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Grad al Improvement of the Navy.

(FEB..16, 1827.

South Carolina says that General Washington became in the most important and deserving of all the provisions tritively a great man, and liad but a common exlication contained in it. All the officers of the Revolution were certainly deficient Mr. HARRISON thought the clause of the bill which at first--and what was the consequence? We were all related to a Naval School had not been treated fairly, and ignorant of our duty, and could hardly mount gard cor that imaginary objections hac chiefly been urged against rectly, when Baron Steuben, who was an educated man, it

. The expenses of the Military Academy at West Point, came among (is. In a short time, the whole face of things had been brought up in array against the Naval School, was altered, and we knew what we were about. Expe. when the expenses incident to the latter would call for little rience and practice soon supplied, under hs directions, or no additional appropriation. As to the paying and supwhat we wanted in our early education. Well, sir, if port of idlers, he thought the remark inapplicable to the we have another war, and want education, we shall be measure. It was to educate those young men who had placed in the same condition. And what is the result of already entered the service, and were ready at all times this want of skill? It is always a great waste of life. The for active employment. The gentleman from South Carbravery and good clisposition of the men is thrown away, olina has repeated his impressions in relation to educating as well as their lives, by the want of skill in their officers. men for military operations. He still thinks that, providi. We do not want for bravery. I never knew an instance, ed you have a judicious commander, it is of no consesaid Mr. S. in which an American soldier behaved in a quence whether he has science or not. But, said Mr. H. cowarılly manner. There may be exceptions to this gen I would request the gentleman from South Carolina, when eral rule ; but our soldiers are universally courageous. In he meetsGen.Jackson, to ask him, whether, hiad our troops the last war, great evils arose from the want of experience been commanded by educatel men in the defence of this and science among the officers. They did not know how city, against the approach of the enemy, or at the River to take care of their men, who were taken from all the Raisin, or on the heights of Fort Meigs, we should at those various classes of society, and the consequence was, that places have incurred defeat and disgrace. As the gentle. they died off like rotten sheep. He knew of a corps of man had frequently recurred to history, tu shew that science three thousand five hundred men, out of whom but eight was valueless, lie would remind him of the seige of Syrahundred were saved, and they never saw the enemy. cuse, which held out to the astonishment of the most ex. This remnant went home, enfeebled, and their constitu- perienced Captains, because it was defended by skill and tions destroyed, to give their families the camp-fever. science, against a vastly superior force. Experience And, said Mr. S: is our Military Academy to teach nothing speaks loudly in favor of educating our officers for the but tactics nothing but the higher branches ? This was duty which they have to perform. From the want of an erroneous impression. The Cadets are learned all the science, this very city was once conquered by the enemy. duties of private soldiers, and how to provide for the com. Our safeties and our liberties ought not again to be exfort and preservation of those who might be placedi posed from such a deficiency. The most important re: under their command. The gentleman from South Caro- sults would flow from a general diffusion of science through lina had managed his argument well, and had certainly our whole system of defence. Every military man would drawn together every consideration which could make be aware that a battle might be lost by the improper dis. guch establishments unpopular. But his reasoning was position of a single company, and that the hand of science mostly founded on incorrect premises, and erroneous ought to guide all the details. He would say no more in statements. West Point, said Mr. S. is not the place defence of what he had thought could not have required where rich men's sons are educated. In saying this, he defending. It was obvious to him, and he thought it must spoke from facts. There were from his own State thir. be obvious to every unprejudiced mind, that the Naval teen cadets at West Point, and not one of them was the service was worthy of being fostered ; and that its prosson of a rich man. And, sir, we know that, whether rich perity could in no manner be better promoted, than by or poor, many applicants are rejected every year, as not the establishment of a Naval Academy: qualified to come up to the standard of merit which must Mr. TAZEWELL inquired whether it would be in orbe possessed by those who are admitted. The students der, after the question was taken, to offer another proviat the Military Academy were taken from civil life. Tosion instead of that now under consideration ? this he did not object, as it was a matter of course, there

