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Jan. 29, 1827.]

Exchange of Stocks.

(H. of R.

terest might be injured by the publication of the instruc- ceeding years. He had made an estimate, by which it tions. It was to prevent any objections of this kind, and would appear to the House, that, if $10,000,000 should be to meet the views of gentlemen who supposed there applied annually to the discharge of the public debt, for might be an impropriety in making the call without this three years after the present, it would leave $4,480,295 reservation, that he had given this direction to the resolu- for the year 1831. But should the exchange not be eftion. It has been alleged, said Mr. W., that these Indians fected, this silm must be increased by the difference of are entirely illiterate, and that scarcely one of them can interest between five and six per cent. during the years write. He knew one of the individuals whose names 1829 and 1830 ; and the saving of one per cent. on appear in these documents, who was a man of intelli- $4,480,295, would swell the amount of savings to about gence, and he was pleased to find that, in these commu- $ 50,000 more. The amount could not be exactly deternications and arguments, the Indians had elevated them- mined, because, the period could not now be accurately selves far above the reasoning of our Commissioners. He known on which the interest was to be calculated. With was glad, said Mr. W., that the practice of conducting these explanations he should submit the bill, unless farour negotiations by written notes, of which the gentle ther detail should be required by the House. man from Georgia appears to complain, has been intro- Mr. VERPLANCK observed, that the object proposed duced. It enables us to judge more correctly of the by the bill was economy. What it proposed was, to character of the negotiations ; and to know better the place 16,000,000 of six per cent stock on such a basis as course pursued in conducting them. In this instance, would place the loan at five per cent. This measure had the Commissioners complain that the Indians had deter- been recommended last year by the Secretary of the mined not to allow a voluntary expression of opinion or Treasury. When that report was made, he had felt not a fair decision to be made in regard to their proposals. a little surprised that another alternative besides those The Indians in answer say, “a resolution, it is true, was of a loan and of an exchange of stock had not presented it. “ entered into, that, if any man should so far forget his self to that officer. He thought there remained yet another “ duty as to accept money as a bribe to sell his country, expedient, different from both these, and on several ac" he should suffer a severe penalty. But this measure, counts more advantageous. He thought it ought to be “whether recessary or not, was not unjustifiable. The placed within the reach of the Executive, that the three “circumstances of the times, perhaps, called for it.” modes might be left to his discretion. He referred to Thiese individuals, however illiterate, have proved to us the issuing of Treasury notes bearing interest. Under that they could not be bribed by any inducement to sell this impression, he had drawn up an amendment adding their country. They are entitled to our respect. He several new sections to the bill. They were to be insert. wished the resolution, for the reasons he had stated, ed between the third and fourth sections of it, and their miglit be permitted to pass.

object was, to authorize the President to issue an amount (At this point, the further discussion of the resolution of Treasury notes not exceeding the whole sum now prowas arrested by the SPEAKER—the hour appropriated posed to be loaned : to be made transferable, and to bear to resolutions having expired.]

such interest as was expressed on the face of the note,

and running one year, eighteen months, or two years. EXCHANGE OF STOCKS.

The Secretary of the Treasury was then authorized to The House, in Committee of the Whole, then pro- borrow money on the faith of these notes, and to apply ceeded, on motion of Mr. COOK, to the considera- the amount thus obtained to the payment of the public tion of the bill "authorizing the Secretary of the Trea- debt. “sury to exchange a stock, of five per cent to the amount (Mr. VERPLANCK here sent to the Chair the amend“ of 'sixteen millions of dollars, for certain stocks of six ment proposed by him.]

per cent., and to borrow a sum equal to any deficiency Mr. MÅLLARY moved that the further consideration "s in the said amount authorized to be exchanged." of this bill be postponev, to give opportunity for the

(This motion was opposed by Mr. MALLARY, who had printing of the amendment, and that the committee now moved to go into committee, for the purpose of taking take up the bill for the protection of the woollen manufacup the woollen duties bill; but the motion prevailed, turer : but withdrew the motion at the request of ayes 70, noes 63.]

