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INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.

From the standpoint of recent immigration the most significant feature in connection with the growth of the silk industry has been the resultant increase in the number of employees due to the fact that the necessary operatives have been obtained largely from among recent immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. The expansion of the operating force of the industry may be readily understood from the fact that only 31,337 wage-earners were employed in 1880, as contrasted with 79,601 in the year 1905. The table below shows the increase in the number of operatives in the United States as a whole and in the principal producing States during the period 1880– 1905:

Table 2.-Increase in the number of silk goods wage-earners in the United States and in

selected States, 1880-1905.

(From United States Census Report, Manufactures, 1905, Part III, Table 16.)

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The investigation of the industry was restricted to the principal silk goods producing localities of the Middle and New England States, special emphasis being placed upon Paterson, N. J., and the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

A total of 272 households the heads of which were employed in the industry, were studied in detail. In the following table the number of households studied is shown according to general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 3.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household: Pater

son, N. J.

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Of the 272 households studied in this industry, 92.3 per cent are households the heads of which are foreign-born and 7.7 per cent are those the heads of which are native-born of native father. Among the households the heads of which are foreign-born, the South Italian households constitute a slightly larger proportion of the total number of households studied than do the North Italian or Hebrew households, and a very much larger proportion than do the Armenian, Polish, or Syrian households, the Polish and Syrian households each constituting 9.2 per cent of the total number of households studied.

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MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS

SECURED.

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The table next presented sets forth, by general nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and the persons for whom detailed information was secured:

Table 4.---Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household: Paterson, N. J.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Native-born of native father, White..
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Hebrew.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Polish
Syrian.

Grand total.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born.

123 242 227 346 120 109

9.9 19.4 18.2 27.8

9.6 8.7

123 241 227 346 120 109

9.9 19.4 18.2 27.8

9.6 8.8

25

272

1, 246

100.0

1.215

100.0

21 251

79 1,167

6,3 93.7

79 1,166

6.3 93.7

The following table shows the sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured in the households studied, according to general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 5.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity

and race of head of household: Paterson, N. J.

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The table next presented classifies the persons for whom detailed information was secured by general nativity and race of individual, instead of by that of head of household:

Table 6.-Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race of individual: Paterson, N. J.

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THE PREPARATION OF THE REPORT.

In preparing the data secured for publication the same divisions were observed as were followed in the study of the industry. The report as presented in the following pages therefore consists of three parts: Part I, General survey of the silk goods manufacturing and dyeing industry; Part II, The silk goods manufacturing industry in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania; Part III, Silk dyeing.

The general survey of the industry consists of the presentation of the statistical data secured from all the households and employees studied in all the localities investigated. Part II, which is a statistical survey of the operating forces in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania, has been introduced for purposes of comparison with Paterson and the industry as a whole. Part III is a statistical survey of the employees of the silk-dyeing establishments in Paterson, N.J., where the industry is more highly specialized than in any other locality in the country.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

The table and charts following exhibit, by sex, the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured: TABLE 7.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race.

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Native-born of native father, White.
Native-born of foreign father, by country
of birth of father:

Australia.
Austria-Hungary
Belgium.
Bulgaria.
Canada.
Denmark.
England
France.
Germany
Greece.
Ireland
Italy
Netherlands.
Russia.
Scotland.
Spain..
Sweden.
Switzerland.
Wales..

West Indies.
Foreign-born, by race:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian..
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Croatian
Cuban..
Danish.
Dutch
English
Finnish
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian
Hebrew, Other
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar
Norwegian
Polish.
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Slovak.
Slovenian
Spanish..
Swedish.
Syrian..
Welsh..
Austrian (race not specified)
Belgian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified).

Grand total.......
Total dative-born of foreign father.
Total native-born...
Total foreign-born...

1

3 150 245

2 50 357

3 104 354

1 94 482

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6 254 599

3 144 839

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12,994

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100.0

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8,538
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e Less than 0.05 per cent.

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