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GENERAL EXPLANATION OF TABLES.

Persons of native birth have been divided into two general groups and further subdivided under each of the two, as follows:

1. Native-born of native father.

Persons under this group are classified as White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, and Korean. 2. Native-born of foreign father.

Persons under this group are classified according to race of father in all tables where the data were secured for households, and according to country of birth of father in all tables where the data were secured for employees. Where classification is by race of father the classification used for several years by the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

Persons of foreign birth are classified according to race (or people), The classification of the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

In the study of households information is presented1. By general nativity and race of the "individual" in all tables which show facts which are personal in their nature, such as English speaking, occupation, or conjugal condition.

2. By general nativity and race of "head of family” in tables concerned with family matters-for example, family income.

3. By general nativity and race of "head of household” in all tables dealing with living conditions, among which are tables showing the composition of the household and the number of persons per room and per sleeping room. The distinction which has been made throughout this study between "family” and “household” is dependent upon the use of the term “apartment."

An“ apartment” is a room or rooms within which all the usual daily processes of living, namely, cooking, eating, and sleeping, are carried on by the occupants. According to this definition an apartment may be, for example, a whole house; or it may be a single room of what was originally intended as an apartment; or it may be a corner of a wareroom or the back of a store room partitioned off and set aside for household uses. Two or more groups of occupants with distinctly separate money interests frequently rent a number of rooms jointly, occupying certain rooms separately but sharing one or more, usually the kitchen, or kitchen and living room. Under these conditions neither the rooms used by the one group of occupants nor those used by the other can be considered an apartment, since the room used in common must in such case be considered a room in each apartment, and thus be counted twice. Where these conditions have been encountered, the entire number of rooms has been considered one apartment.

The “household ” includes all persons living within an apartment without regard to the relationships which exist among them. The household may consist of one or more families with or without

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boarders or lodgers; or it may consist of a group of persons living together, no family included; or it may consist of various combinations of families, groups," and boarders or lodgers,

The term “family” as used throughout these tables refers in general to the immediate family composed of husband, wife, and children. Groups of persons among whom none of these relations exist are not considered families. Households in which complicated relationships exist have been resolved into the component immediate families. Remnants of families maintaining a home are considered families when either husband or wife is present.

The general tables show results of two practically independent studies, as follows:

STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.

All tables headed “Study of households" are based on information from the schedule which was filled out for certain selected households in each of the several communities. Names and addresses were secured of employees in a given industry who were heads of households; and for each such household a schedule was filled out by an agent of this Commission, who visited the apartment and secured detailed information, so far as possible, for every occupant, as well as data in regard to family and household organization and status at the time of the visit.

STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.

The general tables headed “Study of employees” present data from the schedule relating only to the individual employee. This schedule was filled out by the employee himself, or by some one detailed by the employer to the task, to whom the employee furnished data. The general tables of this series, therefore, concern only the history and present status of the employee, while the other series, as has been stated, presents data not only for certain of the employees, but also for members of their households. All data included under the "Study of employees" are tabulated by sex and by the general nativity and race of the individual. For the native-born of foreign father the classification is by country of birth of father and not by race of father.

DESCRIPTION OF TABLES.

Total number of households and persons studied, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households.Table 1.—This table enumerates the households studied of each race, the aggregate of the members of the households of each race, and the persons, male and female, for whom detailed information was secured. All members of households appear in this table under the general nativity and race of head of household.

Number of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 2. — This table is a second enumeration of the persons, male and female, who are included in the detailed study of members of households. In this enumeration each individual appears under his own general nativity and race.

Total number of employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 3, 54, and 70.—These tables enumerate the employees for whom data were secured for the "Study of employees." The enumeration is by general nativity and race of employee, and, in industries wherë both male and female employees report, by sex.

Number of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race: Study of employees. Tables 4, 55, and 71.--All foreign-born employees who report the number of years since their first arrival in the United States are here classified as in the United States under one year, one year, two years, three years, four years, five to nine years, ten to fourteen years, fifteen to nineteen years, or twenty years or over. In all industries where employees of both sexes report the tabulation is by sex.

Number of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race of individual: Study of households. Table 5.—This table, which is concerned with members of households, is similar to Table 4, relating to employees.

Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual: Study of households. Table 6.—Males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of their first arrival in the United States are here classified according to whether, before coming to the United States, they worked for profit, for wages, or without wages, and are further classified according to the kind of employment pursued. Payments in kind as well as in money are here considered wages. Persons who worked without wages were usually at work with fathers or other near relatives.

Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual: Study of households. 'Table 7.—This table is similar to Table 6, relating to males.