Nir. DWIGHT, who suggested that unless the object Mr. COOK then went into a brief explanation of the proposed by this bill should be carried into effect imme. purposes of the bill. He observed that there would be diately, the entire benefit to be derived from it would be due, and payable, during the present year, of the six per lost. The critical state of things in Europe, at this mocent. stock of the United States, the amount of $22,348,433, ment, was such that, in a few weeks, the state of exand in the year 1828, there would be due and payable of change might be so affected as to render the bill nuga. the same stock, the sum of $9,490,099. It must be ob- tory. The bill proposes an exchange of six per cent. for vious, that, during the present year, the revenue was not five per cent. stock-and many preferred such a measure able to pay what fell due this year. By a transfer of to a loan from the Bank of the United States. If it were 16,000,000 of this amount to the years 1829 and 1830, done at all, it must be done promptly. There was nothing there would be a saving effected of $ 413,313, arising complicated or hard to be understood in the motion of the from the difference of interest between six per cent and gentleman from New York ; and if the experiments should five per cent. This would leave a balance of $6,548,433, shew that the Government were unable to effect such an payable the present year, and subject to the operation of exchange, or to take up such a loan, it might be very the sinking fund. If to this was added the interest, it proper to resort to an issue of Treasury nutes. But, as to would make a sum of $ 9,733,179, subject to the opera- any difficulty in effecting the exchange, he was able to tion of that fund, a suin which nearly reached the annual state that the holders of the six per cent stock would be limit of that furd, which was 10,000,000 by law. Should glad to make it--and on $22,000,000 of such stock it would this plan be adopted, the amount to be paid during the save from $ 410 to $440,000. He presumed, therefore, years 1827 and 28, would be about 15,000,000; and that the llouse, without any long discussion, would rethen 16,000,000 would be left for the years 1829 and '30. ject the amendment and pass the bill. By exchanging stock at six per cent for that at five, the Mr. MALLARY said that, on this very important subsum of $413,333 would be saved. The bill, therefore, ject, there appeared to exist a wide difference of opinion rested on the principles of economy, and the experiment between two highly intelligent gentlemen. It was proof such an exchange would be worth trying, if its only ef- bable, therefore, the discussion would be prolonged. fect should be to equalize the debt among the four suc. lle, therefore, renewed his motion 10 postpone the fur

Vol. III.-55

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H. of R.]

Chichasaw and Choctaw Indians.

[Jan. 30, 1827.

ther consideration of this bill, and pass to that on wool- the proposition of the gentleman from New York. It lens. The motion was negatived.

was subject, however, he thought, to some ohvious ob. In reply to an inquiry of Mr. COOK,

jections in its details. The first section proposes a sus Mr. VERPLANCK went on to explain the nature of pension of the present act, and authorizes the Executive his proposition with respect to the Treasury notes. to exercise a sovereign discretion as to the specific time

The intention was, not to propose this as a last resort, in which the notes are to be made payable. It does, in. in case neither the exchange of stock, nor the loan could deed, set a limit beyond which he must not go, but it be effected, but to leave it optional with the President to leaves him at liberty to make all the notes payable at one adopt whichever of the three measures he might deem time, should he think proper. This he thought a very most expedient, or take part in one mode and part in strong objection to the amendment. The bill, as it stood, another. His object in the proposal was public economy. i was predicated on the existing state of the Treasury, and If the holders of the six per cent. stock should decline of the public debt. With this, the Government was well the proposed exchange, resort was then proposed to a acquainted. It was perfectly known what was due this loan : for such a loan there was but one bidder, that he year, how much the next, how much in 1829, and bow knew of on this side the Atlantic, and that was the Bank much in 1830, and the new stock might be so apportionof the United States. Whatever terms that Bank pre- ed, as, in each year, to enable the Treasury to meet the scribed, the Government must subscribe to. But should demands which should that year be brought against it the expedient of Treasury notes be resorted to, it would Here, said Mr. C., we have our eyes open; we know exgive to the Government a chance of competition. It actly what relief we are about to afford to the Treasury, would enable the Government to say to the Bank, “If and how it is to be distributed. But the amendment goes “ you will not loan us this money at a certain rate-say to leave the whole subject to Executive discretion. It “43 per cent, we shall try some other expedient. Trea- puts into his hands the power of burdening the Treasury

