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its only rival is the British Museum, which somewhat The Peabody Academy of Sciences was organized in surpasses it in number of nominal species, but is con- 1867, and endowed by George Peabody with the sum siderably inferior in number of specimens. This de- of $140,000 for the promotion of science and useful partment contains 140,000 mounted specimens of shells. knowledge” in his native county of Essex, Mass. It In ornithology it is surpassed only by the museum of the is located at Salem, Mass., under the control of trusUniversity of Leyden. Its collection embraces more tees. Its publications consist of Proceedings and Methan 31,000 specimens of birds, nearly all mounted and moirs, which have appeared periodically since 1869. displayed. In addition, it has more than 40,000 species Of the Western academies, the most active are those of plants, 50,000 species of insects, 65,000 fossils, the at Chicago, St. Louis, Cincinnati, San Francisco, and valuable Morton cabinet of human crania, etc., the total Davenport. Of these, the San Francisco Academy collection numbering nearly 300,000 specimens. The ranks first in date, having been organized in 1853. It publications of the academy consist of a series of Jour- is entitled the California Academy of Natural Sciences, nals from 1817 to date, and of Proceedings, the first and has done much good work in the natural history of number of which appeared in 1841. It has also pub- the Pacific region. Its published Proceedings date from lished seven volumes of The American Journal of 1854, in addition to which it has recently issued Memoirs. Conchology. With the academy is now incorporated Its library and museum are as yet small
, but will probthe American Entomological Society, which has pub- ably rapidly increase through the aid of the bequest lished Proceedings from 1861, and Transactions from made to the academy by James Lick. 1868 to date.
The Academy of Science of St. Louis was organized The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, located in 1856 and incorporated in 1857. Its scope of labors at Boston, ranks next to the American Philosophical So- covers the whole field of science, and includes the pubciety in date. It was incorporated by act of the Mas- lication of original papers and the formation of a musachusetts legislature in 1780 with the express object seum and library. As yet, however, it has not been of encouraging the study of American antiquities and very successful in the latter purposes. Its published of the general natural history of the country. It also Transactions date from 1856. embraces in its purpose the useful application of Amer- The Chicago Academy of Science was organized in ican natural productions and the encouragement of all 1857 and incorporated in 1865. In its object it seeks investigations in art and science. The American Acad- the increase and diffusion of scientific knowledge by emy has made no collection of scientific material, but discussion and the collection of material for study. This has a library of 20,000 volumes. It has devoted its association has been particularly unfortunate, having energies chiefly to publication, and has issued a val- been twice burned out. All its possessions were deuable series of Memoirs ranging from 1785 to date. It stroyed by the great Chicago fire, yet with commendalso publishes Proceedings, the first volume of which able activity it has already largely replaced its losses. appeared in 1846. The academy occupies an apartment Its published Transactions consist of one volume, coverin the Boston Athenæum building.
ing from 1867 to 1869. The Boston Society of Natural History was preceded The Cincinnati Society of Natural History was organby the Linnæan Society, founded in 1814, and subse-ized in 1870. It is an active institution, and possesses quently discontinued. It was reorganized under
the a valuable collection of palæozoic fossils. Its publicaabove title in 1830, and incorporated in 1831. The tions consist of Proceedings dating from 1875, and of a object of this society is the general study of natural Journal from 1878. history, in which it has done some excellent work. It The Academy of Natural Sciences of Davenport, possesses a library of about 18,000 volumes, and an ex- Iowa, organized in 1867, is an active institution, and cellent cabinet of natural-history specimens, including possesses a very good botanical and ethnological cabinet. 16,000 birds. The collection generally is of great value, It issues Proceedings, dating from 1876. It is particuand is specially rich in the natural productions of New Jarly noticeable from the fact that the funds for the England and in mineralogy. Its publications consist of building and the publications of the society were prinProceedings, of which the first volume appeared in 1841, cipally raised by the efforts of the ladies of Davenport, and of the Boston Journal of Natural History, dating many of whom are active members of the society. from 1834.
