« AnteriorContinuar »
such experiments, Huxley remarks: “No experimental | abolition was secured by statute in Pennsylvania in 1780, evidence that a liquid may be heated to n degrees, and in Rhode Island and Connecticut in 1784, in New York yet subsequently give rise to living organisms, is of the in 1799, and in New Jersey in 1804. As the States smallest value as proof that abiogenesis has taken north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi were adplace; and for two reasons: firstly, there is no proof mitted, the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, under that organisms of the kind in question are dead, ex- which their territorial organizations had been effected, cept their permanent incapacity to grow and reproduce made them free States; and in 1820 slavery was aboltheir kind; and secondly, since we know that condi- ished in the Louisiana purchase north of lat. 36° 30', tions may largely modify the power of resistance of excepting in Missouri
. In 1857 the Supreme Court, in such organisms to heat, it is far more probable that the Dred Scott decision, denied the validity of this last such conditions existed in the experiment in question abolition, but its essential feature had been inserted in than that the organisms were generated afresh out of the constitution of the only State as yet formed in it, dead matter.
(E. C.) Iowa. “Gradual abolition” had thus done all that it ABOLITIONISTS. The American Revolution could do. It had extinguished slavery wherever the found and left African slavery in the United States a climate had always been against slavery, north of Mapolitical fact. On whatever basis the system rested, son and Dixon's line and the Ohio River; elsewhere it on common custom hardened into colonial law in the had hardly scratched the surface of the system. Eli lapse of years, or on the king's will as expressed in his Whitney's invention of the cotton-gin in 1793 had ingovernors' vetoes of acts to interfere with the introduc- creased the export of cotton from 189,316 pounds in tion of slaves, the Revolution made no attack upon it. 1791 to 63,944,459 pounds in 1807, had made slave-labor It made some efforts, however, to check the slave-trade. profitable in the cotton States and slave-breeding profitThe "Articles of Association” prepared by the Conti- able in the border States, and had changed the whole nental Congress of 1774 bound the subscribers not to temper of the South on this subject. In 1806, in Conpurchase slaves imported after that time, and not to be gress, Early of Georgia could say, "I will tell the concerned in the slave-trade; and Jefferson's first draft truth: a large majority of people in the Southern States of the Declaration of Independence contained a para- do not consider slavery even an evil
. Let gentlemen graph, afterwards stricken out, accusing the king of go and travel in that quarter of the Union, and they will 'waging cruel war against human nature itself” by find this to be the fact.” In the following year the introducing African slavery into the colonies, and of abolition societies became discouraged, made their naprostituting his veto power to suppress every legislative tional meetings triennial, and soon ceased to meet altoattempt to restrain the slave-trade. An attempt to sup- gether. The
slight remaining abolition sentiment took press the trade was made by Coogress in opening the up the Colonization Society, founded in 1816, with the ports of the country, April 6, 1776; one of the resolu- design, in the North, to assist in abolishing slavery by tions read "that no slaves be imported into any of the colonizing free blacks in Africa, and in the South, to thirteen colonies." But the Congress lacked the power, rid the country of troublesome freedmen. as the States lacked the desire, to really suppress either slavery or the slave-trade. When the Federal Conven- abolition see 6 Bancroft's United States, 413-415; Clarkson's
For the colonial history of slavery and attempts at its tion met in 1787 the representatives of Georgia and History of the Abolition of the Slave-Trade, 99, Hildreth's South Carolina came prepared to insist on a continu- Despotism in America, 177-253; H. Sherman's Slavery in the ance of the slave-trade as a conditio sine qua non to a United States ; Moore's Slavery in Massachusetts ; Bettle's closer union. Their persistence obtained a compromise, Slavery in Pennsylvania ;, Goodeil's Slavery and Anti-Slavery; Aug. 25, 1787, which became Section 9 of Article I. of 1 Journals of Congress, 24, 307 (1774-76). the Constitution. By its terms the slave-trade was not dreth and Goodell, above cited; Livermore's Opinions of
For the gradual-abolition” period, 1780–1830, see Hilto be forbidden before the year 1808, except that a tax the Founders of the Republic on Negroes ; 1 Wilson's Rise and of ten dollars a head might be imposed on such im- Fall of the Slave Power; 1 Von Holst's United States (Lalor's portations or migrations ;” and it seems to have been translation), 302-408; the authorities cited in Von Holst's tacitly agreed that the fugitive-slave clause of Article notes; Stockwell's History of Liberia ; and the volumes of IV. should also be inserted in the revised Constitution. the African Repository, the organ of the Colonization SoThe slave-trade was thus brought at once under the
ciety. revenue power of Congress, and within twenty years Until 1829–30 the abolition idea was representative under its commercial power also. As the appointed of a sentiment only, and the remarkable change which time drew near President Jefferson reminded Congress then took place in it was due mainly to William Lloyd of its duty in the premises, and the act of March 2, Garrison, a Massachusetts printer engaged with Benja1807, finally abolished the slave-trade on and after Jan. min Lundy in printing a “gradual-abolition” newspaper 1 following. The coastwise slave-trade, from State to at Baltimore. Garrison first raised the cry of immeState, was regulated and allowed to continue. It gave diate” abolition, meaning thereby the use of every rise to many international difficulties through the ac- means at all times towards abolition without consulting tion of British authorities in freeing slaves found on slave-owners. He seems to have had from the first a American coasters forced into British colonial ports by clear perception of the consequences of his new departstress of weather. It was not finally abolished until ure. He returned to Boston, established The LiberaJuly 2, 1864, an act for that purpose having been passed tor as his newspaper organ, Jan. 1, 1831, and the New as a part of the civil appropriation bill.