The CHAIR replied, that any distinct matter might be being no grade in which the rudiments of military educa- proposed. tion could have been obtained, previous to entering the Mr. MACON said, he felt bound to say something in Academy. But there was one provision in this bill, which relation to this bill. The Naval School now proposed could not but recommend the Naval School in a particular was one of the steps which the Government was taking manner. It was, that the cadets of the Naval School were towards a state of things which he dreaded. About apnot to be taken from civil life. They are midshipmen al propriations, said Mr. M., I shall say, nothing; because ready. This would obviate the objection which had you all know my conduct. I ask, is this Academy wanted been made to the Military Academy, that students were at this time! And I ask it because the Chairman of the chosen by the recommendation of Members of Congress. Committee on Finance says the revenue is short ; and if This method was considered the best in relation to the it is not necessary at this time, it had better be let alone. West Point Institution, and had been followed, he It was said that it was but a sinall sum that was required ; thought, advantageously. But, in the School now pro. but it was in this way that our revenue was taken from us, posed, the Midshipmen now in the Navy would go into drop by drop. I would ask one question in relation to this the school, where they would obtain an education to law. Have our naval officers over shewn a want of knowwhich they were entitled, and which the good of the ledge in the science of their profession? If not, where service required that they should possess. This educa is the peculiar necessity, at this time, of providing an es. tion, even now, was considered indispensable, although tablishment for their education ? Battles are generally out of the reach of many of the midshipmen, as he knew won by the exercise of coolness and good sound common that, in many instances, midshipmen, after having served sense. I have no idea that an elaborate education is reeight years, had been rejected at their examination, quired to make a man fight a successful battle. The for want of a knowledge in mathematics, although they greatest fool I ever knew was the greatest classical scholar. had passed, under the approval of the Captain, as skills in support of this position, if the Senate will indulge me, ful navigators. He should vote for the whole bill; and I will relate a story, the truth of which can be vouched he thought the section relative to a Naval School was for : When Governor Tryon was in office in North CaroFEB. 16, 1827.]

Gradual Improvement of the Navy.