The American Association for the Advancement of The Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences ranks Science had its origin in an association of American third in date of American scientific institutions. This geologists and naturalists which held migratory meetacademy was organized and incorporated at New Haven, ings in different cities from 1840 to 1847. At its meetConn., in the year 1799. One of its main objects, as ing in Boston in 1847 it resolved itself into the aboveoriginally instituted, was the collection of a statistical named organization, the constitution being adopted at account of the State of Connecticut, but it now em- its meeting in Philadelphia in 1848. It was incorpobraces in its scope the whole field of science and the rated as a society by an act of the Massachusetts legisuseful arts. It has no library or cabinet, and has not lature in 1874, its permanent secretary being located at been active in publication, having issued but one vol- Salem in that State. The object of this association is, ume of Memoirs in 1810, and Transactions from 1866. “by periodical and migratory meetings, to promote inIts scientific labors, however, have found an ample field tercourse between American scientists, to give a stronger of expression in Silliman's Journal.
and more systematic impulse to research, and to proThe New York Academy of Sciences has borne its cure for the labors of scientific men increased facilities present title only since the year 1876. It was pre. ' and wider usefulness.”' For this purpose an annual viously known as the Lyceum of Natural History, public meeting is held, to continue for a week or more, which association was incorporated in the city of New at some place and date decided at the previous meeting. York in the year 1818. It possesses a large and val. It thus offers an opportunity to read or present for pubuable library, but its scientific collection, with the ex- lication papers of scientific interest and for a useful inception of its herbarium, was destroyed by fire a number terchange of opinions. It has proved a very active and of years ago. The principal collection of natural-history useful organization, and has published a valuable series material now in New York is the extensive cabinet pos- of Proceedings, dating from 1849 to the present. sessed by the Museum of Natural History, located in The National Academy of Sciences, of somewhat Central Park in that city. The publications of the similar character to the above, was preceded by an assoacademy consist of the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural ciation named the National Institution for the PromoHistory, dating from 1824. These, with the Proceed- tion of Science and the Useful Arts, organized at Washings, commenced in 1873, have borne since 1876 the ington, by act of Congress, in the year 1840. Its main title of The New York Academy of Sciences. The object was the collection of scientific material and the publication of a series of Transactions was begun in establishment of a national museum. It died out after 1881.
publishing Proceedings from 1841 to 1846, The National Academy was incorporated at Washington by corps of laborers, and its bulky and valuable publicaCongress in the year 1863. Its main object was to ex- tions, promises to become in the future one of the great amine and report upon any scientific questions submitted scientific forces of the world. to it by the Government departments, and thus to bring The institutions above described are the more importthe knowledge of specialists to the aid of the Govern- ant of the American scientific societies, but there are ment when necessary. In such investigations the Gov- many others of minor importance, several of them active ernment pays the actual expenses, but no compensation. an useful. Of these may be named the Society of The membership was originally limited to fifty, selected Natural History, of Portland, Maine, incorporated in from the scientists of the country. This restriction no 1850; the Essex County Natural History Society, of longer exists, and the number of members is now nearly Salem, Mass., incorporated in 1833, and now merged a hundred. The society is divided into two classes in the Essex Institute; the Albany Institute, organized one devoted to mathematics and physics, and one to in 1828; the Poughkeepsie Society of Natural History, natural history. It holds two stated meetings yearly-organized in 1874; the Buffalo Society of Natural Hisone in January at Washington, and one in August at tory, organized in 1861; the Elliot Society of Natural some other city. At these meetings general scientific History, of Charleston, S. C., organized in 1853; the subjects are discussed. The publications of the National New Orleans Academy of Science, organized in 1853; Academy consist of Annuals and Reports dating from the Ann Arbor Scientific Association, of Ann Arbor, 1863, and of Memoirs from 1866.
