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WILLIAM M. MEIGS, Esq., Philadelphia.
MONSIGNOR ROBERT SETON, D. D., LL.D., Jersey City,
Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum,
Angelus, N. DUBOIS MILLER, Esq., Philadelphia.
and other ecclesiastical articles. Adultery. Moltke Moe, Christiania, Norway.
Prof. Isaac SHARPLESS, Haverford College, Pennsylvania.
Prof. STEPHEN P. SHARPLES, Boston.
Capital Punishment. * CHARLES MORRIS, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- ALVAN S. SOUTHWORTH, late Secretary of the American delphia.
Geographical Society, New York. Àcademies of Science in Algonkin Indians,
*A. P. SPRAGUE, Esq., New York.
Annexation, pean biography.
and other articles on international law. Prof. GEORGE S. MORRIS, Johns Hopkins University, EDWARD STANWOOD, Boston, Editor of The Daily AdverBaltimore.
tiser. Agnosticism, Causation,
Boston. and other philosophical articles.
Simon A. STERN, Philadelphia. HENRY MORRIS, M. D., Philadelphia.
Auerbach Berthold, Anatomy, Human.
and other biographical articles. W. L. NICHOLSON, Washington, D. C.
Hon. Levi STOCKBRIDGE, late President Massachusetts Albemarle Sound.
Indian Corn (under AGRICULTURE), Rev. H. J. Nort, Bowmanville, Ontario.
Root Crops Bible Christians,
ADOLPH STRAUCH (since deceased), Cincinnati.
Mrs. MARGARET F. SULLIVAN, Chicago.
and other biographical articles. Bowdoin College. J. RODMAN Paul, Esq., Philadelphia.
* Prof. LEWIS Swift, Warner Observatory, Rochester, N.Y. Altazimuth,
Asteroids, *S. AUSTEN PEARCE, Mus. D., New York.
and other astronomical articles.
LINDSAY SWIFT, Boston.
Butterflies, North American. Becker, Carl Ferdinand, Catalani, Angelica,
Rev. WM. J. R. TAYLOR, D.D., Newark, N. J. and other articles on music and musicians.
Bible Societies in America. GEORGE PELLEW, Boston.
J. J. THOMAS, Union Springs, N. Y. Browning, Robert.
Agricultural Implements. T. SERGEANT PERRY, Boston, author of English Litera- * Prof. ROBERT ELLIS THOMPSON, Ph. D., University of ture of the Eighteenth Century.
Pennsylvania. American Literature.
Balance of Trade, Alaska.
Andreä, Johann Valentin, Bimetallism,
and other articles in biography, history, political econ. C. V. RILEY, Ph. D., Entomologist U. S. Agricultural
omy, etc. Department, Washington. Agriculture, Insects in Relation to,
Prof. Wm. S. TYLER, D.D., Amherst College, MassachuArmy Worm.
* SAMUEL WAGNER, Esq., Philadelphia.
and other legal articles. Blight.
Botany of North America, and other botanical articles.
Major W. T. WALTHALL, Biloxi, Miss.
HENRY GALBRAITH WARD, Esq., Philadelphia.
and other articles on maritime law. Acid, Alizarine,
H. L. WAYLAND, D. D., Editor of National Baptist, PhilAlcohols,
Alkaloids, Alcoholic Beverages, Aluminium,
adelphia. and numerous chemical articles.
Baptists in the United States. F. B. SANBORN, Concord, Mass., Secretary of the Amer-WILLIAM B. WEEDEN, Providence, R. I., author of The ican Social Science Association.
Social Law of Labor. Alcott, Amos Bronson,
Capital. Alcott, Louisa May.
J. E. WELLS, Toronto, Canada. EDWIN S. SCHIVELY, Esq., Philadelphia.
Brown, Hon. George.
Blake, Hon. Edward,
By-Laws, and other legal articles.
J. WILLIAM WHITE, M.D., University of Pennsylvania.
HENRY WILE, M.D., Philadelphia.