England Anti-Slavery Society a year later, and began At first men of all parties, North and South, agreed a fierce and successful attack upon the orthodox Coloniin condemning African slavery as expensive, wicked, zation Society. In December, 1833, an abolition convenand a growing weakness to the States which continued tion at Philadelphia formed the American Anti-Slavery to allow it. Indeed, the language of Southerners- Society, and the abolitionists, with the new and aggresWashington, Jefferson, Mason, and others — was far sive significance now attached to their name, became a stronger than that of Northerners on these points; class of national importance. The next five years were and it seems to have been honest, though South Caro- their period of storm and stress. Throughout the South lina politicians alleged that Virginia, having supplied the idea of “gradual” abolition disappeared in an inherself with slaves, desired to abolish the foreign slave- stant; the new phase of the anti-slavery feeling was detrade only in order to become a slave-breeding ground nounced as insulting to the South and dangerous to the for other States. But everywhere the respect for vested continuance of the Union ; rewards were offered for the property rights made the idea of “gradual abolition" capture of prominent abolitionists; and the slave laws the controlling principle for some forty years. The were made more rigorous than they had ever been before. State constitution of Vermont (not yet admitted to the From this time the state of siege, which ceased only in Union) in 1777, of Massachusetts in 1780, and of New 1865, became the rule in the South. In the North Hampshire in 1783, abolished slavery; and gradual | there was a general feeling of sympathy with Southern
indignation, and the result was a long series of mob- 1 versy; 4 Tucker's United States, 428-433; Buchanan's Adattacks on abolition meetings and violence in every ministration, 9-86 ; Harris's Political Conflict in America, 67form. Before 1840 these in reality had exhausted them- 33; Pollard's Lost Cause, 54-64; 2 Stephens's War Between selves, though they never ceased entirely until 1861.
the States, 27-102; 4 Calhoun's Works, 542-573 (his speech of
March 4, 1850). At first the political action of the abolitionists was confined to petitions to Congress for the abolition of In the Federal Convention, Aug. 21, 1787, Luther slavery in the District of Columbia. Beyond this Gar- Martin of Maryland, in asking for a prohibition of the rison and his radical followers did not desire to go, for slave-trade, gave as a reason that slaves weakened they believed the Constitution itself to be a “covenant one part of the Union, which the other parts were bound with death and an agreement with hell,” on account of to protect; the privilege of importing them was therethe political power which slave-owners had obtained fore unreasonable.”. And in a passionate speech the under it. They refused to vote, hold office, or recog. next day on this infernal traffic” George Mason of nize the Government as having any authority over them: Virginia spoke thus strongly: “The evil of having they attacked the national church organizations as sup- slaves was experienced during the late war. Had slaves porters of slavery; and in every political sense they been treated as they might have been by the enemy, were a law unto themselves. In 1839-40 the “politi- they would have proved dangerous instruments in their cal abolitionists, who considered the Constitution in hands; but their folly dealt by the slaves as it did by no sense a pro-slavery instrument, and who wished to the Tories.". He mentioned the dangerous insurrecuse and not defy it and the churches the anti-slavery tions of the slaves in Greece and Sicily, and the instrucwork, seceded and formed the “ American and Foreign tions given by Cromwell to the commissioners sent to Anti-Slavery Society. In political contests they took Virginia, to arm the servants and slaves in case other the name of the “Liberty party." In 1839 they nom- means of obtaining its submission should fail. In an inated James G. Birney of New York and F. J. Le- intended speech in February, 1836, and in another demoyne of Pennsylvania for President and Vice-Presi- livered April 14, 1842, John Quincy Adams had fully dent, but polled only 7059 popular votes, mainly in developed the power of the Federal Government, in a Western New York. In 1844, substituting Thomas case of military necessity arising either under foreign Morris of Ohio for Lemoyne, they polled 62,300 votes, invasion or domestic insurrection, to emancipate negro and these, being taken mostly from Clay's vote, gave slaves. This inherent weakness of a slaveholding comPolk the electoral vote of New York by a plurality, munity in war was forgotten by both parties in 1861. made him President, and secured the annexation of Eleven slaveholding States seceded in defiance of all Texas and the addition of nearly 400,000 square miles the possible evils of war; and in July, 1861, Congress of slave soil to the United States. This startling result almost unanimously resolved that the war was not proseended the independent action of the Liberty party in cuted with any purpose of interfering with the estabnational politics.