lina, his wife was said to have rather more knowledge-of says there is to be no extra expense. Well, sir, it is always human nature, at any rate-than her husband. He took so. When we begin any expense, it is very small very two young men into his office to study the law-one was trifling—but as we go on, these things grow with our from Rno le Island and the other from Virginia. Mrs. growth, and strengthen with our strength. And I think Tryon, in conversation with these young men, asked them that, if this provision is adopted, there is not one here who about the great men in their Stales. Well, they told her knows any thing of the sum which this school will cost. over all the men who had great characters for classical It is a very easy way to get rid of the responsibility of lelearning ; but she said she had hearil of Colonel Caswell gislating, by leaving the details to Executive discretion. and—[the name escaped the Reporter.) Oh, said they, But there were many things in relation to this establish. these are merely men of common education ; they have ment, if it were to be authorized by Congress, which no science and no learning : in fact, they are ignorant ought to be looked to. It ought to be decided who the men; and one began life as a constable, and the other as cadets should be, who went there. And if they go, they a clerk in a Parish Church. One of these men had dis- ought first to be sent to sea to discover whether they have tinguished himself in battle, and both were skillful com a gift for the profession--for I am a great believer in manders. There were two other men, (said Mr. Macon) gifts—and believe that not only poets but heroes are born who were never beaten by the enemy, who had no preten- io their trade. I say, said Mr. M., that the caclets at this sions to education, and, in fact, had no great need of it. projected institution will be, as they are at West Point, But I forget the end of my story. Well, it happened that the sons of rich men exclusively, or nearly so. Well, sir, these two persons came to Governor Tryon's house, and, what will you do with all these restless spirits, after you at dinner, Atrs. Tryon sat between them, and kept them in have taught them the trade of arms? Can you expect to conversation. After they had gone, she said to the two keep the country at peace, when it is full of soldiers ? young men, "I thought you told me that those gentlemen Don't you see that these men must have fighting to do, were uneducated. I find it quite otherwise." The two to keep them from doing mischief? I had a list of the students maintained that what they had said was true, and sons of the dignitaries of the Empire who were at West she concluded the conversation by saying, “that God had Point ; and I should really be afraid to show it. Is this the “educated those individuals, and done it better than it way to seek out military talents ? to take the son of every “could have been done by any college in the world.” great man, and leave obscure abilities to lie idle It is a Mr. M. doubted whether the greatest man in the country bad system. I believe there is talent in the country for would have been improved by education. He might have every e.nergency—and I helieve we shall never have betbeen made greater in the fixing of periods and the fram- ter officers in the line, than we had in the Revolution, ing of sentences ; but he would not have been made when education for the military service could not be had. greater in mind, by all the books in the world. The You must appoint officers that your men will followmunding off a period is not the most perfect sign of men that can command their soldiers. Courage, after all, greatness. Such a perfection would have made Patrick is the requisite quality-and of that we have a great plenHenry less great than he was. His genius would have ty. Courage is like cider, it is good for nothing until it been trammelled by classical study. So it was with works; and true courage never begins to work until Franklin. His want of education probably made him the comes near the enemy. A man may be very good at plangreater man. It has been said that the old women beat ning, and in the sciences, and yet not good for fighting. the doctors ; and I think it applies to other pursuits as we are told, that this education for the Navy, is to cost well as that of medicine. One thing he was very much nothing—and that the establishment is to do great good opposed to ; and that was, the Executive discretion--which without any expense. These are very fair promises—but, was introduced into this bill, as well as most others. New does any body believe that they will hold out? Did we things were continually brought forward ; and it seemed ever count the cost of any plan-or stop at any increase ? to him that the Navy wis to tole all the rest through-I say We are always advancing in expense. We have just ruistole, as it is a word which is understood in the Southern ed the salary of the Postmaster General to 6000 dollars, States. I don't think of the Navy as others do. I do not although he had enough before. I recollect when Gideon believe that any Navy was ever built for defence. It is Granger was in the office, it was proposed to raise it. A intended for conquest ; and I don't wish to conquer other gentleman from Pennsylvania asked if the salary was nations. We have gone far enough in acquiring territory. enough for the office, and the duty. It was answered yes We began with Louisiana, and the Western People were - but it was not enough for the man.

"Well then,” resatisfied with its purchase. Next we acquired Florida ; joined the gentleman from Pennsylvania ; " let him re. and now we want Cuba. As to preparing for war in sign, and we will get another.” They had within a few peace, I don't believe in the propriety of the system. The years created a Board of Navy Commissioners, which was moment we get through one war, we prepare for another ; to be a saving also : but it turned out that they got good and when People are ready for it, they are sure always to fat salaries, and so will the professors of your Naval School. fight. Now, in relation to the supposed necessity of edu. They wont work for nothing. Formerly two men were cating Naval officers for their profession, I am not one who sufficient for doorkeepers, &c. to the two Houses ; but thinks it in any way necessary. And, on this point, let me now there is a regiment. I recollect, said Mr. M., and the say, that most of the great naval commanders have been gentleman from Maryland, (Mr. SMITH) remembers it too, uneducated. De Ruyter was a cabin boy, and rose to when the Clerks, in the offices of Congress at Philadel. command and cunquer by dint of that thing of which I phia, had to work at night. Now we decrease the labor, have been speaking, which God gives to People. In this and increase their numbers and their salaries. Our greatway of preparing for war in time of peace, you have no est misfortune was during the war, that we had no men thing to support a war with when it comes, and the coun. of experience. It was said, that some of the officers were try is inundated with paper money. We talk about the too old, and liad forgot what they once knew. Then there example of England. But I do not wish our imitation of were the young men who had no experience, and be. that nation to go too far. Look at her condition. With tween them we were found very deficient. The gentlea fine country, she is overrun with paupers. She has to man from Maryland says, that the Cadets at West Point keep up her Army and Navy, and support her poor. are all poor men's sons. I would ask the gentleman whe. The people of this country are taxed hard enough now. ther these poor people had no rich kin, or whether their They want no more expenditures to increase the taxes. ancestors were not rich ; because the rich always have But we are told that this college is to cost nothing, or the preference, and are taken first. I shall go, said Mr. nest to nothing : for the gentleman from South Carolina M. no farther. These are my thoughts on the establishSENATE.)