Bacteria. F. Lamson SCRIBNER, Girard College, Philadelphia.
H. C. Wood, M.D., University of Pennsylvania. Cereals (under AGRICULTURE).
Cathartics. Prof. Oswald SEIDENSTICKER, University of Pennsyl. Col. CARROLL D. WRIGHT, State Bureau of Statistics, vania.
Massachusetts. Acrelius, Rev.
CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SECOND VOLUME.
Among those who, in addition to the foregoing, have furnished articles for the Second Volume, are the following:
HENRY E. ALVORD, Houghton Farm, New York. WILLIAM HENRY GOODYEAR, New York.
GEORGE BUTLER GRIFFIN, C. E., Los Angeles, California. John RUSSELL BARTLETT, Providence, R. I.
Prof. ANGELO HEILPRIN, Academy of Natural Sciences, J. S. BILLINGS, M. D., Washington, D. C.
Philadelphia Rev. J. R. BROWN, D. D., Nashville, Tenn.
Hon. John A. Kasson, M. C., Iowa. CHARLES CHAUNCEY, Esq., Philadelphia.
Rev. R. HEBER NEWTON, New York. Rev. HENRY M. DEXTER, D.D., Editor of The Congrega- Rear-Admiral GEORGE H. PREBLE, U. S. N. tionalist, Boston.
COLEMAN SELLERS, JR., Philadelphia. Prof. A. E. DOLBEAR, Tufts College, Mass.
P. W. SHEAFER, C. E., Pottsville, Pa.
FURMAN SHEPPARD, Esq., Philadelphia.
Rev. CHARLES F. THWING, Cambridge, Mass.
JAMES Tyson, M. D., University of Pennsylvania.
AAL, JACOB (1773-1844), a distinguished Norwe- His attention was drawn to philological questions by gian writer, born in Porsgrund, July 27, 1773. He the practice of devising Latín names for Norwegian studied in Copenhagen, first theology and afterwards plants unknown to the Romans. He tried to substitute natural science. In 1797 he went to Germany and native names, but found that these differed with the studied science at the universities of Kiel, Leipsic, and dialects of the different provinces. This led him to Göttingen, and spent the winter 1798–99 in Freiberg, examine the relations of those dialects, and he sent to where he heard Werner. He returned to Norway in the Throndhjem Scientific Society a dissertation on the the summer of 1799, and purchased the large Nos iron- dialect spoken in Sandmöre, his native province. The works. In 1814 he became one of the framers of the society undertook to support him in making a collection present constitution of Norway, and subsequently served for a dictionary of the Folkesprog (“speech of the peoseveral terms in the Storthing. With his vast means ple", of Norway, and he spent several years in travel he aided literature and science, and many important with this view. In 1847 he settled in Christiania and works were published at his expense. His own literary began to write up his collections, and published a gramworks were partly on politics and political economy as mar in 1848 and a dictionary in 1850. He showed the magazine articles, of which he collected the most im- unity in variety of those dialects, and their relation to portant ones and published them in three volumes en- the old written speech of the Norse and Icelandic sagas, titled Present and Past (Nutid og Fortid), 1832-36, and he reduced the variety of dialectic forms to normal partly historical, relating both to antiquity and to his forms. It was P. A. Munch, the philologist, who first own eventful lifetime. His translation of Snorre Stur- saw in these labors the accomplishment of a proposal leson's Hemskringla in four folio volumes, published which he himself had made in 1832 and 1845. He had 1838–39, is a standard work. His Erendringer (Remi- suggested the formation of a national language by a niscences), as a contribution to the history of Norway comparison of the Norse dialects which should take from 1800 to 1815, is one of the most important his- the place long held by the Danish in literary and edutorical works written on the nineteenth-century history cational use. Aasen fell in with this idea, and in 1853 of Norway. It is a work full of facts in regard to the published specimens” of those dialects, with translacomplications between Norway, Sweden, and Denmark: tions into the new normal language, and followed this on account of the author's friendly relations with the up with original works, especially poems, in the same eminent men of the three countries it is at once thor- tongue. In this he found many followers, the most oughly patriotic and free from ill-will towards Denmark notable being Aasmund Vinje and Kristofer Janson, and Sweden. He died Aug. 4, 1844. (R. B. A.) poets of much ability and popularity. Several periodi
AARESTRUP, Carl LUDWIG Emil (1800-1856), cals were published in the new speech. It was resisted Danish lyric poet, born Dec. 4, 1800, in Copenhagen, by the conservatism of the official classes, and by the spent the greater part of his life as a practising physi- more moderate reformers, who desired merely to modcian in Lolland. His poems are found in two volumes, ify the current Norse-Danish speech of the educated the first published in 1838, and the second after his classes. The controversy still continues, and Aasen death, in 1863. In style he is compared with Heine still labors for the perfection and extension of his naand Moore. He died in 1856.
