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Greater proportions of white employees, native-born of native father, are shown to be earning $12.50 or over per week in New York City than in Chicago; the same is true as to the native-born of German father. Among the foreign-born races the Germans show the highest proportion employed in the manufacturing of clothing who are earning $12.50 or over per week. They are followed by the Hebrews, while the South Italians show the smallest proportion who are earning this specified amount or over per week. The Russian Hebrews, South Italians, Poles, and Russians show a greater proportion earning $12.50 or over per week in Chicago than in New York City or Baltimore. As to the other races in this table, greater proportions of each are shown to be earning $12.50 or over per week in New York City than in Chicago or Baltimore.

The following table shows, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning $12.50 or over per week: TABLE 30.--Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning $12.50 or over per

week, by locality and by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting in each of two or more localities.

totals, however, are for all races.)

The

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year. a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

In the foregoing table the proportion of females who earn $12.50 or over per week is greater in Chicago than in either Baltimore or New York City, although for no locality is the proportion as large as 10 per cent, and for Baltimore it is less than 1 per cent. In Chicago and New York City the foreign-born show the smallest proportion of any of the general nativity groups. In Baltimore the proportion of foreign-born who earn the specified amount is 0.3 per cent, as compared with zero for the native-born of foreign father. The North Italians in Chicago show nearly 10 per cent who earn $12.50 or over per week, as compared with 4.2 per cent for the Russian Hebrews. In New York City the Russian Hebrews show the largest proportion, 7.4 per cent, who earn the specified amount, while the proportion for the South Italians, 2.2 per cent, is the smallest. The nativeborn of fathers who were born in Germany show in Chicago over 10 per cent who earn $12.50 or over per week, while for the total industry the proportion is 7.8 per cent.

The earnings of male children between the ages of 14 and 18 years are presented in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of male employees who were 14 but under 18 years of age and who were earning each specified amount

per week:

TABLE 31.-Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Almost all of the male employees 14 and under 18 years of age for whom information was secured earn $2.50 per week or over, 74.7 per cent earn $5 or over, 26.6 per cent earn $7.50 or over, and only 8.3 per cent earn $10 or over. The foreign-born have a considerably larger proportion of individuals earning $5 per week or over and $7.50 per week or over, respectively, than have the native-born of foreign father. In the case of the foreign-born, the proportion of individuals earning $5 per week or over is larger for the Russian Hebrews than for the South Italians, but the proportion of individuals earning $7.50 or over is larger for the South Italians than for the Russian Hebrews.

The table next submitted sets forth by general nativity and race of individual the per cent of female employees who were 14 and under 18 years of age and who were earning each specified amount each week.

Table 32.Per cent of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

$2.50 per

per cent

The above table shows that of the female employees 14 and under 18 years

of

age for whom information was secured almost all earn

week or over, 58.8 per cent earn $5 or over, 15.7 earn $7.50 or over, and only a very small proportion earn $10 or over. The proportion of employees earning $5 per week or over is largest for the foreign-born and slightly larger for the native-born of native father than for the native-born of foreign father, while the proportion earning $7.50 per week or over is considerably larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of foreign father and considerably larger for the latter than for the native-born of native father. " Among the foreign-born, the Russian Hebrews, followed by the Hebrews other than Russian, have the largest and the Poles the smallest proportion of individuals earning $5 per week or over, and the Hebrews other than Russian, followed by the Bohemians and Moravians, have the largest and the Poles the smallest proportion of individuals earning $7.50 per week or over.

The following table shows by locality and by general nativity and race of individual the per cent of female employees who were 14 but under 18 years of age and who earned $5 or over each week.

TABLE 33.—Per cent of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning $5 or over per week, by locality and by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more females reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year. a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

In the foregoing table 58.8 per cent of all females included are earning $5 or over per week. In New York City and Chicago the proportion is greater than in Baltimore. In each of the three localities the foreign-born show a larger proportion than do the nativeborn of foreign father. The Russian Hebrews show the largest proportion earning $5 or over weekly. This is true not only of the total, but of each of the three localities included in the table.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The progress of male and female employees of foreign birth in industrial efficiency or earning ability after designated periods of residence in the United States is considered in the next series of tabulations. The table below shows by race and length of residence in the United States the percentage of earnings per week of foreignborn male employees 18 years of age or over, and permits of a study of their progress by grouping the proportions in each period of residence under the several races.

48296°-VOL 11-11-20

TABLE 34.–Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each

specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

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Bohemian and Moravian:

Under 5. 5 to 9...

10 or over. German:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over Hebrew, Russian:

Under 5.. 5 to 9.

10 or over. Hebrew, Other:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over Italian, North:

Under 5. 5 to 9...

10 or over Italian, South:

Under 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over. Lithuanian:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over. Polish:

Under 5. 5 to 9...

10 or over. Russian:

Under 5. 5 to 9.. 10 or over.

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In comparing the male employees of each race by years in the United States it will be noted that, with the exception of those earning less than $10 per week, there is a very general tendency for the proportions of each race earning each specified amount per week to increase with years in the United States.

Years in the United States affect in a lesser degree employees who earn less than $10 per week. With one exception, however, the most recently arrived employees of each race report the smallest proportion earning $5 or over and $7.50 or over. Also, in the greater number of cases the largest proportion earning $5 or over, $7.50 or over is the group of employees who have been in the United States ten years or over.

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