Gradual Improvement of the Navy.

(FEB. 16, 1827.

ment of a Naval School, and as nobody had previously from him to deal illiberally with any measure. He had expressed them, I thought it my duty to do so.

great deference for the deliberate opinions of a committee. Mr. HAYNE said he rose with no other purpose than In reply to some remarks of the gentleman from Ohio, to correct the gentleman from North Carolina. I did not (Mr. HÁRRISON) he would advert to one action which that say, as the gentleman supposes, that the establishment of gentleman had chosen, to illustrate his opinions ; he allud. a Naval School would require no extra expense. I said ed to the battle of Bladensburgh. He requests me to merely, that, with regard to the pupils, there would be ask General Jackson, whenever I may meet him, whether, no extra expense, because, as they are now in the ser. had there been one man there from West Point, we should vice, they would receive the pay only which they would have suffered defeat. receive were there no academy. But there will be an Mr. HARRISON said he did not say “one man from additional expense for professors and teachers. The bill West Point,” but a scientific commander. proposes that the President of the United States shall Mr. SMITH, of S. C. resumed. Well, sir, if science form a plan for the institution, to be submitted to Con- was required, had they not enough at that battle? Be. gress ai the next session. The details were, therefore, sides the military officers who commanded, there was the not now before the Senate, and the whole matter would President of the United States, an adept in the science of be before them next year. There was another misappre- government; and the Secretary of State, who was well hension in the remarks of the gentleman from North Ca. instructed in the science of diplomacy, and he was also a rolina. He supposes that there was no deficiency in our Revolutionary officer, and fought at the battle of Tren. officers. In this he was mistaken. It was that deficiency ton. Then there was the Secretary of War, who had also which suggested the idea of a Naval Academy. The played a part in the Revolution, the Secretary of the gentleman from Maryland had correctly stated that many Treasury-the keeper of the keys of the strong box-he of our midshipmen were found deficient in mathematical went out to give his portion of science towards the defeat knowledge, and it was because they had no advantages of the enemy, and the glory of our arms. The Secretary for the attainment of the science. It was said by his friend of the Navy, who had just ordered the blowing up of the from North Carolina, that some men came from the hand Navy Yard, was also there—a very skilful man. And the of the creator, great, in despite of the absence of educa. Attorney General, who presides over the legal depart. tion--that God made them great. This was true ; and ment, also went out to battle. Here was the choice tasuch minds usually broke through the trammels of their lent of the country collected together-a band of the condition, and became distinguished by the mere force of most scientific men in the nation and yet the gentle. genius. But what shall we do with the large mass of man tells us that the battle was lost for want of science. minds of a common order, unendowed with these great It appears, on the contrary, that there was rather too natural qualities ! Their humbler talents must be turned much science on the field for convenient use. Commoto serviceable account: for splendid talents are not suffi. dore Barney was there as a subordinate, with the President ciently abundant to supply the ranks of any profession. of this vasť Commonwealth to give him orders. Well, If we agree in this, then education is important. If we what kind of argument then is that of the gentleman fron refer to military matters, we ought to consult military Ohio? Who gained the only glory of the day! Commen : if to naval affairs, we ought to ask the opinions modore Barney, who had no science, and who fought in of our naval heroes-and they believe that the plan now sailor style. He was a humble individual among this proposed is the best, for the interests both of the service great diplomatic corps, but he fought bravely, and fell and the country.

wounded on the field. llad the learned gentlemen of the Mr. MACON said, in reply, that he was convinced of the Departments shewn the same bravery as Commodore Barfact that there was no deficiency in the officers of the ney, they would have been a host. But when the actioa Navy. He had been told by an officer of the Navy, many commenced, the great talent of those gentlemen was years ago, that Congress was ruining the Navy. He said found to lie in the retreat, and having crossed the Bridge, there were officers called Congress officers, who were ap- it was most gallantly blown up to prevent pursuit. Thus pointed without the proper qualifications, and that cir. the gentleman from Ohio must perceive, that a little more cumstance gave rise to the regulation that midshipmen courage and a little less science would have made a great should not be promoted until they had been examined. change in the result of that battle.