lished institutions of the seceding States, and that it Hitherto the anti-slavery feeling had been regarded ought to cease as soon as the supremacy of the Constias a plaything: it had now shown itself to be a pos- tution and the laws and the perpetuity of the Union sible political weapon, and skilful hands were ready were secured. But it was inevitable that a continuance to wield it. In the Northern Democratic party there of the war should result in an attack on slavery, sooner was a strong anti-slavery element and a veteran politi- or later, for no belligerent will willingly fight with one cal leader, Van Buren, and both had been defeated in hand tied behind it. Little by little the process went the Democratic convention of 1844. Alike only in their on, through the successive stages of confiscating the common defeat, they joined forces in 1848 to avenge it, property in slaves employed against the Government, forand the Liberty party subsided into the motley host. bidding the army to return fugitive slaves, abolishing slaThe whole took the name of the FREE-SOIL PARTY very in the Territories and in the District of Columbia, (see that title). Even after its defeat by the compro- and authorizing the employment of negro soldiers, up to mise of 1850, Free-Soilers, such as Sumner, Chase, and the Emancipation Proclamation. Two subordinate genHale, were sent to Congress by coalitions of Democrats erals, Fremont in Missouri and Hunter in South Caroand Free-Soilers, and these fell into the Republican lina, had already issued proclamations abolishing slavery party on its appearance in 1854–55. But throughout within their fields of command, but their action was disthese mutations the abolitionists remained in, but not avowed by the President, whose special desire was for of, whatever party they joined. To them the essential compensated abolition. In December, 1862, he proobject in view was not so much the exclusion of slavery posed to Congress three constitutional amendments, to from the Territories, or the repeal of the Fugitive Slave compensate States which should abolish slavery before law, as the abolition of slavery throughout the United the year 1900, and to colonize free negroes oui of the States. The only present means to this end was a con- country; but these were not considered. Gradual abostant assistance of fugitive slaves to escape to Canada lition, however, was made a part of the constitution of through the "underground railroad," a series of sta- West Virginia in 1862 and Missouri in 1863, and immetions in private houses in which the fugitives were fed, diate abolition in the constitution of Maryland in 1864. clothed, and provided with concealment and informa- President Lincoln's preliminary proclamation of Sept. tion. In the Kansas difficulties of 1855–58 the aboli-22, 1862, and his final proclamation of Jan 1, 1863, purtionist feeling took the semi-warlike shape of arming ported to abolish slavery in the seceding States, exceptintending immigrants; and in October, 1859, it went ing the thirteen parishes of Louisiana and the seven to the extremity of aiding John Brown in his attempted counties of Virginia then within the Union lines. But slave insurrection at Harper's Ferry.