sury notes will enable us to do this because they may whenever he pleases, and throws that responsibility on “ be issued for smaller sums, and thus increase the num- the President and on the Treasury Department, which “ber of bidders.In this way the Government might ought to be assumed by this House. But how far, in case be enabled to make a better bargain. There was nothing of the failure of the bill, the project of the amendment incredible in the idea, that it might get a premium on the might be expedient, it would be rash now to decide. five per cent. stock. In New York, this had frequently On motion of Mr. COOK, the committee then rose and happened, and loans had been taken at 4 per cent reported. This was the first advantage arising from the plan. Another advantage attending it, was, that Treasury notes

Tuesday, Jan. 30, 1827. might be issued at a low interest. Great convenience attended such notes throughout the money market. De

CHICKASAW AND CHOCTAW INDIANS. posites, as now made in banks, drew no interest, and, The House again resumed the consideration of the reduring the whole time the money lay there, the interest solution heretofore moved by Mr. WOODS, of Ohio. was lost to the owner. But, if deposites should be made Mr. MOORE, of Alabama, said, that when this resolu. in Treasury notes, the interest would still be going on. tion was suddenly discussed the other day, he was at a It,would be extremely convenient for banks to have a loss to know what object its advocates had in view, and part of their capital in these notes. It would not then therefore voted in favor of the proposition of the honoralie clead ; and if they could not get five per cent. they ble member from Tennessee to lay it on the table, in ormight be willing to take three. Treasury notes, at a der to give time for reflection. The further discussion very low interest, would sell at par. It had been sug- of this subject since, said he, has still failed, in my hum. gested to him by a gentleman of great knowledge and ble opinion, to disclose any laudable object to be obtainexperience in fiscal operations, whose name he was noted by it. The Commissioners having failed to accompėrinitted to disclose, but if disclosed, it would com- plish the object of their appointment, their commission inand great influence in this House, that Treasury notes, terminated, and I cannot see the propriety of calling for bearing an interest on the face of them of 3} per cent. a copy of their instructions, unless I infer it from the ge. might be issued at par ; there would thus be a saving of neral tenor of the remarks of the honorable member from 15 per cent on the $ 16,000,000, which would amount to Ohio yesterday, having a tendency indirectly to censure $ 200,000 for this year, and something less for the next. the Commissioners. The third advantage attending the plan was, that Trea- The principal ground upon which this presumption is sury notes were more manageable than a loan. A loan attempted to be raised, is the extravagant sum proposed was a fixed thing, payable by long instalments of one and as an equivalent for the country contemplated to be purtwo years ; but Treasury notes might be so issued as to chased ; and the gentleman has informed us that, instead suit the varying state of the Treasury, at six, at nine, at of one million of dollars, exclusive of pay for improve. eighteen months, or more. These notes, too, might be ments, expense of transportation, &c. that the whole reabsorbed by the Treasury, through the Land Ofices, amount would have been twenty millions or more. Now, and through the Customs, though some discretion must, with due deference to the opinion of that gentleman, I of course, be exercised in such an operation. But five am compelled to believe he is totally mistaken. I have per cent. stock was more unmanageable, and lay long in formed my opinion, sir, from the proceedings of the the Treasury unproductive; it brought, too, a lower rate Commissioners as published, and information I have col. of interest. · Treasury notes would sell at a higher rate lected from other sources. There is nothing in these do. than stock. Eren during the late war, Treasury notes cuments to authorize such a conclusion. The honorable bearing five and two fifths interest, were at or near par, member from Ohio, however, has seen or corresponded while seven per cent. stocks were fifteen or twenty be- with some person "who cannot be bribed,” from whom low it. These notes suffered a much less depression, and he derives this information. Now, sir, I am sorry he did were very often near par. There was another end for not furnish us with the name of this individual, in order which they were then very useful, and might be useful that we might judge how far his statements, impeaching still, though not in so great a degree, that is, to furnish a the integrity of the Commissioners, might be entitled to circulating medium. ir. V. concluded with a brief re- weight. I will not say that the individual is not entitled capitulation of these several advantages.

