« AnteriorContinuar »
Recent legislation by the general Government and by any public officer, agent, or servant at any time and the legislatures of most of the States, in obedience to place fixed by, general, special, local, or municipal public sentiment, as to the bribery of voters and the authority, whether such choice or appointment be made raising of funds for that object, is so varied that a by the qualified electors or by any member or body of comparison thereof with a view to the determination public officers. of what is best and most effectual would be of high in- An elector is defined to be any person who shall be terest. But to make anything like an analysis of the entitled to vote, or who shall vote, at any such election. available materials would be obviously impossible within Bribe or bribery to be reward, benefit, or advantage, the limits of this work. By a statute of the United present or future, to the party influenced or intended States (ch. 287, Aug. 15, 1876, 19 Statutes at Large, to be influenced, or to another person at his instance, p. 169, & 6) it is enacted, "That all executive officers or or the promise of such reward or advantage. Any employés of the United States not appointed by the person shall be guilty of bribery of an elector who shall President with the advice and consent of the Senate, directly or indirectly give, offer, or promise to, ang are prohibited from requesting, giving to, or receiving elector any bribe. Any elector who shall accept or from, any other officer or employé of the Government agree to accept a bribe shall be guilty of an offence, any money or property or other thing of value for po- and be punishable in the same manner and to the litical purposes; and any such officer or employé who same extent as if guilty of bribery. shall offend against the provisions of this section shall The provisions of the constitutions and statutes before be at once discharged from the service of the United mentioned make the following, among others, offences States; and he shall also be deemed guilty of a misde- against election laws: By any corrupt means influencing, meanor, and on conviction thereof shall be fined in a or attempting to influence, any elector in giving his vote sum not exceeding five hundred dollars.'' Under this at any election. By any corrupt means disturbing, restatute the circuit court of the United States for the straining, or hindering any elector from giving his vote eastern district of New York (Wallace, circuit judge, at any election, or in the free exercise of any right of writing the opinion) has recently held, in the case of suffrage at any election. The furnishing of any enterthe United States against Curtis, that an officer or em- tainment to any elector previous to or during any elecployé of the United States of the prohibited classes who tion, or paying for, furnishing, or engaging to pay, received contributions for political purposes was guilty moneys, property, or other valuable thing for any such of a misdemeanor, and punishable as provided by the entertainment or the furnishing thereof. The furnishstatute, which was held to be constitutional. The case ing or engaging to pay or deliver any money, property, being removed into the Supreme Court of the United or other valuable thing for the purpose of inducing any States, the decision below was sustained (106 U. S. voter to stay away from any election or for the purpose Rep., 371). The Revised Statutes of the United of procuring the attendance of an elector or electors at States (8% 5506–8), prohibit and punish the hindering, any election, except for the conveyance of electors who delaying, preventing, or obstructing any citizen from are sick or infirm. The furnishing, or engaging to pay, doing any act required to be done to qualify him to or delivering, or causing to be paid or delivered, any vote, or from voting at any election; they also provide money, property, or other valuable thing for any purthat every person who prevents, hinders, controls, or pose intended to hinder, prevent, or defeat or to prointimidates another from exercising or in exercising the mote the election of any candidate or candidates, or any right of suffrage, to whom that right is guaranteed by question, at any election, except for the fair and reasonthe fifteenth amendment of the Constitution of the able expense of holding and conducting public meetings United States, by means of bribery or threats of de- for the discussion of public questions, of printing and priving such person of employment or occupation, or circulating ballots, slips, or pasters, hand-bills, and other of ejecting such person from a rented house, lands, papers previous to such election, and advertising in the or other property, or by threats to renew leases or con- newspapers. Directly or indirectly furnishing any money tracts for labor, or by threats of violence to himself or other valuable thing to be illegally used at any elecor family, shall be fined not less than five hundred tion. An offer, promise, or agreement to induce any dollars or be imprisoned not less than one month nor other person to endeavor to induce any officer, or permore than one year, or be punished by both such fine son to be elected to any office, to give or appoint any and imprisonment; also, that if two or more persons person to any office, place, or employment in order to conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any influence any elector at an election. An offer, agreecitizen in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right ment, or promise to appoint or procure the appointor privilege secured to him by the Constitution or laws ment of any person to office, preferment, or employof the United States, or because of his having so ex- ment, with intent to influence any elector to vote for ercised the same; or if two or more persons go in dis- any person at an election, or to induce any person to guise on the highway or on the premises of another, procure, or aid in procuring, the election of any person with intent to prevent or hinder his free exercise or at an election. Any person communicating such offer, enjoyment of any right or privilege so secured, they agreement, or promise to any person with intent to inshall be fined not more than five thousand dollars and duce, or have any person induce, any elector to vote for imprisoned not more than ten years; and shall more- any person at an election, is guilty of bribery; and so over be thereafter ineligible to any office or place of is any person who shall directly or indirectly treat with honor, profit, or trust created by the Constitution or any elector with intent to influence him in giving his laws of the United States.