the difficulty, by reason of which the validity of the The authorities for this period are still Wilson's and proclamation has been severely criticised, is that in the Goodell’s works, above cited; 2 Von Holst's United States, specified territory President Lincoln had no constitu80–147, and 3: 563-597; and í Greeley's American Conflict. tional power as President, and no physical power as Slavery Conflict, from which Wilson and Greeley have drawn. commander-in-chief, to free a single slave. The difSee also Jay's Inquiry into the Character of the Colonization ficulty may be avoided, however, by considering the final Society and Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery ; Garrison's proclamation as a mere rule of action for Federal comSpeeches; Johnson's Life of William Lloyd Garrison ; Froth- manders, and as taking effect in future as the Federal ingham's Life of Gerrit Smith; Lovejoy's Life of Lovejoy ; lines should advance; and this was probably the sense History of Pennsylvania Hall; Tappan's Life of Tappan; in which its author intended it. The advance of the Still's Underground Railroad ; Redpath's Life of John Brown; Federal armies and the State action above referred to Giddings's History of the Rebellion ; 1 Draper's Civil War in had practically abolished slavery everywhere except in Cairnes's Slave Power; and Cobb's Historical Sketch of Sla- Kentucky and Delaware when the thirteenth amendvery. For the various shades of anti-abolition feeling see ment to the Constitution, which had been proposed by Lunt's Origin of the Late War; Fowler's Sectional Contro- | Congress, April 8, 1864, in the Senate, and Jan. 31,
1865, in the House, was ratified by thirty-one of the work towards Greece and her people amounts to abuse, thirty-six States, and declared in force Dec. 18, 1865. and we have the first-fruits of a polemic disposition and The purpose of the Liberator and the American Anti- a sharp pen displayed in his later works. In the ReSlavery Society was thus accomplished by the workings vue des Deux Mondes appeared his Tolla, a book of an of the very Constitution which they had declared to be autobiographic character, and although he took care a covenant with death and an agreement with hell. to say that it was suggested by an Italian work called Wilson and Greeley are still the chief authorities for this portunity to punish this free-lance, accused him of
Vittoria Savorelli, the critics, who were glad of an opperiod, but a very useful compilation
is Wilson's Anti-slą: shameful plagiarism. He was thenceforth confronted Political History of the Rebellion ; 12, 13 United States Statutes by enemies whom he was bold in meeting. In 1856 he at Large, and the 6073 titles in Bartlett's Literature of the wrote a comedy called Guilléry, which encountered such Rebellion, most of them relating, directly or indirectly, to a storm of opposition that, after two representations, it the abolitionist movement.
(A. J.) was withdrawn from the stage. But his pen was not
paralyzed. In the same year he produced the novel ABOMASUM, the last division of the stomach of a Les Mariages de Paris, and, gaining admission into the
ruminant, which has at least three compart- columns of Figaro, he was very bold in his retorts upon p. 53 Am. ments, and usually four. The stomach of his detractors. He wrote under the noms-de-plume ediPa 51 any typical ruminant, as an ox or sheep, is of Valentin de Quevilly and Vicomte de Quévilly. In Edin. ed.).
divisible into two principal parts, cardiac and the feuilleton of the Moniteur he issued some of his pyloric, each of which is again divisible into two. The best novels : Le Roi des Montagnes (1856), Germaine extreme cardiac end of the cardiac part is dilated into (1857), Les Échasses de Maître Pierre (1857), Trente et an enormous sac of irregular form, the rumen or paunch, Quarante (1858), and Nos Artistes au Salon. After which communicates with the second cardiac subdivis- a residence in Rome he published the work by which ion, much smaller, called the reticulum or honeycomb. he is best known out of France, called The Roman The mucous membrane of the rumen is raised in a vast Question (“La Question romaine”), which, if partinumber of close-set papillæ, while that of the reticulum san in its nature, was timely and instructive. In the is thrown into multitudinous crossed folds enclosing journal called L' Opinion Nationale he wrote a spirited
series entitled "Letters of a Young Man to his Cousin Madeline," and a short play, Risette ; or, The Millions
of the Mansarde. His more ambitious drama, entitled du pe
Gaetana, was produced at the Odéon in 1862, but failed of success through the efforts of his numerous enemies, literary, religious, and political: on this account, however, it was well received in the provincial towns, and contributed to the author's reputation. In 1860 he produced a political paper entitled The New Map of Europe and of Prussia (“La Nouvelle Carte d'Europe et de Prusse”); in 1861, Ces Coquins d'Agents de Change, L'Homme à l' Oreille cassée, Le Nez d'un Notaire; in 1862, Le Cas de M. Guérin. Then followed in rapid succession, from 1862 to 1869, Madelon, Der
nières Lettres d'un bon Jeune Homme, Le Progrès, La Stomach of a typical ruminant (sheep). a, cesophagus, entering Vieille Roche, Le Mari imprévu,
Le Marquis de Lanrose, psalterium; a, abomasum; du,
duodenum, the intestine begin: Causeries (2 vols.), L' Infamé, Les Mariages de Proning at the pyloric extremity of the abomasum. (After Hux. vince, L' A B C du Travailleur, a popular manual of ley.)