tional Norse speech. But he has not won the philoloAARS, JAKOB JONATHAN, a Norwegian linguist, gists generally to his support; even Munch in 1853 born in Christiania, July 12, 1837, in which city he gave up the attempt as hopeless, and none of the greatestablished a gymnasium in 1863. In 1862 he pub- est names in the very vigorous literature of Norway lished a grammar of the Old Norse language; in 1864 have declared for it. For a time Björnsterne Björnson a translation, with commentaries, of several poems of was drawn towards it by his strong national feeling, but the elder Edda (Udvalg norske Oldkvad), and since in 1879 he published a letter giving in his adherence to that he has written many important articles on lan- the moderate reformers. Hendrik Ibsen and Jonas guage and mythology.
Lie have not been influenced by Aasen. AASEN, IVAR ANDREAS, a Norwegian botanist, Aasen's poems are generally idyllic pictures of peasphilologist, and poet, was born of peasant parents, ant-life in Norway and translations from English, GerAug. 5, 1813, and received his education at the house man, and French. (See “Die Sprachbewegung in of a parish clergyman. He obtained a situation as a Norwegen,” by Konrad Maurer, in Bartsch's Germaprivate teacher, and devoted his attention to botany. nia, 1880.)
(R. E. T.)
See Vol. I. p. 12 Am.
ABANDONMENT, a term in law signifying gen- Abatement of freehold is the unlawful entry and pos
erally a surrender of property or of a right, session of an estate by a stranger after the death of the but more particularly
last owner and before possession is taken by the heir or ed. (p. 4 In Marine Insurance. The act by which devisee. The use of the term had its origin in the anEdin. ed.). the insured, in case of a partial loss, sur-cient law of Normandy, where it was applied to the renders his rights to the insurer and claims under his taking possession of an estate, after the death of the policy a total loss. In such a se the loss is said to be
owner and before the heir entered, by one who had an constructive or technical total loss. Strictly speaking, the apparent right of possession. It is distinguished from abandonment by the insured consists of a transfer of his disseisin, which is the expulsion by force or fraud of the interest in the insured property in its damaged condition, person seized of the freehold; and from intrusion, which in consideration of the insurer treating the loss as a total is limited to the entry by a stranger on the death of the one under the contract of insurance. In our American tenant for life, in violation of the rights of the revercontracts of marine insurance it is generally provided that sioner or remainder-man.