Occupation of foreign-born male employees before coming to the United States, by race: Study of employees." Tables 8, 56, and Y2.-In these tables are shown the number of foreign-born male employees who, just prior to coming to the United States, were in the same industry in which they were employed at the time of the investigation, in farming or farm labor, in general labor, etc. Persons who report their occupation as “none,' \ at home,” or “at school" are excluded from these tables.

Occupation of foreign-born female employees before coming to the United States, by race: Study of employees. Tables 9 and 57.-—These tables are similar to Tables 8, 56, and 72, relating to males.

Number of males 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households.

Table 10.–This table shows the number of male members of households 16 years of age or over who are at home and at school, and classifies those who have had employment within the year ending with the taking of the schedule according to the industry in which they have been employed. The main headings used in this table follows the classification of the United States Census with the following modifications: General labor is here separated from domestic and personal service; fishing, mining, and quarrying are separated from manufacturing and mechanical pursuits; trade and transportation are distinct from each other. The headings as here used are:

1. Agricultural pursuits.
2. Domestic and personal service.
3. Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.
4. Mining (including quarrying).
5. General labor.
6. Professional service.
7. Trade.
8. Transportation.

9. Fishing The term “Domestic and personal service" includes besides domestic servants certain classes of persons not professional who serve the general public, such as policemen, city firemen, and employees at places of amusement.

Number of females 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 11.This table is similar to Table 10, relating to males.

Number of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 12, 58, and 73.—Employees are here classified according to the amount of their earnings. In some industries earnings are reported by the week, and in others by the day. Where employment is on the time basis the data are for "rate of pay;"> where employment is on the piece basis the data are for “earnings.

Number of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 13 and 59. —These tables are similar to Tables 12 and 58, relating to earnings of males 18 years of age or over.

Number of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week, by general_nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 14, 60, and 74.—These tables are similar to Tables 12, 58, and 73, relating to earnings of males 18 years of age or over. In practically all industries the number of employees under 14 was too small for tabulation.

Number of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 15 and 61.--These tables are similar to Tables 14 and 60, relating to earnings of males 14 and under 18 years of age.

Number of male heads of families earning each specified amount per year, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 16.-This table forms a part of the study of family incomes. The information relative to income was secured for the year ending at the time of the agent's visit.

In the selection of families” for the compilation of data concerning family income, the following classes were omitted:

1. Families established less than one year.

2. Families living two or more per household under complicated financial arrangements, so that exact income from boarders or other sources within the household is uncertain.

3. Families with earnings or contributions representing entire earnings of members who are profit earners or whose net earnings are for any other reason

uncertain. That part of the income in this study represented by earnings is net. Practically all of the heads of families included in this table are also heads of households. They are here classified according to the amount of their earnings for the year.

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Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 17.-Male wage-earners are here classified according to the amount of their earnings for the year ending at the time of the agent's visit. Persons who receive board and lodging in addition to a money wage and persons who receive tips or other perquisites over and above a stipulated wage are not included in this table.

Amount of family income per year, by general nativity and race of head of family: Study of households. Table 18.-The families included in this table are the same as in Table 16. These families are here classified according to the amount of total income for the year from all sources. Table 20 shows the sources of this income. Income from "boarders or lodgers" and in some cases from “other sources” is gross.

Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 19.—This table is similar to Table 17, which relates to earnings of males.

Number of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family Study of households. Table 20.- The families included in this table are the same as in Table 16. The number of families with income from earnings of husband, the number with income from earnings of wife, etc., are shown here. The terms "husband" and "wife" include the widowed, divorced, and deserted. The principal items under “Other sources are: (1) receipts from investments, which, in the great majority of cases, are in the form of rentals; and (2) contributions of friends or relatives, who pay either more or less than the rates of boarders or lodgers. Attention is called to the fact that the family may have had income from some source, for example, from boarders or lodgers, within the year, but not at the time the schedule was taken.

Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family: Study of households. Table 21.The families included in this table are the same as in Table 16. They are classified here according to the source or combination of sources upon which the family has been wholly dependent for income within the year ending with the taking of the schedule. The four items which make up all incomes, except those entered in the last column of the table, are earnings of husband, earnings of wife, contributions of children, and payments of boarders or lodgers. It will be noted that all families deriving their entire income from husband, wife, and children have a net income, and that all incomes, including the payments of boarders or lodgers, are gross; also that all families having any part of their income from money invested appear in the last column of this table.

Months worked during the past year by persons 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by sex and by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 22.-Members of households of working age who have been employed outside of the home within the year ending with the taking of the schedule are here classified according to whether they have worked under three months, three and under four months, four and under five months, etc. the purposes of the table all cases of part time employment have

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