Mr. SMITH, of South Carolina, desired a few minutes [The question was then taken on the amendment offer. indulgence. His friend from Ohio had said that the ed by Mr. SMITH, of S. C. and decided in the negative, friends of the bill had reason to complain of him (Mr. S.] by yeas and nays, as stated in a previous part of the Refor the opposition he had made to the bill. It was far gister.]

Dec. 11, 1826.) First Proceedings of the House of Representatives.--Deaf and Dumb Asylums.

(H. of R.


Mordar, DECEMBER 4, 1826.

stitutions, for the education of indigent Deaf and Dumb

if said Institutions shall sell said land, which At twelve o'clock the House was called to order, by persons; Hon. JOHN W. TAYLOR, of New York, Speaker of the they are authorized to do, the money arising from such House. The roll being called over by the Clerk of the sales shall be and remain forever to the same use ; and it House, (MATTHEW ST. CLAIR CLARKE, Esq.) one hundred shall be the duty of the said Corporations to sell the said and seventy-eight Representatives and three Delegates the same shall be located in one of the Territories, on

lands, within five years from the passage of this act ; and answered to their names. The usual message having been interchanged with the lands to which the Indian title has been extinguished.”

The report of the Committee who submitted this bill Senate, a Committee was ordered to be appointed, jointly with a Committee on the part of the Senate of the United having been read, it was reported to the House without

amendment. States, to wait on the President, and announce to him the

Mr. WHITE, of Florida, was not opposed to the relief of organization of the two Houses.

the Institutions in question, and, therefore, should not

directly oppose the bill now before the House. But, as TUESDAY, DECEMBER 5, 1826.

the townships proposed to be granted to these Institu.

tions may be located within the Territory he had the honor Mr. LATHROP, from the Joint Committee appointed to wait on the President of the United States, and inform to represent, and as several similar grants had already

been made, within that Territory, to the retarding of its him that the two Houses were in session, and ready to receive any communication he might be pleased to make, population, and to the great injury of the country, he would reported that they had attended to the duty assigned move, as an amendment, to strike out all after the word them, and that the President had replied that he would

Treasury," and insert the following proviso : send a communication to both Houses this day at twelve and Register of the Land Office within the district where

Provided, The same shall be sold by the Receiver o'clock.

A message, with accompanying documents, was then the same shall be located, at the first public sale, and the received

from the President, by the hands of Mr. Joux money arising from the same be paid to the Institutions." Adams, his private Secretary, and was read at the Clerk's mendment of the gentleman from Florida, but believed

Mr. CAMBRELENG was reluctant to oppose the atable. (See Appendis. ] The reading being concluded,

that, if it prevailed, the benefit intended by the bill to On motion of Mr. LATHROP, the message and docu- those, benevolent Institutions, would be nearly if not ments were referred to a Committee of the whole House wholly lost. Should the sale take place as in the proviso, on the state of the Union, and six thousand copies

thereof the value of the grant would be reduced to less than one

third of what it would realize if the Institutions were al. ordered to be printed, for the use of the members.

lowed to manage their own property in their own way.

Mr. WHITE replied, in further support of the amend. WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1826.

ment: Had a clause like that he now moved to strike out

been inserted in the bill which formerly passed the House, On motion of Mr. CONDICT, thc Hlouse, having adopt for the benefit of the Kentucky Asylum, he should have ed an order for the appointment of the several Standing made the same motion, in relation to it, as he had now Committees, and resolved itself into a Committee of the done in respect to the present bill. The grant made by Whole on the state of the Union, the several branches of this bill is equal to twenty-three thousand acres of land; the President's message were referred to the different which, if located in the good lands of Florida, would Standing and Select Committees, without debate.

support ten or twelve thousand settlers ; and the House

might readily conceive how the withholding of such a TUORSDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1826.