to credence, but I will say, that any man who has aban. Mr. Cook then said, that he should consider himself doned civil society and taken refuge in a savage wild, for as acting raslıly, should he decide thus suddenly against the purpose of avoiding the punishment due his crimes,

Jax. 30, 1827.]

Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians.

[H. of H.

or even if he has gone there for the purpose of making | whom he alludes. He said it would be found, that, by a speculations, then I cannot give him my confidence in re- solemn treaty held some time since with the Shawnee ference to this subject. Again, sir, a gratuitous intima- nation of indians residing in Missouri, that the Govern. tion has been made, that the Commissioners had trans- ment had stipulated to procure for them a tract of country cended their, instructions. The gentleman would have West of the Mississippi, for and in consideration of certain acted more correctly, I think, to have withheld this sug- lands by them ceded to the United States, and that the gestion until we had obtained the instructions. From United States should furnish them with the means necesthe very nature of this transaction, the powers and in-sary to enable them to remove to their new territory. In structions must be deemed to be discretionary, and there that treaty, a special reference is had to that part of the fore not violated. I have the pleasure to be personally same nation of Indians, then residing in Ohio, who might and intimately acquainted with two of the gentlemen be disposed to emigrate to the same territory with or to composing this mission, Generals Coffee and Hinds, and their friends. This treaty bad been sanctioned by the have formed a high estimate of the worth of Gen. Clark, Senate, and this House had approved it also, by making from character. They have all filled high and responsi- / appropriations to carry it into effect. He denied that the ble stations in the Government; the duties of which they Executive, or any of the Agents of the Government, bad, have discharged with fidelity, honor, and credit, to them in this matter, transcended their authority. He again selves, and to the entire satisfaction of the public. I repeated, that he had no disposition to oppose the pas. must be permitted, therefore, to say, sir, that they now sage of the resolution, if the House felt disposed to do so, occupy an eminence which bids defiance to any attempt but was satisfied the information called for, when obtain. to censure. Seeing the character this discussion has as.ed, would be wholly useless. sumed, however, I am very willing now to see the resolu- Mr. HOUSTON called for the reading of the amend. tion adopted, believing that it is a duty I owe to these ment. It was read accordingly. Whereupon, gentlemen, and more particularly to General Coffee, who Mr. H. said that he did not perceive that it was calcu. resides in the district I have the honor to represent, to lated to reflect on the Commissioners, or on any other vote in favor of it. Sir, the widest range that can be giv- person. Ile should like to get the information for which en to this inquiry, will find him unimpeachable and in- it called, and would vote for its adoption. vulnerable.

Mr. HAILE said that, since offering the remarks Mr. McLEAN, of Ohio, said he had no disposition to which he had formerly made in opposition to the resoluprolong the discussion on the resolution introduced by his tion, he had been induced, upon reflection, to permit the colleague, (Mr. Woods,] which had already taken a very resolution to pass ; not because he believed that the inwide and universal range. He was satisfied, for himself, formation, when obtained, would be of any use, but to saand he thought the House would concur with him in opi- tisfy the gentleman who had introduced the resolution, nion, that the information called for by the resolution, and to prevent any opportunity for casting imputations could be of no service whatever, when obtained, either upon the Commissioners. The gentleman, though often to his colleague, to this House, or to the nation. If this called upon, had not yet informed the House what use he treaty with the Indians had been successful, and we were intended to make of the information, when it should be about to be called upon to legislate upon the subject

, obtained. Did he wish it for the purpose of indirectly then, indeed, there might be some reason for the adoption throwing blame upon the Executive: Was it to make of the resolution ; but the efforts of these Commissioners the President particeps criminis in the threats which he have been ineffectual, and he could not conceive any pos- pretended these Commissioners had uttered? Or was it sible benefit that could result from the information desir- for the purpose of implicating the conduct and character ed by the resolution. His colleague had, on the day on of the Commissioners themselves? He should be sorry which he introduced this proposition, by some remarks, to think that the gentleman meant indirectly to censure seemed to cast censure upon those distinguished indivi- those highly distinguished men, for their patriotic act in duals who acted as Agents or Commissioners of the Go. endeavoring to effect this treaty. These gentlemen had vernment; but, in his remarks on yesterday, he had ex- been the organs of the Government in that negotiation, culpated the Commissioners at the expense of the Exe- and were, necessarily, clothed with discretionary powers cutive. Sir, my colleague must know, that, from the ve- for carrying into effect the beneficial object they had in ry nature of the case, the instructions given on this occa- view. The gentleman had said, that, in fulfilling their sion by the Executive, were general, as they are in all trust, they had employed language of an improper kind, such cases. The Commissioners were authorized to hold and had urged a policy which was not sanctioned by this a treaty for a certain specified purpose, and vested with nation or its Government. But, the policy which these a discretionary power as to the manner of conducting that gentlemen had endeavored to promote, was no other than treaty. Mr. McL. said he had examined the documents that which had been recommended successively by Mr. referred to by his colleague, in which it had been assert- Monroc, Mr. Calhoun, and Nir. Barbour.

He could see ed, threats were contained, which had been made by no object in introducing the resolution, unless it were inthose Commissioners towards the Indians, in order to co tended to embarrass a bill now pending, for the gradual erce them into measures, but he could not discover any removal of the Indians West of the Mississippi. What language used, other than had been customary on all was it the gentleman wished? Or why did he seek to such occasions, from the foundation of the Government. defeat that bill? Was it possible he could desire that He said he should not have rose to say a word on this the Indian tribes should remain for an indefinite period subject, had it not been for some remarks which on yes- within the chartered limits of any of the States, and should terday fell from his colleague [Mr. Woods) in relation to be maintained there ai the expense of the States? Could a recent expenditure of some three or four thousand dol- the gentleman wish to throw obstacles in the way of their lars, by an Indian Agent, in his own immediate neighbor- removal, when their continuance where they were must hood, to aid some of the Indians in Ohio to emigrate to only tend to their injury and destruction ? the West of the Mississippi, which his colleague had said, [Here Mr. II. quoted a communication of President if authorized by the Executive, he trusted would not be Monroe, in which he expresses a wish that they could be sanctioned by this House. He advised his colleague to removed, and placed in a country where they would not examine into the documents in relation to this subject, be- be subject to intrusion, or oppression by the whites.) fore he censures an Agent of the Government, or the Such a country, said Mr. H. has now been found and course of conduct of one who stands as high, and deser, designated. Should they be removed thither, they would vedly so, in public estimation, as does the gentleman tol thenceforth be free from the rival claims of the States,

H. of R.]

Fort on Staten Island.

[Jax. 30, 1827.

placed exclusively under the protection of the General authority of law. But he begged leave to remind the Government, and would have a country and a home gua- gentleman, that, by the treaty concluded at Doak’s Stand, rantied to them forever. The gentleman tells us that the Executive was expressly authorized to do this. [Mr. this is not the policy of the United States in relation to H. here quoted the treaty.] Here, said he, is the autho. these tribes. It was sufficient to tell the gentleman that rity under which they have been removed. Mr. H. conit had been the only policy approved and sought to be tended that, now, while the nation was at peace, and all pursued for the last ten years; and unless the gentleman things were favorable, it ought to be the endeavor of the wished to see these tribes extinct, and to have their very Government to concentrate the white population in the existence abolished, he ought not to endeavor to resist vicinity of the great Western emporium, and in the neighthat policy, and to have them continue within the limits borhood of the Mississippi river, where our safety was of the States. The gentleman lays great stress on the threatened from another quarter, and where it was highly charge that these Commissioners proposed to purchase desirable that the white should exceed the black populafrom the Indians a certain small spot of land in Alabama ; tion. He concluded, by once more insisting that the conbut it was well known to all persons acquainted with the tinuance of the tribes within the chartered limits of the situation of the Indian lands, that their boundary only con. States, tended to produce their final abolition ; and by tained a narrow slip within the State of Alabama, on urging the policy of granting to these unfortunate People which not a solitary Indian resided. In including this lit. an asylum, far removed from the intrusions of meddling tle strip of land with the rest to be ceded, the Commis. whites, where they might be ruled with humanity and sioners only discharged a duty which fell within their dis- kindness. Let us, said Mr. H. assign to them a country, cretionary powers, and in doing so, little thought that let us adopt them as children of the empire ; and, placing they should draw down upon their heads the censure of them under her tutelary guardianship, rescue their race this House. The gentleman from Ohio had said, that from that gradual but certain destruction which must these Indians were freemen, and were to be treated with otherwise be inevitable. as freemen-having a full right to grant or to withhold Mr. COCKE said, he had risen to move that this resotheir lands. If freedom consisted in being placed beyond lution be laid upon the table, never to be taken up again. the limits of law-if it consisted in vagrancy and a total Being informed by the CHAIR that a gentleman from privation of all the privileges of civilized life-then might Pennsylvania had the floor before he rose, Mr. C. took these Indians be said to enjoy freedom in its utmost ex- his seat: where:ipon, tent; but it was impossible they should remain in such a Mr. MINER said, that the gentleman from Tennessee state. Such a condition of things could never continue. had but anticipated his own intention ; and he now moved The laws of the State, and of the United States, must be that the resolution be laid upon the table. extended over them.

The motion was agreed to without a division, and the To him, it appeared strange indeed, that, after these resolution of Mr. WOODS was laid on the table accordCommissioners had completely failed in their object; af- ingly. ter all the persuasions and all the inducements-all the terrible threats, of which the gentleman had spoken, had

FORT ON STATEN ISLAND. been employed without making the least impression upon An engrossed joint resolution for the inspection and the Indians, that the gentleman should now complain of appraisement of the fortifications erected on Staten Island the Commissioners having overstepped their duty, and at the expense of the State of New York, was read the should be very earnest in inquiring whether their acts third time. were authorized. It reminded him of a story he had Mr. COCKE expressed a suspicion that there was heard of two men who continued to quarrel about an oys- something intended by this resolution, which did not at ter after a third person had come between and devoured first appear. He desired time to examine it. It seemed it. It was well known that the opposition of the Indians that the United States were to give up to the State of was owing to the influence of white men, by whom they New York, all their fortifications at Staten Island. These were surrounded, and of missionaries who were opposed forts had been erected at a great expense, and he moved to the policy of the Government. He admitted that the to lay the resolution upon the table, in order that an policy heretofore pursued towards these tribes, was un opportunity might be afforded to look further into this wise and pernicious; but that which was now sought to be carried into effect, was, in his opinion, juclicious and Mr. VANCE replied, that there was nothing very danhumane. He could not believe that

, should the resolu- gerous in the resolution. The resolution stated, on the tion pass, any censure would be found to attach to these face of it, what was its real object. The Board of EnCommissioners. One of them had been occasionally em- gineers had reported that, in order to the defence of the ployed in conducting Indian treaties for a period of 20 harbor in New York, by the General Government, it was vears, and this was the only instance in which he had ever necessary that the Government should have the possesfailed. The language he and his colleagues had employ- sion and control of certain forts on Staten Island. The ed towards them was perfectly proper. It was not the forts had been erected by the State of New York, at their language of threat, but rather of friendly aclmonition ; own expense, and the Legislature of that State had apwarning them that, unless they should consent to sell the pointed an agent on their part, to negotiate for a sale of country, the laws of the United States would be extended these works to the United States. The object contemover them, the white men would continue to intrude up- plated in this resolution, was to provide, on the part of on them, and their country would be a subject of perpe. the General Government, to meet this disposition, and to tual jealousy between the States--the effect of which appoint a person who should go there, and, in company must inevitably be, that their race would decline, and ul with the New York Agent, should attend to an appraisetimately perish. In using language like this, the Comment of the fortifications in their present state, preparamissioners were urging a policy which had been recom- tory to a sale. In his judgment, the General Governmended by two successive administrations. The gentle. ment would be in duty bound to pay the State of New man had seen the Indians within our States continually en. York for these forts, whether they were of value to the croached upon-he had seen the race gradually declining; United States or not. They had acted on that principle and yet he continued to oppose that policy, which was di towards other States, and he saw no reason why they were rected to rescue and preserve them. Another topic of not bound to do the same for the State of New York. complaint had been, that the public money had been em. But, that was not the purpose of this resolution. ployed in removing some of these Indians, without the Mr. FORSYTH said, that, from the remarks of the

natter.

Jan. 30, 1827.]

Duties on Wool and Woollens.

[H. of R.

Chairman of the Military Committee, he had understood by the Chairman who reported it, and well done. The the intention to be, that, as soon as the appraisement of views which I shall take of the questions growing out of these works should be completed, the payment was im- the bill are these: The act of 1824 promised and held mediately to follow.

out to the woollen manufacturers aid and protection ; if He was informed by the CHAIR, that the resolution that act has not given all the aid and protection they were required a report to be made to Congress at its next led to believe they would receive under a fair operation session.

of it, the nation is bound to make good to this class of Mr. FORSYTH then observed, that, as the measure the community all which was promised them ; all they was only intended to be preparatory to future legislation, had a right to expect from its operations, whatever may he had no objections to it.

have been the causes of its not operating as it was exThe resolution was then passed, and sent to the Senate. pected it would have done : not to do it would be a

breach of faith and a denial of justice on the part of the DUTIES ON WOOL AND WOOLLENS.

nation to its citizens, and one for which there can be no On motion of Mr. MALLARY, the House again went excuse or justification. If the act of 1824 has had all the into Committee of the Whole on the State of the Union, effect it was intended it should have had, and all the Mr. BUCHANAN in the Chair, and took up the bill for woollen manufacturers had a right to expect it would the protection of the woollen manufactures.

have had, it has not had all the effect it ought to have Mr. PEARCE observed, that, by the decision of the had, and those who are engaged in the manufacture of Chair a few days ago, he had a right to speak upon the wool have an additional claim upon the Government for bill without confining himself to the amendments that aid and protection, and that aid and protection ought not had been offered ; and having expressed his wish to take to be denied them. I propose further, Mr. Chairman, a general view of the subject, addressed the Committee to show that this protection will not injure the agricultuas follows :