vote at any election. The power of Congress and the validity of such leg. Bribery further includes the lending or agreeing to islation were passed upon by the Federal courts in lend any money, property, or other valuable thing with United States vs. Reese (92 U. S. Rep., 214), United intent to influence any elector in his vote or action at an States vs. Cruikshank (92 U. S. Rep., 542, affirming election. An offer by a candidate to the electors at any 1 Woods, 308), and Seeley vs. Knox (2 Woods, 368). election or a portion of them to discharge the duties of
Under the constitutions or the statutes of several his office or employment at less than the legal rate, and States the courts have held that an offer by a candidate to appropriate the remainder thereof, or to allow the for an office to discharge the duties thereof at a salary same to be appropriated, to any public place or charless than that fixed by law, to cover a portion thereof ity, is held to be bribery. Any attempt to influence an into the treasury, or to apply a portion thereof to the elector at an election by any threat of withdrawing or payment of expenses which the constituency is re- withholding custom or dealing in business or trade, or quired to meet, is bribery of the electors and invali- of bringing any suit or criminal prosecution, or of endates the election of such candidate.
forcing a debt, or any other threat of injury or opFor the purpose of this article an election may be pression, is bribery. Any person who attempts, in any defined to be the choice, selection, or appointment of way, or by any means, to influence any operative or
person in his employ, by threats of withholding from Second. That he should be fairly and honestly him any office, place, or employment, or dismissing elected. him from office, place, or employment, or by promises Third. Though part of the electors honestly voted of office, place, or employment, or threats of reducing for the candidate, if any considerable part did so from his wages, is also guilty of bribery, and is liable to its dishonest and corrupt motives, no matter how honest penalties.
and capable such candidate may be, he is not fairly and The offence includes also cases like the following: honestly elected. The advancement or payment, or the causing to be Fourth. If the candidate be guilty, either directly or advanced or paid, any money or other valuable thing to, indirectly, by connivance or otherwise, of any dishonest or to the use of, any other person, with the intent that or corrupt practices, such conduct establishes beyond such money or other valuable thing, or any part thereof, question that he is not honest and ought not to be alor of the proceeds thereof, shall be illegally expended lowed to hold office. at or during any election; or the knowingly paying, or Fifth. One elected to an office has no personal intercausing to be paid, to any person any money or other est therein. He holds it simply as the agent of, and valuable thing in discharge or repayment of any money for the benefit of, the public. or valuable thing wholly or in part illegally expended at Sixth. If the election, from the manner thereof or any election. Any person who shall fraudulently or for any cause, be not conducive to the public good, the deceitfully change, alter, or falsely represent a ballot, incumbent should not be allowed to hold the office. or attempt so to do, or cause any deceit to be prac- Seventh. The question whether an election was proptised upon an elector with intent to induce such erly conducted should be decided by a court or some elector to deposit the same as his ballot, may be designated body or tribunal. held to be guilty of bribery. So also is any person Eighth. A partisan body, political or legislative, in who shall, by fraud, intimidation, or other wilful and nine cases out of ten decides a case upon purely particorrupt violation of any election law of the State, in- san, political grounds, and therefore such a body should fluence, or attempt to influence, any elector in giving not be allowed to decide upon the election of its own his vote, or to awe, restrain, hinder, or disturb him in members. This practice is a remnant of antiquity which the free exercise of the right of suffrage. Any person should be abolished. The election of members of such who shall knowingly induce, or attempt to induce, any bodies, if contested, should be decided by the courts, person to vote, or to permit any person to vote, illegally which are, as a rule, far removed from partisan and at any election, is equally guilty of the offence; and political bias. The necessary constitutional amendments so also is any person who shall knowingly induce, or should be made. Politicians could not, and dare not, attempt to induce, any election officer, clerk, or can- obstruct or prevent the work if its necessity were unvasser to improperly or illegally discharge the duties derstood by the people. of his office or to do any improper or illegal act. Ninth. Cases of disputed elections should be decided
An attempt to do, or procure the doing of, any act by the courts without jury. There is then no danger forbidden by the election laws, is usually declared to of the disagreement of a jury by division according to have the same effect, and to be punishable in the same political bias or from being reached or affected by polimanner and to the same extent, as the actual doing, or ticians or interested parties. procuring the doing, of such act.
Tenth. Such cases should be promptly and summarAny elector accepting or receiving from any person ily tried and decided. The parties should be required whomsoever any bribe, money, property, or other valu- to speedily present the issues; the court should be conable thing, or any illegal inducement for voting, or as an vened as soon as possible; the trial should at once proinducement to vote, for or against any person or persons ceed, and the court be required to render its decision at any election, or for staying away from any election, within a brief, specified time. is liable to be punished for bribery, as well as any Eleventh. The successful party should be at once enperson who shall receive money or other thing of value titled to the office, and should not be delayed by any to be used for the purpose of procuring or influencing a appeal, management, or tactics of his adversary, vote or votes.
Twelfth. Such cases involving the highest
public inIn some of the States any person guilty of a violation terests, an appeal should be allowed to the courts of of its election laws is declared to be guilty of a criminal last resort. They should have a preference in all courts offence, to forfeit the office to which he was elected, over all other business, and should be required to be and, on conviction of such offence, to be disqualified decided by the courts within a specified time. No from holding any office of profit or trust in the State change in the person holding the office should be allowed for a term of years or absolutely, and to be punishable during the appeal, but on decision of the final appeal by a fine or imprisonment, or both. In some States the party held to be entitled thereto, if not in office, any person guilty of an offence against the election should be entitled at once to qualify and enter upon the laws thereof on conviction forfeits the privileges and discharge of its duties. rights of an elector, and the right to hold office, for a Thirteenth. Resignation should not be allowed to specified time, and in some absolutely.
prevent the impeachment, trial, and conviction of one Man has never realized a Utopia. Laws which in- who has been guilty of malversation in office. Such an yolve his highest and most important interests should, officer should not be allowed, by his own act, to escape however, be as just and as perfect as possible. If such presentment, trial, and conviction and the usual dislaws are enforced, justice will thus be done. If not, grace and punishment. the fault is not in the law, but in its enforcement. If Fourteenth. The duty of criminal presentment and defective, enforcement is useless and ineffectual. A good trial of an officer impeached or indicted should be law is more likely to be obeyed, and is more easily en- made mandatory upon prosecuting officers, and they forced, than a poor one. The fact that man has become should be made liable to removal from office for failure more cultivated, and that his views of morality and to discharge such duty. public good have advanced with his civilization, should Fifteenth. In criminal prosecutions for a violation of be as quickly recognized in his laws as elsewhere. No the election laws every person except the defendant on remnant of antiquity not consonant with the public in- trial should be, by the statute, made a competent witterests should be allowed to stand in the way of such ness and compellable to give testimony; but no testiinterests for a moment.
mony so given should ever be used against the party The following are suggestions regarding the points giving it. In case the court certifies that the witness under discussion. Election laws should obviously re- testified fully and fairly on such trial, he should be excognize the following principles :
empt, and be discharged, from all liability for prosecuFirst. The public interest demands that every public tion for the offence as to which he testified or growing office be filled by an honest, capable man.
out of the same.
(N. C. M.)
BRICKS. All clays are not equally well adapted | levers or their combinations. All these machines may, See . .
for making bricks, and too much care can- however, be divided into two general classes: (A) those p. 249 Am: not be taken in the selection of suitable ma- in which a continuous stream of clay is forced from the ed. (p. 279 terials. Pure clay will crack in drying : pug-mill and subsequently cut into proper lengths by a Edin. ed.)
. plastic clays, containing a small percentage knife or wires moved across the bar of clay or by heliof sand, give the best results, but if the pit contains coidal blades moving so as to make a smooth transverse much water and micaceous sand it will not answer. cut across the slab; (B) those in which the clay is erNeither can clay be used which contains any consider pressed into moulds moving under the nozzle of the able quantity of silex in the shape of pebbles. The clay mill. This latter class may be subdivided into six varieshould always be tested practically before erecting an ties, based upon the arrangement of the moulds. Thus, expensive plant. Good results may sometimes be ob- (1) the mould-wheel, bearing moulds which may be filled tained by a proper admixture of clay and sand. Fire- and discharged by various devices, may revolve in a brick clays should be free from lime, magnesia, potash, horizontal plane. (2) The moulds may be placed on and those metallic oxides which act as fluxes.
the surface of a wheel or cylinder, and, revolving on a Moulding. The old method of moulding the tem- horizontal axis, may receive their charge from a mill pered clay by hand directly from the pug-mill is labori- or hopper above. . (3) There may be two wheels bearous and expensive, and in many localities where bricks ing moulds, in which the pressure is derived from the are extensively used has yielded to more expeditious contact of the peripheries upon each other, the hopper and economical methods by machinery. The earliest being placed over the angle between the horizontal efforts in the use of brick-machines were made to com- cylinders. (4) There may be a series of moulds linked press the "dry clay,” but after an experience of nearly together so as to form an endless belt, which passes twenty years they were superseded by the machines under the mill. (5) The clay may be moulded by a using the tempered-clay" process. Of these there are reciprocating piston. (6) The moulds themselves may numerous patents, under which the blocks of clay are be made reciprocating. Each of these varieties has its formed and compressed by toggle-joints, screws, and special advantages.
An ingenious example of class A may be seen in the ma- | form density and sharp corners to the stream of clay issu-
FIG. 4. which it revolves is fluted, so that the clay is treated like rated edges by retardation of the stream of clay. The die a nut and forced forward, being at the same time compressed is also made hollow to admit of the passage of steam, and in the gradually diminishing space. At the point of the by this the flow of the clay is much facilitated (see fig. 2). screw the clay enters the die-holder, which is contracted at A curious effect of this pressure on the clay while it is the sides and enlarged at the corners, so as to secure uni-l in motion is that the particles arrange themselves with
the coarser ones in the centre of the stream, and the finer to the double pugging which the clay receives—is the high at the surface. This was clearly shown by the fractures of degree of homogeneity and plasticity which it confers upon burnt bricks.
the bricks. In these respects it possesses in a superior deIn the earlier machines of this pattern the stream of gree all the advantages of the best expressing-machines, clay is delivered on an endless belt and carried forward without sacrificing the greater accuracy of form and smoothto the cutting-off wheel, which has a thin narrow blade ness of edges which a well-moulded brick always has over of steel projecting from its circumference, arranged to one cut from a plastic bar. A component part of the macut off a brick-length at every revolution of the wheel, chine is a driving-engine consisting of two inclined cylinthe speed of the stream governing the speed of revolu- ders each 84 inches in diameter and 12 inches stroke, with tion. It is found, however, that the bricks vary slightly all the necessary connections. A roller-mill for disintein length; that the blow given by the blade slightly grating the clay should be placed in the bottom of the hopdepresses the surfaces at the edges left by the cut; and per directly over the horizontal pug-mill. The Morand that the ends of the bricks often appear cracked. With machine can produce from 22,000 to 24,000 bricks in ten the new cut-off the stream of clay is delivered on an hours. Its weight is 9 tons, and its price, with engines, endless bed made up of jointed plates, each the length of a $5000, or without engines $4000.” brick, with narrow spaces between them to permit the passage of a continuous steel blade wound helically around a large cylinder. The projection of this blade from the cyl. inder gradually increases, and its pitch is the length of a brick; so that when the cylinder revolves the blade will cut the stream of clay into lengths which cannot be greater than its pitch, and can be less only when the speed of revolution is too fast relatively with the speed of the stream. The coincidence of these speeds is ingeniously accomplished by using the pressure of the stream against the blade as a means of governing the speed of revolution. Arrangements are made to prevent any damage from the accidental presence of stones in the clay. After the bricks are cut off they are carried on an endless belt under a dusting-machine, to put them in better condition for handling and to improve the surface when burnt. They are taken from this belt by
FIG. 6. hand, and pass through the usual process of hacking, dry- The illustration (fig. 6) shows a machine of the second ing, and burning without being first laid upon the drying variety, in which the pulverized clay passes from the hopfloor.
per E into the moulds on the wheel below. The bricks are compressed by the perforated pressing surfaces on the opposite wheel D. As each of these surfaces comes in contact with the clay communication is established with the trunk n and pipe o, which lead to an air-pump, by which means the air is exhausted from the clay while the latter is under pressure. The superfluous clay falls into the depressions m, which also gear into the teeth h of the mould-wheel.
FIG. 5.-Morand Machine.
M ing mould-board, and an • off-bearing" belt. The opera
FIG. 7. tion is thus described by Gen. Gillmore in his exhaustive report upon the brick-making machinery at the Centennial The third variety is clearly exemplified by the section Exhibition of 1876: “The clay and water are put into the shown in fig. 7, in which the corrugated feed-rollers JJ' horizontal mill, where the spirally set knives mix and in the hopper drive down the clay, which enters the moulds temper the material and force it forward to the delivery on the cylinders. These cylinders are complementary, each end, where it descends into the vertical mill. This is also one having its moulds and corresponding pressing surfaces. provided with helicoidal arms or knives. Under the mill, Each mould has its piston or follower, which is moved raand in contact with its lower end, revolves with a uniform dially by contact with a cam on its main shaft. As soon continuous motion the horizontal mould-table containing as the mould passes the edge of the dividing-block the cam eight moulds at equal distances from each other and near commences to thrust out the follower and reduce the brick the periphery. The mixed and thoroughly tempered clay to a smaller compass, pressing it against the face of a roller. is forced downward through a slot in the bottom of the The concavity thus produced is removed by the facets of mill, thus filling the moulds in succession as they pass un- the hexagonal roller M. When the mould reaches the low. der this slot. Each full mould then passes under a pres- est position, its follower is still farther advanced and dissure-plate, which confines the clay on top, while a movable charges the moulded brick upon the off-bearing apron N', plate, which fits into and closes the mould at the bottom The fourth variety is exemplified in the endless-belt on the under side of the table, is forced up by passing over machine. This machine consists of an endless chain a cam. This compresses the plastic brick, and ejects the hinged together and running over two sprocket-wheels. air and excess of clay through a small circular aperture in This chain carries the moulds, which are provided with the pressure-plate provided for that purpose. After pass- movable bottoms, by motion of which the clay is coming the pressure-plate the bricks are thrust up to the top pressed and the bricks forced out at the proper time. The of the mould-table by another cam, and are pushed off auto machine combines a pug-mill, a chamber from which the matically to an off-carrying belt. They are taken from clay is ejected by arms, boxes containing the moulds, and a this belt and sanded, hand-pressed, put on cars, and con- toggle moving a plunger operating against the bottom of the veyed to the drying ovens, all within the space of a few mould. There is a discharging-wheel, the spokes of which minutes after the crude clay is introdnced into the mill. lift the bottom of the mould and discharge the bricks.
“The characteristic merit of the Morand machine-due The fifth variety is found in the Durand and Marais
machine, made in Paris, France (fig. 8). It turns out but bricks.in ten hours, requiring but a small engine to run one brick at a time. The pressure is applied by a cam of them. The bricks are said to be very heavy and compaet,
but are quite brittle and do not resist well the action of frost.
The machine of George S. Tiffany of London, Canada, is a horizontal expressing pug-mill, embodying the novel feature of two 2-bladed screws behind the die, revolving in opposite directions. The design of the machine is shown by the drawings. Fig. 10 is a perspective view; fig. 11, a central longitudinal section, taken vertically. The pugmill shaft (fig. 11) is armed in the usual manner with spiral
Fig. 8.-Durand and Marais Machine. such shape as to cause (1st) the bringing together and closing up of the materials to be compressed ; (20) a short but very powerful compression; and (3d) the expulsion of the finished brick or block. The material should be partially dry, such as clay directly from the bank or coal-dust with just sufficient tar to produce cohesion under pressure.
FIG. 10.-Tiffany Machine. This machine does not produce what is styled a plastic brick. It can turn out from 9000 to 10,000 bricks in ten hours, and ly-set tempered knives (of which only a few are represented). its price is $750. It is strong, simple, easily kept in working and with a two-bladed screw L. fixed about 15 inches in rear order, and requires only a small motive-power to move it.
of the forming-die C. Between this screw and the forming. die is another similar screw N, carried by a shaft working within the mill-shaft. It revolves about six times as rapidly as the mill-shaft, and in an opposite direction, the objects being to reduce the strain on the mill-shaft and to confine the pressure by which the clay is forced through the die more nearly to the area of the die. The gear-wheels are on the driving-shaft, to which motion is given by the band-wheel U, fig. 10. The device for cutting off the bricks from the bar as it issues from the die is shown in figs. 10 and 11. The bar is first received upon the carrying-band P, and thence passes to the rollers on the rack of the cutting-table. The rack rests on rockers 1 r, which permit it to have a reciprocating motion to and from the forming.
FIG. 9.-Smith Machine. As an example of the sixth variety we may cite the machine patented by F. H. Smith, July 9, 1868, which is as follows:
FIG. 11. The clay taken from the pit is passed through a pulverizer into a tank, where it remains over night to soak in water. die, and is provided with a cutting-frame H pivoted at 0, To secure this end the tank is divided into two compart-fig. 11, armed with small wires e e for severing the bar into ments, which are used on alternate days. From this bricks. This machine will easily make 14,000 to 15,000 tank the tempered clay is thrown into the machine (fig. 9), bricks in ten hours, and can be pushed to 20,000. It will under which is placed a mould for six bricks. The clay is make tiles equally well, and is highly commended by compressed into the mould by a large screw carrying a those who have used it. Its price, with one die for common broad flange at its lower extremity, which flange moves bricks, is $400 at London, Canada. It has a good reputawithin half an inch of the bed-plate, thus scraping the clay tion, and possesses in a high degree the important qualities into the open moulds, and at the same time compressing it of strength and simplicity. to such an extent as to enable the bricks to be handled immediately without setting in the moulds. The capacity
Burning:—The methods of burning vary with the of this machine is 54 bricks per minute, or about 30,000 per form and size of the kiln and kind of fuel used. The day, and “the cost of bricks unburned $1 per M, and ready earlier kilns were rectangular, and the bricks were set for delivery less than $3 per M.” The dimensions of the so as to permit a free circulation of heat. The firebricks made in this machine are 9 X 44 X 2), containing chambers were arranged in parallel pointed arches. 98-44 cubic inches, which is about 33 per cent. larger than whose axes were perpendicular to the sides of the kiln. the ordinary size made in the Eastern States. One of the The fire was started gently near the outer walls and oldest brick- and tile-machines is that of Mr. C. Schlickey; worked in gradually to the centre, care being taken not pugging-mill with double driving-gear surmounted by a to force it too rapidly and thus crack the bricks. By water-box, a disc, and a cutting-table. The machine can be another method the draught was arranged to come used in connection with a chilled-iron roller mill and an from the centre and work outwardly. In still another elevator when desired. One machine will make either it passed up a central flue and down through the bricks solid or perforated bricks, tiles, or cornice-bricks. Prices arranged around it, and thence went to a chimney or vary with sizes from $215 to $2050; capacity, 5000 to 30,000 bricks in ten hours.
drying-house. In this case the kiln was annular. In A simple form of dry-clay machine is that of I. H. Garret- England bricks are also burned in clamps ; that is in son of Keokuk, Ia. It resembles very closely an ordinary piles without protecting walls, when the fuel-peat, stamp-mill, in which the rammers or stamps are raised by fine coal, heath, etc. —is arranged in layers between cams revolving on a horizontal shaft and falling into moulds courses of bricks. under the iron shoes. The dry clay, after being ground or broken up finely, is fed into the moulds by an intermittent days, and the amount of fuel from 1 to i of a cord of
The time of burning varies from four to six or seven motion which is suspended while the stamp fills the mould. When the latter is full the compressed clay is removed and wood or its equivalent to the thousand. passed under a sizing-knife to reduce it to the proper di
After the bricks are burned (which is determined by mensions. Six stampers, costing $300, will make 18,000 the amount of settling which has taken place) the kiln