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attempts in various cities to solve this interesting but difficult problem.

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Fig. 23.-Dwelling-house, Boston, Mass. The rapid multiplication of apartment houses in the larger cities brings large masses of building under the hand of the architect (fig. 25). These houses, like the hôtels privés of the European cities, call for great ingenuity in planning, but offer a difficult problem to the designer, who, constrained by the necessity for covering all the land available, and by the multitude of windows

required, finds it difficult to avoid a certain flatness and Fig. 22.-Dwelling-house in Philadelphia.

monotony of effect.

In country-houses, though we cannot look for greater which seems to justify a more ambitious effort. Figs. diversity of taste and style than has of late been illus21, 22, 23, 24 illustrate various more or less successful trated in the streets of the cities, there is naturally a

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Front Elevation.
Fig. 24.-Dwelling-house in Boston.

End Elevation. vastly greater variety in plan and disposition, resulting | houses, published about 1850, and Mr. Vaux's, of simifrom the ampler space at the command of the architect. Iar character, which appeared in 1859, had much to do Mr. A. J. Downing's book of designs for country- with the education of popular taste in this interesting and with a lavish use of costly materials. The interior bad age. The group of houses recently built nearly is extremely sumptuous, but the outside effect, though simultaneously for the various members of the Vanshowing much graceful detail, is less satisfactory. derbilt family in New York afford a good illustration

of the various directions in which different architects have been drawn by their individual preferences. The most extensive of these follows the severely formal style introduced in the German capitals, notably in Berlin, by the older architects of the present generation—a style characterized by rigid classicism of detail, squareness of outlines, flatness as to projection. The restraint imposed by such a style has made this the most satisfactory of all the Vanderbilt houses (fig. 20). In all the others, especially, perhaps, in that which affects the style of Francis I., the effort for splendor is too apparent; the architect is oppressed with the magnitude of his opportunity, and loses that reserve

and self-control which are never so necessary as when an unlimited expenditure seems to warrant the architect in disregarding them.

In houses of less pretension the same diversity of styles is shown, and an equal diversity in size, material, situation, and costliness. The house which has but the usual frontage of twenty-five feet, more or less, offers small opportunity for the

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FIG. 20,--Vanderbilt Houses, New York. It is, after all, in domestic architecture that we must look for whatever characteristic national expression we may expect to find in the architecture of the United States. In the large cities the division of estates and the increasing price of land have resulted in a continual narrowing of house-lots, until, unless in exceptional cases, the city house has become a mere slice, all length and height—the most unreasonable, uncomfortable, and unattractive of all known types of civilized dwellings With all the ingenuity and invention bestowed by clever architects on its plan and its design, this house refuses to lend itself with readiness to the expression of that broad, cheerful, hospitable family life which is before our minds when we speak of domestic architecture. There has, however, been a vast amelioration even here. The style of city dwellings invented by New York builders during the dark period between 1840 and 1860, whose gloomy monotony has impressed itself on many miles of New York streets, where the close-set ranks of brownstone houses, all exactly twenty-five feet wide, with their high break-neck front steps, their flat roofs, their exaggerated cornices and door- and window-dressings in the worst Italian style, have the air of having been turned out of some gigantic building-mill. —this type of city dwelling, vulgar, pretentious, costly, and uncomfortable, though it has not yet disappeared from New York, has ceased to be recognized universally as

88 the correct thing, has been utterly outgrown by the architectural profession, and left as the instrument of speculative building mechanics. Of the modern houses built under professional direction, whatever other criticism may be made, monotony can certainly not be charged upon them. The resources of the modern architectural student and the diversity of individual tastes among the profession are nowhere more forcibly illustrated than in this department of their work. It is to be said in favor of an encouraging view, that while a cool and instructed observer cannot fail to see in the new houses a certain wildness and lack of reserve and self-restraint in the use of the unbounded material at the command of the architect--especially an intemper

FIG. 21.-Dwelling-house in New York. ance in the use of ornament both outside and insidestill, there is a visible tendency to return to the forms development of any pronounced style, and the wise arof the better periods where these evidently conduce to chitect will in such a case limit his effort to producing domestic comfort. Thus we see now low entrance- a front not too obtrusive on the one hand nor too inersteps in place of the palatial flights of a generation pressive on the other, but which shall satisfy the eye by ago, lower stories, broader windows, broad and square- the completeness of its adaptation to the needs of the framed stairways, ample fireplaces set in mantels of interior and by temperance and elegance in detail. Corwood instead of the cold and tasteless marbles of the ner-lots offer of course an opportunity for composition attempts in various cities to solve this interesting but difficult problem.

