per cent in domestic service; 7.1 per cent in sewing, embroidering, and lace making; 2.2 per cent in trade; and 0.8 per cent in occupations not specified. Of the two races for which the percentages are given, the North Italians have a larger proportion of individuals who were employed in textile manufacturing before coming to the United States than have the Germans.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME, IN THE HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

In contrast with the preceding tabulations, the series of tables next presented exhibits the industrial condition of employees and members of their households in this country.

The first table presents the general occupation of males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over, according to general nativity and race of individual.

Table 24.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and

race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small]

Of the four hundred persons reporting complete data, 90.3 per cent are employed in the silk industry, 7 per cent are otherwise employed, and less than 2 per cent each are at home and at school. All of the Syrians reporting are employed in the silk industry. Over 90 per cent each of the Hebrews, North Italians, and South Italians are in the silk industry, as compared with 88.5 per cent of the Armenians and 78 per cent of the Poles. None of the Hebrews are employed in industries other than silk goods. Less than 10 per cent each of the Armenians and North and South Italians are so employed, while the proportion for the Poles is 20 per cent. The Poles show the largest proportion of males who are at home, yet in that case it is only 2 per

[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinuar »