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The table which follows presents the same data as the preceding table, but in a different form. Table 35.—Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United Stater.

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)
IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

This table includes

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the group less than five years in the United States the North Italians and South Italians show comparatively low earnings and the Hebrews show comparatively high percentages, earning $12.50 and under $20 per week. The Bohemians and Moravians report none earning $20 or over per week, and less than 1 per cent of any race in this group report earnings of $22.50 or over per week.

An increased earning capacity as a result of continued residence in the

United States is indicated by the percentages shown in the second group, the earnings of each race showing a material increase over the percentages of the preceding period. The percentage of increase in earnings continues, but is somewhat smaller between the second and third than between the first and second periods. Only the South Italians in the third period show less than 50 per cent earning $12.50 or over per week, while in the second group only the Bohemians and Moravians and Hebrews show as high as 50 per cent earning this rate. In the third period each race reports a percentage earning $25 or over per week, the proportion varying from 9.1 per cent of the Hebrews other than Russian to 0.6 per cent of the Polish.

In the third period the Bohemians and Moravians show a decrease in the percentage earning each specified amount under $15 per week.

The following table makes possible a study of the progress in the earning ability of the females of each race.

TABLE 36.—Per cent of foreign-born female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United Slates.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more females reporting.)

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* This table shows wages or carnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

The Bohemians and Moravians who have been in this country for ten years or more show a larger proportion of persons earning each specified amount than do those who have been here for from five to nine years, while those in the latter period of residence show, in each specified amount, a larger proportion than do those who have been in this country for less than five years. This same general tendency is also true of the Poles. The Russian Hebrews who have been in this country for ten or more years show a smaller proportion earning $5 or over and $7.50 or over than do the persons of the same race who have been in this country from five to nine years. The Hebrews other than Russian in the period of residence of from five to nine years show in each specified rate of earnings, except one, a smaller proportion than do those who have lived

here for ten or more years.

The North and South Italians and Lithuanians each show that of those who have lived in this country from five to nine years a larger proportion earn $5 or over and $7.50 or over than do those who have lived here for ten years or more.

The following table shows, by race of individual and length of residence in the United States, the comparative earnings per week of foreign-born female employees who were 18 years of age or over: TABLE 37.-Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born female employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more females reporting.)
IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the group less than five years in the United States the Hebrews other than Russian show the highest percentage earning each specified amount under $12.50 per week, while the Bohemians and Moravians show the highest percentage earning $12.50 per week or over and $15 per week or over in each of the three periods.

The Lithuanians show the smallest percentage earning $10 or over, $12.50 or over, and $15 or over in the first and second periods, and the South Italians show the smallest percentage earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over in the third period.

The table indicates an increased earning capacity with continued residence in the United States, the percentage of increase being greater between the first and second periods than between the second and third. The South Italians, however, show a lower earning capacity in the third period than in the second. The Bohemians and Moravians show the highest earning capacity in the third period and the Lithuanians report the smallest earning capacity in the second period.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The annual earnings of heads of families studied are next considered. The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of husband, the number and per cent of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

TABLE 38.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of a total of 782 husbands in the 796 families selected for study in the above table, 99.2 per cent are at work and earn an average of $530 per year.

The native-born of foreign father shows 100 per cent of their husbands at work, with an average earning of $591, while the foreignborn shows 99.2 per cent of their husbands at work, with an average earning of $528.

The South Italian and Polish show the largest proportion, or 100 per cent, while the Bohemian and Moravian show the smallest proportion, or 97.6 per cent, of their husbands at work.

The range in annual earnings of male heads of families is set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of husband:

TABLE 39.— Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 470.)

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A total of 776 families were selected for the foregoing study. For that number the average earnings per year of the male heads are $530. Less than 5 per cent of the total number of families have heads who have an income of more than $1,000 per year. Only 1 per cent have incomes under $100, while 63.7 per cent have incomes under $600. The foreign-born show a small porportion of families the heads of which have a yearly income of more than $1,000, but none of the native-born of foreign father males have incomes above that amount. None of the male heads of the latter general nativity group have incomes under $200 per year. Among the foreign-born, all of the Poles have incomes under $1,000. The largest proportion of male heads of families who have an income of more than $1,000 is shown by the South Italians. Excepting the Poles, who show 5 per cent, no race shows more than 2 per cent as having an income of less than $100. Among the families having an income of less than $600 the Lithuanians show the largest proportion.

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