(s. w.) there shall be no constructive total loss by abandonment ABBE, CLEVELAND, an American astronomer and except where there is an injury to the thing insured ex- meteorologist, was born in New York, Dec. 3, 1838. ceeding fifty per cent. upon an estimate "as for a par- He was the eldest son of George Waldo Abbe, and tial loss.' As the policy in most cases provides that in graduated in New York City Free College in 1857. He estimating a partial loss an allowance of one-third off studied astronomy under Brünow, Gould, Struve, and "new for old” shall be made to provide for the deteri- others, and in 1868 was elected director of the Cincinoration in value of the parts of the vessel, it follows that nati Observatory. Here he inaugurated a system of the estimated cost of repairs necessary to restore the daily meteorological reports by telegraph, with predicvessel to good condition must exceed seventy-five per tions of the weather for one or two days in advance. cent. of her value to entitle the insured to the right of This was intended for the benefit of the Chamber of claiming by abandonment for a total loss. The valua- Commerce of that city, and its immediate utility soon tion on which this estimate is to be made is generally caused it to be brought to the attention of the national that named in the policy, and in cases of open policies Government. Similar work was now undertaken for the actual value of the vessel at the time the loss occurs, the benefit of the whole country, and officially entrusted shown by proper evidence. The Federal courts have to the chief signal-officer of the army, Gen. Albert J. inclined to the view that the latter basis of valuation Myer. Prof. Abbe was called to Washington to prepare should prevail in all cases, whether the policy be valued the weather predictions, and entered on this work Jan. or open, and the courts of some of the States have held 1, 1871. His diligence in the prosecution of the work to the same rule. In several of the States, however, has largely contributed to the confidence reposed by the the valuation in the policy determines the valuation on people in that service. He inaugurated the tri-daily which the estimate is to be made. No special form is predictions and their verifications, the storm-signals, the necessary either for making abandonment or for accept- revision of altitudes, the monthly review, the simultaing it, but it should be made as soon as the insured is neous international observations, and the corresponding in possession of information of facts justifying it, or else daily bulletin, with maps of the whole northern hemihe will be considered as having elected not to exercise sphere. The anonymous daily publication in 1871 of his right to abandon. It is optional with him,
but when the weather probabilities, which were widely circulated once made and accepted is irrevocable. After aban- by the press associations, led to a general inquiry as to donment by the insured and acceptance by the insurer, their author, and the name “Old Probabilities” has the insurer becomes the owner, and entitled to the pos- been frequently applied to Prof. Abbe as the real author session of all that is left of the insured property, and of these predictions. While in charge of the Cincinnati the owner and master of the vessel are bound to act in Observatory he directed attention to the importance and good faith in regard to the insured property in such practicability of securing a greater accuracy and unimanner as will protect the interests of the insured, for, formity in the standard of time throughout America, so far as the insured property is concerned, they be- and this matter has since attracted general attention. come virtually the trustees of the insured. (s. w.) He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences ABATEMENT (from the French abattre, Law and of many astronomical, meteorological, and other
French abater, signifying to throw down"). scientific associations at home and abroad. He has pees2 Am. The term is used in legal phraseology to contributed frequently on mathcinatical, astronomical, ed. (p. 5 indicate a suspension or a reduction or a com- and physical, as well as meteorological subjects, to the Edin. ed.). plete determination. In chancery practice Monthly Notes of the Royal Astronomical Society, Asabatement of a suit is the suspension of all proceedings tronomische Nachrichten, The American Journal of from want of proper parties capable of proceeding or Science, to Prof. Baird's Record of Science and Indusfrom some other cause, while the abatement of an ac-try (1871–78), and to cyclopædias. tion at law is a complete determination of the suit by ABBEY, EDWIN A., an American artist, was born interposing as a plea some matter of fact impeaching at Philadelphia in 1852. He studied for a time at the the declaration. The effect is to defeat the action with Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under Mr. out reaching any decision on the merits of the contro- Christian Scheussele, but he is in the main self-taught, versy, making it necessary for the plaintiff to begin a having at an early age engaged actively in making drawnew action. The tendency in the present day is to ings for the publishers. The majority of his book and simplify as much as possible legal proceedings, and to magazine illustrations have been executed for Harper & prevent the effect of pleas in abatement by allowing Brothers, although he has been employed by other pubamendments in the pleadings, so that the real question lishers, and has contributed to nearly all the illustrated in controversy may be tried without the necessity of magazines and newspapers. In 1878, Abbey went to another suit. The abatement of a nuisance is the re- Europe, where he remained for several years, spending moval or destruction of it. As applied to a legacy or a his time chiefly in England. The results of his resicontract, it indicates, in the one case, a reduction of the dence in England are many admirable drawings illusamount of the legacy by reason of the insufficiency of trative of English character, scenery, and antiquities, the assets of the testator's estate to pay all his debts including a series of designs suggested by Herrick's and the legacies as well, and in the other case a reduc- poems. These appeared from time to time during sevtion made by a creditor in the amount of his claim in eral years in Harper's Magazine, and were afterwards consideration of its prompt payment by his debtor. In made into a sumptuous volume (1882). Like all of mercantile law the term “abatement” is also used to Abbey's best works, these drawings are characterized indicate the deduction or allowance of import duties by grace, refined humor, and poetical feeling, and the made under the acts of Congress by the collector of series very adequately represent the range and characCustoms, on account of injury to goods.
teristics of the artist's talent. Another series, illustra
See Vol. I.
tive of Keats's Eve of St. Agnes, contains several mer- | The paper was afterwards removed to Boston, and in itorious drawings, but the artist found the elaborate 1880, Mr. Abbot withdrew from connection with it. word-painting of Keats less inspiring to him than the He removed to New York, where he has been engaged quaint suggestiveness of Herrick, and the series as a in giving private instruction. whole fails to do its original justice. In addition to his ABBOTT, EDWIN ABBOTT, D.D., an English edudrawings in black and white, Abbey has made a number cator and author, was born in London in 1838. After of paintings, chiefly in water-color, and he has been a a preliminary education in the City of London School, frequent contributor to the exhibitions in New York he entered St. John's College, Cambridge, and graduand London. Among his paintings which have been ated in 1861 with high classical honors. He won sevcordially praised for their superior qualities are The eral prizes, and was made a fellow of his college. He Stage-Office, The Evil Eye, Lady in a Garden, and A was ordained deacon in 1862, and priest in the year folRose in October. Abbey is a member of the New York lowing. After a few years' experience in teaching at Society of Water-Color Painters, of the New York Etch- Birmingham and at Clifton College, he was appointed ing Club, and of the Tile Club. (W. J. C., JR.) in 1865 head-master of the City of London School.
ABBÓT, EZRA, S.T.D., LL.D., an American biblical This school was established in 1834 by the corporation scholar, was born in Jackson, Me., April 28, 1819. He of London, and has a large endowment. It is intended graduatėd at Bowdoin College in 1840, with high repu- to furnish a liberal and practical education on moderate tation as a classical scholar. After spending some years terras, and has an attendance of more than 600 pupils. in teaching he took up his residence in Cambridge, Mr. Abbott organized a thorough system of instruction Mass., in 1847. In 1856 he was appointed assistant li- in the English language, and for this purpose prepared brarian of Harvard College, with the exclusive charge of a number of elementary text-tooks in grammar and the cataloguing department. In 1872 he became profes- composition. His Shakespeariam Grammar has met sor of New-Testament criticism and interpretation in the with great favor, and is recognized as the standard work Divinity School of Harvard University, which position on the language of Shakespeare. English Lessons for he still holds (1883). He was elected a member of the English People, prepared by him in conjunction with American Oriental Society in 1852, and of the Ameri- Prof. J. R. Seeley, is widely used as a text-book in can Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1861; received America as well as in England. In connection with the degree of LL.D. from Yale College in 1869, the the Education Bill of 1870, which reconstructed the same from Bowdoin in 1878, and the degree of S.'T. D. whole system of public education in England, Mr. Abfrom Harvard College in 1872, though a layman. He bott organized a deputation of head-masters, who published in 1864 Literature of the Doctrine of a Fu- urged upon the Government the necessity of forbidding ture Life, containing the titles of more than 5300 dis- the teaching of any religious catechism in the board tinct works on the subject, as an appendix to W. R. schools. The object of this was to prevent fierce secAlger's Critical History of the doctrine, and it was tarian controversies at the election of local school boards. issued also separately in 1871. He edited, with notes, The clause inserted for this purpose was adopted. Norton's posthumous Translation of the Gospels, with Through Mr. Abbott's exertions provision was afterNotes (1855), Norton's Statement of Reasons for not wards made for the scholarship which secures to the Believing the Doctrines of Trinitarians (1856), and successful candidate from the schools under the London Orme's Memoir of the Controversy on the Three Heav- board free admission to the City of London School. enly Witnesses (1866); he also revised and completed The first pupil to gain this scholarship, afterwards won Hudson's Critical Greek and English Concordance of a scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge, and was the New Testament (1870; 7th ed. 1882). He co-op- senior classic in 1881. In recognition of Mr. Abbott's erated with Dr. H. B. Hackett in the American edi- services to the cause of education the archbishop of tion of Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (1867–70, 4 Canterbury conferred on him in 1872 the degree of vols. 8vo), giving special attention to the bibliography D.D. He has also been chosen select preacher in the of the subjects. `In 1880 he published The Authorship universities of Cambridge and Oxford, and the sermons of the Fourth Gospel-E.cternal Evidences. Dr. Abbot, preached in these courses have been published in two after a careful consideration of all the objections which volumes, called respectively Cambridge Sermons (1875) have been presented against ascribing that Gospel to and Oxford Sernions (1878). His Hulsean lectures St. John, decides the question in his favor. The work have been published under the title Through Nature to is distinguished not less for the fairness and solid-Christ (1877). He has also prepared an annotated ity of the argument than for the comprehensiveness edition of Bacon's Essays (1876) and a sketch of Baof the learning there displayed. Dr. Abbot assisted con and Essex (1877). To the ninth edition of the Dr. C. R. Gregory of Leipsic in the preparation of the Encyclopædia Britannica he has contributed the elabelaborate Prolegomena (1883) to Tischendorf's last orate article on the “Gospels." The same vier of critical edition of the Greek Testament (1869–72). He the compilation of these lives of Christ are presented in was a member of the New Testament Company of the his Onesimus (1882), a well-written story of the age of American Bible Revision Committee, which co-operated the apostles, and a continuation of his Philochristus from 1872 to 1880 with the English Committee, whose (1878), in which he professes to give the Gospel story Revised Version appeared in 1881. He has contrib- as witnessed by a disciple. uted to the Christian Ecaminer, the Unitarian Re- ABBOTT, JACOB (1803-1879), an American author view, the Bibliotheca Sacra, the North American Re- of numerous religious, biographical, educational, and view, the Journal of the American Oriental Society, juvenile works, was born at Hallowell
, Me., Nov. 14, and the Journal of the Society of Biblical Literature 1803. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1820, and and Ecegesis.
studied theology at Andover. In 1824 he became tutor ABBÓT, FRANCIS ELLINGWOOD, an American phil- and afterwards professor of mathematics in Amherst osopher, was born in Boston, Mass., Nov. 6, 1836. He College, and in 1826 was licensed to preach. By inis a son of Joseph Hale Abbot (1802–1873), an emi- vitation of some friends in 1829 he opened in Boston pent educator. After graduating at Harvard College the Mount Vernon school for young ladies, which in 1859, he studied theology, and was for some years a proved highly successful. He had already commenced Unitarian clergyman. The tendency of his mind was his career of authorship in 1828, and some lectures on to metaphysical study, and he published in the North religion given in connection with his school were pubAmerican Review a series of articles on "The Philoso- lished in 1832 under the title of The Young Christian, phy of Space and Time," "The Conditioned and the which at once obtained a wide popularity, and led to Unconditioned,” etc. His views of religion having be the preparation of three more volumes, forming a series come more negative than those of the Unitarian body, of the same character. As these books came out they he left the ministry, and in 1870 established The Index, were republished in England, and one of them. The a journal of free thought. published at Toledo, Ohio Corner-stone, was severely criticised by Rev. (afterwards