Mich., organized in 1875; the Minnesota Academy of The Smithsonian Institution, at Washington, is now Natural Sciences, of Minneapolis, Minn., organized in the most important of American institutions. James 1873; the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Smithson, an English scientist, who died at Genoa in Letters, of Madison, Wis., organized in 1870; the Kan1829, left by will a bequest to the United States of sas Academy of Science, organized in 1867, and holdAmerica "to found at Washington, under the name of ing migratory annual meetings; and the Rochester the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the Academy of Natural Sciences, established in 1881. In increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.” The addition to these are many local institutions ;, various amount of this bequest, when received at Washington in State cabinets of natural history, some of which are of 1838, was $515,169. The institution was founded, in considerable extent; and societies devoted to some sinaccordance with the terms of the will, by act of Con- gle branch of science. Of these latter may be named gress in 1846, and the interest of the bequest, amount- the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, incorporated ing to $242, 129, was applied to the erection of a suit- at Boston in 1829, and the American Chemical Society, able building. By judicious management, aided by of New York, organized in 1876. All the institutions small subsidiary bequests, the endowment had in- here named issue publications, frequently of considercreased on Jan. 1, 1881, to $719,434.53. It is the in- able value. tention to limit its increase to $1,000,000. Much of Of late years the American colleges and universities the work of the institution has been in connection have been active in collecting scientific material, and with the National Museum, instituted in 1842 to re- much good work in this direction has been done within ceive the scientific material collected by the Wilkes their walls
. The Johns Hopkins University, of BaltiExploring Expedition. This museum was placed un- more, Md., has a fully organized corps of scientific proder the care of the Smithsonian Institution in 1858. tessors, and does much original work, whose results are Its collection has been increased by the numerous embodied in annual publications. Harvard and Yale exploring expeditions of the Government, by the ma- are also active in scientific labor. Yale has a Peabody terial gathered in the geological survey, and by the Museum and the valuable Marsh collection of vertebrate highly valuable contributions made by foreign Gov- fossils. Harvard possesses the important Museum of ernments to the United States at the close of the Comparative Zoology and a magnificent herbarium Centennial Exhibition of 1876, in addition to the stores which ranks with the best in the world. Columbia Colgathered by the institution itself. The museum is lege has an herbarium, probably ranking second in the now closely affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution, United States; Princeton College, the fine E. M. Natthough partly supported by annual appropriations from ural History Museum, etc. The noble collections of the Government. Its collection is of great value, and the Cornell University, at Ithaca, N. Y., and the much is very rich in many departments. It may, as a whole, older, and in some respects more complete, museum of be ranked with the largest European collections, and in Amherst College, are worthy of mention. such fields as the ethnology, zoology, and mineralogy of The scientific institutions herein described, and the the United States it has no rival among the museums course of science which is now becoming an important of the world. The large library of the institution, which feature of college study, are what America has to show yearly receives extensive additions, has been transferred for a century of scientific progress. They form a broad to, and incorporated with, the National Library. foundation for its future development. Work of the
The special and most important labors of the Smith- greatest importance in embryology, histology, comparasonian Institution are, however, in another direction. tive anatomy, palæontology, etc., is now being actively It yields financial aid to important scientific researches. prosecuted by specialists throughout the country, the It acts as a medium of international exchanges of books Government is giving abundant aid to special investigaand specimens between learned societies and individuals tions, and American science promises ere long to rival of the Eastern and Western hemispheres. It supplies that of the much older and better-endowed institutions great numbers of duplicate specimens to learned insti- of Europe.
(C. M.) tutions, it aids the investigations of specialists by the
ACCENTOR (Lat. accentor, a chanter). 1. A genus loan of valuable specimens, and it publishes the results of oscine passerine birds of uncertain position ; by some of such researches and other papers of scientific import- placed among the thrushes, chats, and warblers of the ance in the highly valuable series of works which it issues. These works, which have given the Smithsonian Institution a high standing in the scientific world, consist of Annual Reports from 1846 to date; of Miscellaneous Collections, begun in 1862, and now numbering 21 volumes; and of Contributions to Knowledge, begun in 1848, and numbering 23 volumes. In addition, it issues the publications of the National Museum, consisting of Proceedings and Bulletins, the Publications of the Bureau of Ethnology, and the Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington. This institution, with its ample endowment, its special advantages, its skilled Golden-crowned Accentor, Siurus auricapillus (natural size).
song of whi
Old World ; by others made the type of a sub-family, | equity in favor of certain persons. Relief will also be Accentorince, next to the chats (Saxicolinc). 2. Taken atforded where boundaries have become by accident conas the English name of the hedge-sparrow, hedge- fused, where there has been an accidental omission to chanter, or hedge-accentor, A. modularis of Europe. indorse a promissory note, and in certain other cases 3. In the U. S. sometimes used as the English name of less frequent occurrence. of species of the sylvicoline genus Siurus, the usual The peculiar jurisdiction of equity with regard to pen
is chanted in monotone. (E. c.) alties and forfeitures is also supposed to be traceable in ACCEPTANCE, ACCEPTOR (from the Latin ac- its origin to the head of accident. The failure to make See Vol. I. cipere, to receive). In the law, generally, the payment or perform the act in default of which the P: 79 Am acceptance means the receipt of anything penalty or forfeiture has been provided was presumed ein Pod 82 in pursuance of a contract on the part of Edin. ed.).
to have been occasioned by accident, and the interpoone person to deliver and of another to re- sition of a court of equity for the relief of the person in ceive it. Thus delivery and acceptance are, as a rule, default was thus justified.
(L. L., JR.) necessary to a complete contract for the sale of chattels.
ACCIPITRES (Lat. accipiter, a hawk; ad and From its more general meaning it has acquired in mer- capio, I take, seize), an order or sub-order of birds, cantile law the more particular signification of the act birds of prey. 1. In its larger (ordinal) acceptation of one who promises to pay in money a bill of exchange the term is equivalent to the Raptores of Illiger and or draft when it shall fall due, for he thereby becomes Cuvier or Rapaces of Temminck, and covers all the the principal debtor on the bill, and, like the maker of rapacious birds, as the owls and American vultures, as a promissory note, undertakes to pay the amount of it well as the hawks, etc. In this sense it corresponds at maturity. A bill of exchange being a request by with the AETOMORPHÆ of Huxley (which see). 2. In the drawer of it to the drawee, or person on whom it is its lesser signification, as a sub-order of Raptores, it indrawn, to pay a specified sum at a certain time for his cludes only the diurnal birds of prey, excluding the (the drawer's) account, the acceptance of it by the owls ( Striges) and also the American vultures (Cathardrawee creates an obligation on his part to pay it at tides) and African secretary-bird (Gypogeranides) maturity, and the drawer becomes his surety for its Taken in the (usual) ordinal signification, Accipitres payment. The usual form of acceptance consists in furnish the following characters: The bill epignathous writing the word “accepted” across the bill and sign- (hooked), and furnished with a soft cere, in or at the ing the acceptor's name. But the acceptance need not edge of which the nostrils open, and feet not zygodacbe written on the bill, but may be in writing on another tyle. This expression is diagnostic, for the
parrots, the paper, and need not necessarily be in writing at all. only other birds with hooked and cered bill, are zygodacIn England, however, by statute, an acceptance must tyle. There are two carotid arteries; the syrinx, when now be in writing, and similar statutes have been en- developed (there is none in Cathartides), has but one acted in this country in the States of Alabama, Cali- pair of intrinsic muscles. The sternum is ample and fornia, Delaware. Kansas, Maine, Michigan, Minne deep-keeled, its posterior margin being doubly or sinsota, Missouri, Oregon, New York, Pennsylvania, and gly notched or fenestrate on each side, or entire, with Wisconsin.
central emargination; the furculum ankylosed or not. The acceptance may be absolute, which is a positive Angle of mandible not recurved; maxillo-palatines agreement to pay the bill according to its tenor; or it united to an ossified septum; basipterygoid processes may be made conditional upon some contingency, such present or absent. Hallux always present, usually as the receipt of a particular shipment of goods against valid and insistent; outer toe reversible in some cases, which the bill is drawn. But such condition or quali- never permanently reversed. Ambiens muscle present fication must receive the assent of all antecedent parties (except in Striges). Cæca coli and tufted oil-gland to the bill in order to hold them liable. (s. w.) ACCIDENT. An accident, in law, may be defined ed or not. Nature altricial, yet ptilopædic, the young
present (except in Cathartides). Plumage after-shaftSee Vol. I. as an unforeseen and injurious occurrence being downy, yet long reared in the nest. The aliP: 79 Am: not attributable to mistake, neglect, or mis- mentary canal varies with the families, but differs from ed. P. 83 conduct. The principles of the common law that of vegetarian birds in adaptation to an exclusively . .)
make ample provision for relief from the animal diet. In the higher accipitrine types the whole consequences of accident in certain cases. Where, for
structure betokens strength, activity, and ferocity, carexample, written instruments are lost, parol evidence nivorous propensities and predaceous nature. Most of to prove their contents will generally be admitted in a the smaller or weaker species feed much upon insects, court of law. Resort, however, is usually had in cases others more particularly upon reptiles and fish, others of accident to courts of chancery, where relief may often upon carrion ; but the majority prey upon other birds be obtained in accordance with the well-settled princi
: and upon mammals. To this end the claws, no less ples of equity jurisprudence. A court of equity will not than the beak, are specially adapted by their developadminister relief in cases of accident (1) where there is ment into great talons. These weapons of offence and an adequate remedy at law; (2) where the person seek- defence are as a rule of large size, strength, curvature, ing relief has by his own gross neglect or misconduct and acuteness, and also peculiar in being convex on the contributed to or caused the accident;, (3) where the sides, gradually narrowing to the point, and little or equity of the party against whom the relief is sought is not excavated underneath. The inner claw is larger equal or superior to that of the party invoking the aid than the outer, and the hinder one is not smaller than of the court ; (4) where the relief sought is an entire re- the middle front one; all are very flexibly jointed, so lease from an obligation to perform an express covenant that they may be strongly bent underneath their digits, entered into by the suitor, the performance of which, carrying to an extreme the prehensile power of the owing to some intervening events, has become unexpect- feet. The legs are muscular and largely free from the edly harsh or burdensome... Subject to the qualifica- body, feathered to the suffrago or beyond; when untions above stated, equity will relieve in many instances feathered the tarsal envelope is variously scutellate, of accident where otherwise damage might ensue. reticulate, granular-rugose, etc. The wings are ample,
Where title-deeds have been lost, equity will in cer- and, as usual in birds below Passeres, the secondary tain cases decree a re-execution of them.
Where a coverts are long and numerous, covering three-fourths bond or other instrument for the payment of money has or more of the folded wing. The tail
, though very been mislaid, the creditor may assert his rights in equity variable in shape, has twelve rectrices (with rare exand recover the amount of his debt, indemnity being ceptions). usually required to protect the debtor against any con- Representatives of this order are found in every part tingent liability growing out of the subsequent discovery of the world. They include four types of structure, of of the instrument. The defective execution of powers will be aided in one of these, Gypogeranides, consists of the single
more classificatory value than that attaching to families. species (genus and family) Gypogeranus serpentarius, ACCOMPLICE, in criminal law, one who is in some the serpent-eater or secretary-bird of Africa; it shows way concerned in the commission of a crime, though a curious grallatorial analogy, being mounted on long not as a principal. It was formerly doubted whether legs like a crane and having several important struc- a prisoner might be convicted on the unsupported evitural modifications. The other three are the Striges, dence of an accomplice. This doubt has been resolved or owls; the Accipitres proper, embracing all the in the affirmative." It has, however, become the prachawks, eagles, etc., and the Old-World vultures; and tice for the judge strenuously to advise the jury to the Cathartides, or American vultures. The last- acquit unless the evidence of the accomplice be cornamed are more different from the others collectively roborated either by other testimony or by the attendant than these are from one another. The three groups circumstances.
(L. L., JR.) being well represented in North America, we offer the ACCOUNT, in law, a statement of the mutual following scheme of classification:
demands in the nature of debt and credit
See Vol. I. Feet scarcely raptorial, with weak, blunt, lengthened, p. 86 Am. arising out of contracts or some fiduciary reand little curved or contractile claws. Hind toe eile Edin. ed.). is made up to a certain time and a balance
lation. In mercantile law, when an account vated, not more than half as long as outer toe, with small claw; middle toe lengthened; outer toe not struck, and this has been examined and accepted by the versatile ; front toes all webbed at base; basal joint of parties expressly or by acquiescence, it is an account middle toe longer than either of the succeeding ones. stated. Books of the original entries of the charges for Nostrils large, perforate. Bill little raptorial, length: goods sold and delivered in mercantile transactions are never lobed or toothed; tip blunt, little hooked. Head valuable as evidence of the sale and delivery, being the largely naked. Index digit with a large claw. No memoranda made at the time of the transaction, and syrinx, cæca, after-shafts, or tufted oil-gland. Ambiens are generally, in this country, admissible as evidence in muscle present; femoro-caudal present or absent; semi- courts of law, with the testimony of the person who tendinosus and'its accessory present : CATHARTIDES. made the entries, to prove primâ facie the contract un
Diurnal; gressorial; feed upon carrion , Cathartidæ, der which the plaintiff seeks to recover. So an account Feet highly raptorial, with large, strong, sharp, curved
contractile claws. Hind toe not elevated, lengthened, stated may form the basis of a suit to recover the balmore than one-half as long as outer toe, with large claw; ance shown by it to be due to the plaintiff. Account outer toe often versatile; front toes with slight basal forms a distinct branch of equity jurisdiction concurwebbing between outer and middle, or none. Nostrils rently with courts of law, but extending also (1) to small, imperforate. Bill short, stout, seldom contract. dealings so complicated that they cannot be adjusted in ed in its continuity, tomia often once or twice lobed or toothed, tip sharp, much hooked. Head feathered, tion between the parties; (3) to discovery of facts in the
a court of law; (2) to the existence of a fiduciary relaone pair of intrinsic muscles. Coca present. Plumage knowledge of the parties or the production of papers with or without after-shafts. Ambiens present or ab- relating to their rights; and (4) to the appropriation sent. Femoro-caudal present. Semi-tendinosus and of payments. Both in the courts of law and equity the its accessory absent. As a rule saltatorial, and kill disposition is to refuse to interfere with stated actheir prey.
(s. w.). Physiognomy not peculiar; no great lateral expan
ACETIC ACID (formula, C,H,O.OH). Acetic acid sion of the cranium or thickening of its walls with diploë; eyes looking sideways; no facial disc, or only See Vol. I.
was the only acid with which the ancients an imperfect one; base of bill not hidden by an- P: 88 Am. were acquainted, and frequent references to trorse appressed feathers. Nostrils pierced wholly edin Pia 93 vinegar, its impure form, with more especial
Edin. ed.) within the cere. No external ear-conch. Tomia
reference to its solvent power, are found of bill usually toothed or lobed. Outer toe not in Pliny, Livy, and Plutarch. This vinegar of the shorter than inner one, and rarely versatile. ancients was an impure wine-vinegar, and the alchemBasal joint of middle toe longer than the next. ists were the first who prepared pure acetic acid by Feet (with rare exceptions) in greatest part or entirely bare of feathers, scutellate or reticulate, or
distillation. Wood-vinegar was also known in the time both; toes always bare and scaly. Sternum com- of Glauber, who refers to it in 1648. Lavoisier first monly single-notched or single-fenestrate on each showed that acetic acid is a product of the oxidation of side behind; sometimes entire. Oil-gland tufted. alcohol. Acetic acid at the present time is made from Plumage compact, usually after-shafted; flight one of two sources-either as a product of the oxidaaudible. Ambiens muscle present. Habits diur- tion of alcohol or by the destructive distillation of wood. nal Outer toe not reversible; plumage usually after: Under the first head we have the production of vinegar
Falconidæ. from wines as carried out in wine-growing countries, Outer toe reversible; plumage without after: from malt liquors as carried out in England, or from shafts .
Pandionidæ. cider and fruit-juices as carried out in this country. Physiognomy peculiar by reason of great lateral ex- In these several cases the process of its preparation, pansion, lengthwise contraction and diploic thicken
known as the 6 ing of the cranium, which is often unsymmetrical.