tract was calculated to retard the setilement of an infant

Territory The bill for the benefit of one of these insti. This day was wholly occupied in the presentation of tutions, in Kentucky, did not confine the grant to land petitions, and on motions for inquiry.

within the Territories ; but the present bill does so con.

fine it. There were two of these grants already located FRIDAY, DECEMBER 8, 1826.

in Florida--one to the State of Kentucky, and that to The House was again occupied in disposing of motions sold. It was his duty to submit to the will of Congress,

General Lafayette; and not an acre of either had yet been for inquiry and other preliminary business.

and, should it be their pleasure to grant this land and to

place it within the Territory he represented, he must sub. MONDAY, DECEMBER 11, 1826.

mit without murmuring, but he held it his duty to his conDEAP AND DUMB ASYLUMS.

stituents to protest against a policy which went to retard

the settlement of the country—he hopecl, however, that On motion of Mr. CAMBRELENG, the House went Congress, while they were liberal to these institutions, into Committee of the

Whole, Mr. POWELL in the chair, would take care that the Territories of which they were on the following bill for the relief of the New York and the guardians, should be preserved from injury. The Pennsylvania Institutions for the instruction of the Deaf lands now proposed to be granted, were worth at least and Dumb, (being one of those reported at the last ses. one hundred thousand dollars. sion :)

Mr. WURTS regretted very much that any opposition " Be it enacted, &c. That there be granted to the New should be made to such a bill. If he understood the ob. York Institution for the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, jection urged by the Delegate from Florida, it arose from and to the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, his fear that the lands in question would not be brought each one township of land, (excepting section numbered so soon into the market, should the Institutions be allowed sixteen, for the use of schools therein,) to be located un to manage them, as if they should be sold by the Govern. der the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury; which ment. But, from the very nature of the case, it was cer. lands shall be, and forever remain, to the use of said In. tain that the land would be turned into çasli as soon as

H. of R..]

Deaf and Dumb Asylums.

(Dec. 11, 1826.

practicable. The necessities of these Institutions was a form of the bill entirely. He had stated that the land was sufficient gurantee for this. Should the amendment pre worth one hundred thousand dollars ; why not vote this vail, the whole object of the bill would be, in a great sum in money, at once? In his judgment it was the worst measure, defeated. The bill effectually guarded against possible policy this Government could pursue, to grant any material interruption of the settlement of the Terri- away the public lands to corporations and companies. If tory, by providing that the land must be sold within they gave at all, it was the better way to give in money. five years. No great harm could happen to Florida while It must be a manifest injury, in a Territory beginning to this proviso remained in the bill. The Territory was in settle, to have a whole township of land tied up in the no danger. It might be true that the land given to La- lands of a corporation. For his part, he found difficulty fayette was not yet sold. But the cases were widely dif- in understanding the bill at all. One part of it provides ferent, and reasons applied to the one which had noihing that the land shall be sold in five years : another seems whatever to do with the other. The bill was now in to give the power to hold it in perpetuity. As to its va. precisely the same form as when it had been before the lue, he believed it to be worth more than one hundred House at the last session, when no such objections were thousand dollars. urged.

Mr. WHITE said, that his main objection was to the Mr. MALLARY observed, that the bill granted the principle of the bill. His position was, that lands sold in land to these Institutions by their corporate name; they the manner proposed, always sold more slowly than if would hold it with corporate powers; and could, there brought into the market as other public lands were fore, either put it out on perpetual lease, or dispose of brought. They had, already, in the Territory, the grant the fee. It was by no means certain that they would be to Lafayette ; two to seminaries of learning ; one for a under the necessity of immediately converting it into cash, similar Institution in Kentucky; and, if either of these because their immediate pressure might be relieved from were located there, it would make a gratuity of five townother quarters. Now, no gentleman need be told how ships. Now, it was known to every one, that the good disagreeable, and how positively injurious, the existence lands in Florida were sparse : a township would support of perpetual leases must be, in a young and rising Terri. ten thousand persons; and five were already granted. tory. There, especially, it was desirable that all occu. Besides, it had been found, by experience, that when. pants should be owners of the soil. The land should all ever a period was fixed, within which lands were to be be held by freehold tenure ; and, if any corporation did sold, they were always held back, in the hope of a rise in receive a grant, they should, at least, be restrained from their value, till the very latest moment. These lands, le leasing. But if, as had been stated, these Institutions had no doubt, if granted, would not be sold till the last were so needy as to want the land immediately turned months of the fifth year. Now, all this tended to impede into money, the amendment met their case, and could do the settlement of Florida, and keep it so much longer in a no injury.