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Fig. 23.-Dwelling-house, Boston, Mass. The rapid multiplication of apartment-houses in the larger cities brings large masses of building under the hand of the architect (fig. 25). These houses, like the hôtels privés of the European cities, call for great ingenuity in planning, but offer a difficult problem to the designer, who, constrained by the necessity for covering all the land available, and by the multitude of windows

required, finds it difficult to avoid a certain flatness and Fig. 22.-Dwelling-house in Philadelphia.

monotony of effect.

In country-houses, though we cannot look for greater which seems to justify a more ambitious effort. Figs. diversity of taste and style than has of late been illus21, 22, 23, 24 illustrate various more or less successful trated in the streets of the cities, there is naturally a

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Front Elevation.
Fig. 24.-Dwelling-house in Boston.

End Elevation. vastly greater variety in plan and disposition, resulting houses, published about 1850, and Mr. Vaux's, of simifrom the ampler space at the command of the architect. lar character, which appeared in 1859, had much to do Mr. A. J. Downing's book of designs for country- | with the education of popular taste in this interesting department of building; and this influence was timely, i tage of greater warmth and drynessa substantial falling just at the beginning of the general educational superiority in the northern portions of the country,

where the winters are long and severe. Figs. 26, 27, 28 are examples of the treatment of wooden countryhouses in recent years. The plans of country-houses of the better class have now developed far beyond the compact cubical arrangement of earlier times into great irregularity and extent. This is especially the case with a class of houses which may almost be said to have been created within the last twenty years, the class of summer-houses—houses built at the seashore or in the country for use only during the summer months. Newport, the shores of Massachusetts Bay, the various summer resorts of the New Jersey coast, offer innumerable examples of the most various and interesting character, many of them exhibiting great beauty and picturesqueness of effect, and many others distinguished only by extravagance, pretension, and the absence of every quality which goes to make a worthy design.

The field of interior design has been much extended within a few years by the prominence given to the study of decoration. So lately as even a dozen years ago the decoration of interior walls and ceilings in churches and public buildings was confined to covering them with flat tints of color in oil or in distemper, with the addition of an occasional band of stencilled geometrical ornament of extremely conventional character to mark the principal divisions of the parts. The same might be said of dwelling-houses, except that more

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Fig. 25.-Small Apartment-house. movement above spoken of. The common use of wood as the material of country-houses has drawn a broad line of distinction between those of our own country and those of almost all other parts of the world-a distinction still further broadened by the general use of verandas, piazzas, or galleries, as they are variously called in the various portions of the country. The wooden-framed walls, however, although from their cheapness they must long continue to be the rule among detached country-houses, are by no means so much a matter of course as they were a generation ago, stone and brick having come much into use with the

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FIG. 27.--Dwelling-house in Dorchester, Mass. variety of subject and color was given to the walls by the use of wall-paper, which had come to be produced of admirable quality. All this is now changed. A new taste has been created, which grows by what it feeds on, and which is fed in the most abundant, not to say extravagant, manner by a new class of purveyors -the class of professional decorators, whose work includes that of both artist and artisan. New colors have been devised, new stuffs invented; wood-carving, brick-carving, terra-cotta, tiles, metal-work, stained

glass, the manufacture of wall-papers and fabrics of Fig. 26.-Dwelling-house at Cambridge, Mass.

cotton, wool, and silk for hangings, have received an

immense impulse; every surface is decorated, every increased expenditure now becoming common. Often panel is carved; mantels and sideboards are made with a combination of the two methods is used, the first shelf above shelf to receive the innumerable jars and story being carried up in brick or stone with a wooden vases and plaques of bronze or china which are now framing above. In spite of the superior permanence, poured into the country from France, from England, solidity, and safety from fire of walls of masonry, the from Japan, from China, to appease the insatiable wood-framing covered with tight boarding, and again appetite of a people rudely awakened to its previous with clapboards or shingles, with a layer of felting or shortcomings in matters of taste and determined to sheathing-paper between, has undoubtedly the advan- I make good all deficiencies. This remarkable movement,

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