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Italians, while the proportion of individuals employed in farming or in farm labor, or in general labor is largest for the South Italians, second largest for the North Italians and smallest for the Germans. A much larger proportion of the Germans than of either the North Italians or the South Italians were employed in manufacturing other than textile manufacturing.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 18 years of age or over, who were earning each specified amount each week:

Table 103.--Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race. *

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the male employees, for whom information was secured, almost all earn $7.50 per week or over; 96.9 per cent, $10 or over; 27.3 per cent, $12.50 or over; 6.9 per cent, $15 or over; 3.6 per cent, $17.50 or over; and 2.6 per cent, $20 or over. The proportion of individuals earning $10 per week or over is largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest' for the native-born of native father. The proportion of individuals earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over per week, respectively, is larger for both the native-born of native father and the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born; and the proportion of individuals earning $17.50 or over and $20 or over per week, respectively, is largest for the native-born of foreign father, second largest for the foreignborn and smallest for the native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born, the Germans and North Italians have the largest proportion of individuals earning $12.50 or over, $15 or over, $17.50 or over, and $20 or over per week, respectively.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The extent to which the industrial efficiency or earning capacity of employees increases after designated periods of residence in this country is shown in the following table, which shows, by race and length of residence in the United States, the per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount

per week:

Table 104.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

Race and years in
United States.

'Per cent earning each specified amount per week.
Number
reporting
complete

$7.50 or $10 or $12.50 or $15 or $17.50 or
data. $5 or over.

over. over. over. over. over

$20 or over.

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

It appears from the percentages of the above table that the proportion of South Italian male employees earning the larger sums specified increases, in general, with length of residence of employees in the United States.

CHAPTER IV.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad— Age classification of employees—[Text

Tables 105 to 110 and General Tables 75 to 79).

LITERACY.

The degree of literacy which prevails among employees in the silkdyeing industry is set forth in the table next presented, which shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees who were able to read and the per cent who were able to both read and write:

Table 105.Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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From the data presented in the above table it appears that the per cent of male employees who read only and the per cent who both read and write is largest for the native-born of native father, slightly smaller for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the foreign-bom. Of the foreign-born, the Dutch and Germans, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the South Italians the smallest proportion of individuals in each classification.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table following shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition.

TABLE 106.—Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition,

by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the male employees 20 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 74.1 per cent are married and only 2.7 per cent are widowed. The proportion of married employees is largest among the foreign-born and considerably larger among the native-born of native father than among the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born, the Germans and Dutch have the largest and the North Italians the smallest proportion of married employees.

The following table divides the totals of the table preceding and shows, by age groups and by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition:

Table 107.-Per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and by

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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132 24.2 73.5 2.3

124 16.1 80.6 3.2 143 31.5 65.7 2.8 282 22.775.5 1.8

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