Territorial state. This was a consideration to which ConMr. BUCHANAN thought it manifest, from the obser. gress could not be indifferent. The expense to the Genervations of the gentleman from Vermont, that he had not al Government, arising from the coninuance of a Territoexamined this bill with his usual accuracy. For himself, rial condition, in a district of country which would other. Mr. B. said, he would never vote to give a corporation wise have become a State, was very great. He admitted land in a Territory, with power to hold it an indefinite that the amendment might cause the lands to produce length of time : it would be unjust and improper. But rather less money ; but it must be remembered, that no no such power is granted by the bill. They must sell' less than sixty-nine thousand acres were already given for the land within five years. They cannot lease it ; or, if the benefit of the Deaf and Dumb, out of Florida lands they do, their lessees will become freeholders in a very and that much of the best land there was fit for the cultishort time. The objection, therefore, of the gentleman, vation of sugar. The sugar lands in Louisiana were now did not apply. The simple question before the House is, worth from sixty to seventy dollars an acre ; where:s, in shall these benevolent corporations be compelled to sell Florida, they were bringing as yet but six and seven. What the donation of their Government immecliately, at the very I would be their value in five years more, he could not say, first sale of public lands; or, shall they be permitted to, but it must be very great. And the bill, let it be observe manage it for themselves, and sell, as policy may dictate, ed, gives power to these corporations, at the end of that at any time within five years? If the House intended to time, to sell the lanıls to their own agent, and thus to make a grant to these schools, on the same terms as they remain the real owners. Such a fraud could not be prehas already done to other Institutions of a similar kind, in 'vented or guarded against. He, therefore, thought it other States, they would pass the bill is it stands : but if best, either to make the grant in money, or, if in land, to the lands are to be exposed to a compulsory sale, the in- insert such provision as should guard the Territories from evitable consequence would be, that they must be sacri. injury. ficed. Every body could tell what was likely to be the Mr. CAMBRELENG, in reply, wished to ask the De. fate of a tract of land, set up, with a knowledge, by all legate one question. Did he seriously believe, if these parties, that it must be sold within a fixed time, bring lands should be put up at auction, at the first sale, they what it might; and this in a distant Territory, among would be purchased by bona fide settlers ?-hy that geipersons strangers to the Institutions concerned, and feel tleman's constituents --or woukl they not be bought up ing not the least concern or interest about them. They by speculators ? Were the land, inleeil, worth forty or would go to speculators, and would not bring more than fifty dollars an acre, le miglit cons :nt to the ameniment, the minimum price allowed by law. The bill cloes not but every body knew that the United States would never prevent Florida from saying that no land within that Ter- get any such price : two, three, or, at the utmost, five ritory shall be held in mort main. These lands must be dollars, was all that could be expected by any man, who disposed of in five years ; but, if that period is thought knew how the United States' lands sell. He was not stretoo long, let it be curtailed ; but do not compel your be nuous in insisting that the lands shoull be located in Flo. neficiaries to sacrifice the gift you bestow.

rida, nor did the bill specify where they were to be taken Mr. MALLARY acknowledged that he had been mis- from. He would be content with any other portion of the 'taken in the provisions of the bill, having only hearil it public domain. read at the Clerk's table. As it com ained the r: striction Mr. POWELL now moved to lay the bill on the table ; referred to, lie saw no objection to its passage.

which motion, after an unsuccessful attempt, on the part Mr. McCoy said he would have been glad if his friend of Mr. CAMBRELENG, to obtain an asljournment, final. from Florida had propused an amendment changing the ly prevailed ; on which, the House adjourned.

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