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The following table shows by general nativity and race of father and birthplace of individual the per cent of females in the households studied 16 years of age or over who were engaged in the manufacture of clothing:

TABLE 24.

Per cent of females 16 years of age or over engaged in the manufacture of clothing, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females born in the United States and also 20 or more

born abroad.]

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The preceding table shows that of the females 16 years of age or over for whom information was secured a considerably higher per cent of the Bohemian and Moravian and the Hebrew female employees who were born abroad are engaged in the manufacture of clothing than the per cent of those who were born in the United States and who are employed in this industry. The Bohemian and Moravian female employees who were born abroad show a considerably larger proportion in domestic service than do those who were born in the United States. The Hebrew female employees who were born abroad show a slightly higher per cent who are in domestic service than do those who were born in the United States. The Bohemian and Moravian and Hebrew female employees who were born in the United States show a considerably higher per cent who are otherwise employed than do the female employees of these races who were born abroad.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

As regards the average weekly earnings and the range in weekly earning ability of employees the table next presented shows by general nativity and race of individual the per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over who were earning each specified amount each week.

Table 25.Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Almost all of the employees 18 years of age or over for whom information was secured earn $5 or over per week, 90.6 per cent earn $7.50 or over, 76.6 per cent earn $10 or over, 48.9 per cent earn $12.50 or over, 36.7 per cent earn $15 or over, 11.5 per cent earn $20 or over, and only a very small proportion earn $22.50 or over. The proportion of individuals earning $7.50 or over and $10 or over per week, respectively, is largest for the native-born of foreign father and about the same for the native-born of native father as for the foreignborn, while the proportions earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over per week, respectively, are considerably larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the native-born of native father and considerably larger for the latter than for the foreign-born. Among the foreign-born, the Germans, followed by the Bohemians and Moravians, and Hebrews other than Russian, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the South Italians the smallest proportion of individuals earning $10 or over and $12.50 or over per week, respectively, and the Hebrews other than Russian, followed by the Germans, and Bohemians and Moravians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Slovaks the smallest proportion of individuals earning $15 or over.

The following table shows by general nativity and race of individual the per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over who were earning each specified amount per week: Table 26.Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the female employees 18 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 92.4 per cent earn $5 per week or over, 54.6 per cent $7.50 or over, 23.5 per cent $10 or over, 5.9 per cent $12.50 or over, and only 3 per cent $15 or over. The proportion of employees earning each specified amount is largest for the native-born of foreign father, second largest for the foreign-born, and smallest for the native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born, the Bohemians and Moravians have the largest and the Lithuanians the smallest proportion of individuals earning $7.50 or over, $10 or over, and $12.50 or over per week, respectively.

The following tables make a comparison of the earning ability exhibited by employees in the various localities studied. The first table shows by locality and general nativity and race of individual the per cent of male employees who were 18 years of age or over and who were earning $7.50 or over per week: TABLE 27.Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning $7.50 or over per

week, by locality and by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

[graphic]

94.3

96.0 91.3 94. 2 80.3 90.0 92.3 90.3

90.6

92.4 91.8 90.4

* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year. a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

This table shows that 90.6 per cent of the males employed in the manufacture of clothing are earning $7.50 or over per week. In Chicago 92.8 per cent, in New York 90.2 per cent, and in Baltimore 86.6 per cent of the employees are so reported. Of the native-born of foreign father and the native-born of native father, the largest proportions earning this amount are reported in New York City, the per cent being considerably higher than in either Baltimore or Chicago. On the other hand, the greatest proportion of the foreign-born earning $7.50 or over per week is reported in Chicago.

Among the foreign-born, 96 per cent of the Germans engaged in this industry and 90 per cent or over of each other race excepting the South Italian, whose figure is 80.3 per cent, are earning $7.50 or over per week. The Germans report the highest per cent, with the Hebrews other than Russian ranking second. The figure reported for the American whites, 90.4 per cent, is exceeded by the majority of the foreign races. A greater proportion of the Hebrews and South Italians in Chicago than elsewhere are earning the amount specified, while the Germans, Lithuanians, Poles, and Russians report a higher proportion in New York City than in either Chicago or Baltimore.

Wide differences in the figures reported by one race are noted in the native-born Germans and the foreign-born South Italians in Chicago and New York; the Lithuanians in Baltimore and New York, and the Russian Hebrews in Baltimore and Chicago.

In the next table presented the per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning $7.50 or over per week is shown according to locality and by general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 28.—Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning $7.50 or over per

week, by locality and by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year. a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The proportion of females 18 years of age or over who earn $7.50 or over per week is greater in Chicago than in either Baltimore or New York City. In each of the three localities studied the proportion of foreign-born females who earn the specified amount is smaller than is the proportion for the native-born of foreign father. The Russian Hebrew is the only one of the foreign-born races reported in Baltimore that shows a proportion sufficiently large for computation in percentages. It reports 27.3 per cent. In Chicago more than 60 per cent of the North Italians, 57 per cent of the Russian Hebrews, and 44 per cent of the South Italians earn the specified amount. In New York City the proportion of Russian Hebrews who earn $7.50 or over per week is greatly in excess of the proportions shown by either the North or the South Italians.

The table next submitted shows by locality and by general nativity and race of individual the per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning $12.50 or over per week. TABLE 29.Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning $12.50 or over per

week, by locality and by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals,

however, are for all races.)

[graphic]

General nativity and race.

Baltimore. Chicago.

New York Total

City. clothing. Native-born of native father, White..

61.2 80.4

54.5 Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father, Germany.

68.0
62.3
90.7

72.2 Foreign-born, by race: German.

65.3
78.9

66.4 Hebrew, Russian.

22.8
55. 2
53.1

49. 2 Hebrew, Other

59. 1
61.1

60.0 Italian, South...

32. 1
31.6

28.7 Lithuanian.

21.5
33.6
46.2

36.0 Polish

(a)

41.5
33. 3

39.0 Russian..

51.2
39.0

41.0 Grand total..

29.0
53.4
51.5

48.9 Total native-born of foreign father..

53.4
59. 2
83.5

66.4 Total native-born..

44.8
59.3
82.1

63.5 Total foreign-born..

24.8
52. 1
47.7

46.2 * This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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