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Clothing Manufacturing : Contents.

PART II.—CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN NEW YORK CITY.

Page. 365 366

369 370 372

375 376 379

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Extent of the industry in New York City....

Employees for whom information was secured.
CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration...
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees.

Racial classification of employees at the present time...
CHAPTER III.—Economic status:

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States..
Weekly earnings.

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Hours of work....
Size of establishments..

The immigrant and organized labor.
CHAPTER V.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy....
Conjugal condition.
Visits abroad.....

Age classification of employees.
CHAPTER VI.-General progress and assimilation:

Citizenship.....
Ability to speak English

383 383 387

389 390 394 395

399 400

PART III.—CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN BALTIMORE, MD. CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Page. Employees for whom information was secured...

405 CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements: History of immigration....

407 Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees.

408 Racial classification of employees at the present time.

409 Reasons for the employment of immigrants.

410 Methods used in securing immigrant labor..

411 Effect of employment of immigrants upon former employees...

411 CHAPTER III.- Économic status:

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United
States...

413 Occupations entered and progress of immigrants in the clothing industry.. 413 Weekly earnings..

414 CHAPTER IV:-Working conditions: Hours of work....

417 Effect of the industrial depression of 1907 and 1908.

417 Effect of employment of immigrants upon establishment of new industries. 417 Employers' opinions of recent immigrants..

418 CHAPTER V.-Salient characteristics: Literacy...

419 Conjugal condition.

420 Visits abroad.....

422 Age classification of employees.

423 CHAPTER VI.-General progress and assimilation: Citizenship......

425 Ability to speak English..

425

PART IV.-CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN CHICAGO, ILL.

Page.

429

431 431 433 434

435 436 439

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Employees for whom information was secured...
CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration....
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees.
Racial classification of employees at the present time...

Reasons for employing immigrants....
CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States.... Weekly earnings..

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

The factory system...
Hours worked
The effect of the employment of recent immigrants on industries.

Employers' opinion of recent immigrants....
CHAPTER V.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy...
Conjugal condition.
Visits abroad......

Age classification of employees.
CHAPTER VI.-General progress and assimilation:

Citizenship......
Ability to speak English,

445 445 445 445

447' 448 454 455

459 461

General tables.....

General explanation of tables.
List of text tables.
List of general tables.
List of charts...

465 467 645 653 661

PART 1.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION. The growth of the industry-Extent of the territory studied-Households studied

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured—Employees for whom information was secured— The preparation of the report/Text Tables 1 to 7 and General Tables 1 to 3).

THE GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY.

The clothing manufacturing industry has undergone a rapid expansion during the past forty years, the value of men and women's clothing made in this country being $436,881,648 in the year 1900 as contrasted with only $161,560,836 in 1870. No statistics for the country as a whole are available since 1900, but during the past ten years it is thought that the extension of the industry has been relatively greater than in preceding decades.

From the standpoint of immigration, the development of the clothing manufacturing industry has been chiefly significant in the demand for labor which has been created. The result of this demand is seen in the increase in the number of the operatives, the total number in 1870 being only 119,824 as compared with 265,633 in 1900. The increase in the number of persons employed in the manufacturing of clothing in the country as a whole during the period 1870–1900 is shown in the table immediately following, together with the geographical distribution of the operating force in the year 1900. The table also furnishes in a summary form an exhibit of the growth of the industry in the whole country during the period 1870–1890 and the localization of the industry in the year 1900. Table 1.-Growth of the clothing industry in the United States, 1870 to 1900, and status

of the industry in selected States, 1900. (Compiled from United States Census Report, Manufactures, 1900, Part 3. Table 1, p. 261; Table 3, pp. 263-264; Table 11, pp. 272-279; Table 12, p. 280; Table 13, pp. 280--281; Table 14, p. 283; Table 16, pp. 284 286; and Table 23, pp. 292-295.)

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Illinois.
Maryland.
Massachusetts
Missouri.
New Jersey
New York.
Ohio..
Pennsylvania.
All other States.

1900 1890 1880 1870 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900

8,581 $169, 298, 434 8436,881, 618
6,291

149, 703, 193 319,967, 683
6,728

88,068, 969 241, 553, 254 9, 705

53, 743, 598 161,560, 836 1,086 16, 645, 681 47, 185, 980 208

205, 633
185, 240
186, 005
119, 824
19, 423
11,939
6,784
8, 209
5, 154
90,519
11, 512
18, 948
33, 145

74,612 81, 221 79, 849 48,934 6,038 4,337 1,817 1,342 1, 377 44, 199 3, 358 7,061 5,083

127, 207
102, 211
103, 247
69, 266
12, 555
6,965
4,931
6, 735
3, 628
45, 687

3,814 1,808 2,909 1, 624

9,306, 756 20,039, 783 316 5,411, 719 15,010, 618 201

5,675, 148 12,064, 021 168 2, 370, 768 5,663, 533 4,285

80,804,525 233, 721, 652 673 13,618, 486 24, 460, 863 729 15, 659, 696 35, 185, 804 915

19,805, 655 43, 519,364

7,968 11, 352 27,386

830 637

36 132 149 633 186 535 676

EXTENT OF THE TERRITORY STUDIED.

In the collection of data employees were studied in four of the principal clothing manufacturing centers, New York, Chicago, Baltimore, and Rochester, N. Y., and to a smaller extent in other cities east of the Mississippi River. Households were studied in detail in New York City, Rochester, N. Y., Baltimore, Md., and Chicago, Ill.

The extent of the statistical information secured is shown in the series of tables which follow.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the course of the investigation of the clothing industry original information was received for 19,502 employees, and 906 households the heads of which were employed in the manufacture of clothing were studied in detail. The following table shows the households studied, according to general nativity and race of head of household:

Table 2.--Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Households.

General nativity and race of head of household.

Per cent
Number. distribu-

tion.

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Native-born of foreign father, by race of father, Bohemian and Moravian.
Foreign-born:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Hebrew
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Polish.
Russian..

Grand total...

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Total native-born of foreign father.
Total foreign-born...

25 881

2.8 97.2

Of the 906 households studied in this industry, 97.2 per cent are households the heads of which are foreign-born and 2.8 per cent are households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father.

The Hebrew households constitute 44.9 per cent of all households studied. This, it will be seen, is in excess of the combined proportions of Bohemian and Moravian and South Italian households studied. The number of Lithuanian, Polish, and Russian households constitute but little over 10 per cent of all households studied in this industry.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS

SECURED.

The table next presented shows, by genera, nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured.

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