ral interest, or the planting interest, the commerce, or the Mr. Chairman : It is not my wish to detain the Com- navigation of the country, nor will it operate to the injumittee any great length of time in giving to them my ry of the poorer classes of the community, but will be views of the bill now under discussion ; if, under other of immediate benefit to the agricultural interest ; will circumstances, its importance required it—and I think it extend our commerce, increase our coasting trade, and is one of the most important measures which will come confer benefits upon the poorer classes of the country, before us—I would not at this time trespass long on their which would not be received or realized without giving patience. Our time is short ; we have many things to do ; the protection required. I propose, further, to show or, in other words, there are many which, in my opinion, that the passage of the bill will not affect our revenue. ought to be attended to. Those who oppose this bill it, sir, I succeed in establishing these propositions, I shall tell us they have not time to discuss it this session. As I be justified in the vote I shall give, and the length I shall am, sir, friendly to the bill, I am willing to remove this go, in supporting the bill. În discussing this bill, Mr. objection as far as I am able, and to give those who op-Chairman, I do not approach it as a new question, or one pose it all the time they can reasonably require. But for that is unsettled : for the policy of the measure has had my peculiar situation, I would not at this time trouble the deliberate sanction of the nation ; and the history of the Committee with any remarks whatever. This bill, it our Government shows, that what the friends of the bill is said, will affect our revenue, inasmuch as it will affect now contend for is not a new measure, or one to which our commerce. Sir, I represent one of the most com- the attention of the American People has not been bemercial States in the Union, although one of the smallest fore directed. "an arm of the sea, a ring in the ocean.” Yet, small

The act of 1816 was passed for the purpose of encouas it is, so far as relates to its territorial extent, in rela- raging our home industry, and giving a stimulus to those tion to its imports and what it has contributed to the re- who were engaged in manufactures. The act of 1824 venue of the nation for many years, there have been but was passed to give effect to the provisions of the act of five superior to it, and at no one period of time but seven. 1816, and to supply the defects shown, by experience, to Small as it is, there are, (and I refer to the fact only for exist; and we are now called upon, as I conceive, to the purpose of showing its commercial importance,) in give effect to both acts, and to supply the defects which the State of Rhode Island three ports of entry and deli-experience-I may say fatal experience-has shown to very, and six ports of delivery which are not ports of exist, notwithstanding the commendable and patriotic entry. We are also told, sir, that the agricultural interest motives which actuated those who were the zealous and and the poorer classes of the community will be taxed faithful advocates of the latter act. If Congress, in 1824, and made to suffer if this bill should become a law. I did not legislate without reference to the objects of their would be one of the last in this House that would do any legislation, they certainly had in view the encouragement act that would add to the sufferings of the poor ; and as and protection of those who were engaged in the manuto the agricultural interest, there is none in this country facture of woollen cloths; and the object of the act was that I would go further to protect, for there is none that to enable them to contend, and fairly compete with the I have more at heart. The State I represent, sir, has a manufacturers of the same articles in other countries. greater amount of capital invested in manufactures, in If the Committee are satisfied that this was their intenproportion to the extent of its territory, perhaps tention, and are also satisfied that, however laudable their times more, than any other State in the Union. It is a motives, and commendable the object in view, the People Stale in which was erected the first cotton mill ever of the United States have not realized the benefits conerected on this side the waters of the Atlantic, and has templated, we need not, to authorize an interference of more citizens engaged in agricultural pursuits than in the Legislature of the nation, extend our views at this any other. I will not say that eighty-three in every hun. time any further. Have the measures, Mr. Chairman, dred of our citizens are engaged in cultivating the soil, then, had the desired effect? If we believe the statebut I know that a great proportion of our citizens are ment of those who are interested—the woollen manufacthus engaged. If, sir, I was convinced that this bill was turers--we shall readily say they have not; and, though calculated to injure the agriculturist or the merchant, it in ordinary cases I would not consider myself concluded would not have my aid or vote. But, Mr. Chairman, I by the statements of those who are interested, yet, in the am well persuaded that it is not, but will promote the present case, I consider their statements almost conclu. interests of both. It is not my purpose to examine the sive upon us, more especially as they are corroborated by details of the bill minutely, for this has already been done what we know, and what has come within our own ob

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