acetous fermentation," is largely but Eyes looking forward, surrounded by a radiating not solely one of atmospheric oxidation, as a vegedisc of modified feathers, in front antrorse, appressed, table organism, the Mycoderma aceti (see FERMENhiding base of bill. Nostrils usually at edge of the TATION, Vol. IX.), plays an important part. Uncere. A large external ear-conch often developed. der the first head also we have the “ quick-vinegar” Tomia of bill never lobed or toothed. Outer toe process, whereby weak spirit containing 5 to 7 per completely versatile, shorter than inner toe. Basal cent. of alcohol is rapidly changed into vinegar. In joint of middle toe not longer than the next, much this case casks are used loosely filled with beech-wood shorter than the penultimate one. feathery or bristly to or on the toes. Oil-gland or deal shavings, and the spirit, slightly warmed, is nude. Plumage without after-shafts, soft and lax; made to slowly trickle through the cask. The large flight noiseless. Ambiens absent. Habits noctur- surface exposed allows of an abundant action of atmonal
STRIGES. spheric oxygen, and this, at the temperature of 970Sternum entire behind, with central emargina: 104° F. which is kept up, rapidly changes the alcohol tion; furculum ankylosed. Middle claw pecti- into acetic acid. Under the second head we have the nate. Facial disc complete, triangular (embracing only the "barn-owls,” which are related to production of what is known as “pyroligneous acid," Steatornithida and Caprimulgida) . . Aluconidæ. or wood-vinegar. This is produced chiefly from oakSternum double-notched or fenestrate behind ; fur- and beech-wood, and is in its crude state a very com
culum free. Middle claw not pectinate. Facial plex mixture, containing, besides acetic acid, propionic disc circular when complete (ordinary owls), acid, acetone, wood-spirit or methyl alcohol, and other
Strigidæ. impurities. The acetic acid is obtained by neutralizing (E. C.)
the crude pyroligneous acid with lime, removing the brown acetate of lime which forms, and after heating it sufficiently to carbonize the tarry impurities, thereby lime, or litharge it forms a silicate. The precipitated changing it to gray acetate, distilling with sulphuric or H,Sio; is then called hydrated silicic acid, to distinhydrochloric acid. The acetic acid is thus liberated guish it from the former. in a pure state, although in a dilute form. Concen- This undoubtedly arose from the prevalence of Gmetrated acid is gotten by distilling the fused sodium salt lin's views as perpetuated for many years in what is now with strong sulphuric acid. Among the more import- called the "old notation," whereby the oxide of an ant acetates, or salts of acetic acid, are-sodium and electro-negative element was called the acid, instead ammonium acetates, both of which are used in medi- of the acid-forming oxide or acid anhydride, as it cine; calcium, aluminum, and iron acetates, which are really is. That HCl and the hydrogen compounds used in calico-printing as mordants, the solution of the of the halogens were acids, even as gases, has never second being known as “red liquor,” and of the last as been disputed. With the development of organic chem“black liquor;" lead acetate, both the normal and the istry, when organic acids had to be formulated which basic salt, the former as sugar of lead” and the latter contained both replaceable or basic hydrogen and hydroin solution as Goulard's extract, quite extensively used gen unreplaceable or belonging to the radical, the old in medicine; and cupric acetate, which as basic salt is methods of nomenclature broke down, and a new, truer, extensively manufactured under the name of "verdi- and more comprehensive system had to be adopted. gris.” The ethers or organic salts of acetic acid are This is found by going back to the earlier electroalso technically important, as several of them, including chemical views of Berzelius, and looking strictly at the ethyl and an acetate, are used in the manufacture of electro-positive or -negative character of the elements artificial fruit-essences.
for a solution of the question as to whether they are In the year 1880, according to the census, there were acid- or base-forming. And as these characters are not manufactured in the United States 7,233,009 lbs. of fixed and absolute for all conditions of combination, we acetate of lime, valued at $166,092. (8. P. S.) need look only at the question as to which part an ele
ACHENBACH, ANDREAS, a German landscape- ment or group of elements plays in the particular compainter, was born at Hesse Cassel, in 1815. He studied pound. From this standpoint it is possible to establish at the Düsseldorf Academy under Schirmer, and a pic- a definition that shall include all true acids and explain ture entitled The Academy of Düsseldorf first brought all cases, whether real or seeming, in which we appear him into notice as an artist of promise and good gifts. to have the reaction known as acid. He has been a great traveller, and his landscapes are We now define an acid as the compound of an electroreminiscences of the most striking scenery of Europe negative element or group of elements with hydrogen; from Norway to Italy. Of his important pictures may and this definition is sufficiently comprehensive to inbe mentioned A Storm at Vlissingen, Hildesheim, Fish clude all true acids, either inorganic or organic. At the at Ostend, Storm and Flood on the Lower Rhine in same time, we recognize the fact that oxides of electro1876, A Norway Torrent, Fishing boat at Sunset, A negative elements largely constitute those groups which Storm Clearing Off, Coast of Sicily, and The Return of by combination with hydrogen form acids. the Fishermen at Evening. Achenbach is a diligent How is this combination with hydrogen brought about? student of Nature, and has, in common with most Ger. The case of the several halogen acids is simple. They are man landscape-painters, a líking for strong contrast and direct binary compounds of the halogen element with þold effect. His pictures are uneven in quality, but the hydrogen. In other cases it is by the union, either best of them are very admirable performances. Many directly or indirectly, of the negative oxide with water of his important works are in the Pinakothek at Mu- or hydrogen oxide, so that the hydrated acid of the old nich, and good examples of his style are to be found in nomenclature is the true acid of the new. nearly all the best collections of Germany and the United The simplest class of acids are the so-called “halogen States. In addition to his oil-paintings, Achenbach has acids," where hydrogen is directly combined with the made many pictures in water-color, and he has prac- electro-negative element, as in HCI, HBr, HI, and HF. tised etching and lithography. He is a knight of the In all the reactions in which these acids enter they simply order of Leopold, a chevalier of the Legion of Honor, exchange hydrogen for metal, forming thereby binary and a member of the academies of Berlin, Amsterdam, haloid salts. Thus, and Antwerp. He has received a number of medals at
HCI + KOH = KCI + HOH important exhibitions.
(W. J. C., JR.) ACHENBACH, OSWALD, a German artist, was born is an example where the hydrogen displaced from the at Düsseldorf in 1827. He is a brother of Andreas acid goes with the hydroxyl of the base to form water. Achenbach, and received his instruction_from him. Again, This artist has devoted himself chiefly to Italian sub
(HCI)2 + Ca(= CaCl2 + H2O jects, such as A Fête at Genazzano, Villa Torlonia near is an example where the hydrogen displaced from the Frascati, Vesuvius at Twilight, Market-place at Amalfi, acid unites directly with the oxygen of the oxide to The Festival of St. Anna at Ischia, A Storm Effect at form water. Or the halogen acid may be made to de Naples, and The Environment of Naples. Oswald compose a salt of a weaker acid, as Achenbach, although his works are strongly marked by
(HCl)2 + CaCO3 = CaCl2 + H2CO3 or H20 + CO2, the characteristics of the Düsseldorf school, is a more refined painter than his brother, and his best pictures in which the displaced hydrogen would unite with the suggest Calame and his school of landscape art rather electro-negative group CO3 to form the free carbonic than the performances of the Düsseldorf artists. He acid H,CO2, which, being unstable at ordinary temis particularly skilful in the management of groups of perature, breaks up into H,0 and CO2, an electrofigures, while his atmospheric effects are frequently very negative oxide or anhydride. charming.
(W. J. C., JR.) The next class of acids are those in which hydrogen ACID, a chemical term which may be applied in is combined with the electro-negative element only in
a general but loose way, or in a strictly sci- directly or by the aid of oxygen, making an electro
entific way which is at the same time thor- negative group, as it is termed. In this category beed. (p. 97 oughly comprehensive as well as correct. The longs the greater number of acids. Here great care Edin. ed.).
general application of the word is to any must be taken to note the valence of the electro-negative chemical compound, whether binary or ternary, whether group, for upon this depends the number of hydrogen containing oxygen or not, whether containing hydrogen atoms that it is capable of uniting with, or, as it is conor not, that neutralizes the substances called bases. veniently expressed, the basicity of the acid. The electroThus, the term acid is applied in this loose way to negative element which constitutes the foundation of the CO, SO2, and SO3, as well as to H,CO2, H2SO3, and molecular structure may vary in its valence, giving us a H,$0., and similarly to HCI, HBr, HI, and HF. "SiO, series of acids with perhaps the same number of basic is often called silicic acid, because when fused with soda, hydrogen atoms, but with a different number of oxygen
See Vol. I. p. 91 Am.