political economy; Le Fellah, souvenirs of Egypt. Em
ployed on the literary staff of the Gaulois in 1868, he many polygonal cells. These two cardiac portions are
These two cardiac portions are became soon after one of the editors of Le Soir, and as eaten under the name of “tripe." The reticulum com- a special reporter in the field during the Franco-Prusmunicates by a narrow aperture with the psalterium, or sian war he confronted hardships and dangers with the first pyloric subdivision, the mucous membrane of which armies. On the conclusion of the war he espoused the is thrown into numerous folds of sufficient extent to cause of the Republic, and was ardent in his attachreach nearly across its cavity, which latter is thus con- ment to Thiers. He was arrested in Alsace by the Gerverted into a set of parallel lamellæ with intervening man Government in 1872 on the charge of high treaclefts. When cut lengthwise, the lamellæ fall apart son against the German emperor, but on international like the leaves of a book, whence the butchers' term grounds he was liberated without trial. A few weeks ** manyplies," and the fanciful name psalterium,'' or after he issued his Alsace, which overflows with French "hymn-book," of anatomists. The fourth compart- patriotism. With the collaboration of M. de Najac he ment of the stomach, being the second pyloric subdi- produced numerous dramas, not of as much interest as vision, is the abomasum, or rennet, comparatively long his other works. In 1858 he had been decorated with and narrow, with a soft, glandular, highly-vascular mu- the ribbon of the Legion of Honor, of which he was cous membrane, in but few longitudinal folds ; thus of made an officer in 1867. In 1870 he was a candidate an entirely different character from that of the other for membership in the French Academy; there were three portions of the stomach, and completing the two vacancies, but the opposition was strong, and he chymification of the food.
(E. c.) failed for both. He had married, in 1846, MademoiABOUT, EDMOND FRANÇOIS VALENTIN, French selle de Guillerville of Roncherolles, near Rouen. Many novelist, dramatist, and philosopher, born at Dieuze, of his political works and novels have been translated Feb. 14, 1828. He studied with unusual success at into English.
(H. C.) the College of Charlemagne, and in 1848 took the prize ABRAHAMSON, WERNER HANS FREDERIK (1744of honor in the course of philosophy. He then en- 1812), a Danish author, was born April 10, 1744, in tered the École Normale, from which, in 1851, he was Schleswig. His works comprise historical, æsthetic, and transferred to the French School at Athens. While critical essays, Runic investigations, and translations of in Greece he published his Island of Egina ("L'Île sagas. He published, with Ráhbok and Nyerup, five d'Égina"), which appeared in Paris in 1854. With volumes of Danish mediæval ballads. He also wrote the materials amassed there he issued in 1855 his Con- original poems and popular songs, and took part in the temporary Greece ("La Grèce contemporaine"). This preparation of the Danish hymn-book. His works are was afterwards printed in the “Railway Library." and all imbued with a patriotic spirit. He died at Copentranslated into several languages. His severity in this hagen, Sept. 22, 1812.
ABSENTEEISM is the living at a distance from When it is said that nations grow poorer only by the one's estates. Public opinion and common feeling al- export of capital, and not by sending abroad their revways have regarded the practice as pernicious to the enue, the true nature of national wealth is ignoredestate and the country whose revenues are consumed that wealth is not measured by the exchangeable value at a distance. But J. R. McCulloch and other English of a nation's property, but by its power to command economists perceived that this feeling is in conflict with the necessaries, conveniences, and luxuries of life, and the proposition of the economists, that the general wel is measured by the power to consume. fare is best secured through each individual following stands in close and immediate relation to the interior the bent of his own inclination and doing as he will development of productive industry and the growth with what is his own.
of the power of association among the people. The question is important chiefly in its bearings on the That the indirect effects of a landlord's residence are controversy on free trade. Mr. McCulloch, treating of beneficial is conceded even by those who defend the ecoIreland, maintains that the resident landlord exchanges nomic thesis we have been disproving. It is admitted his income for Irish commodities or their equivalent, that his higher standard of comfort, his superior intelbringing them into his house in Ireland and consuming ligence, his example of improvement, his public spirit, them there: the absentee landlord also, through the may be highly useful; and he has social opportunities merchants who furnish him with bills, exchanges his of exciting competition in the best direction. The exincome for Irish commodities, which, or their equiva- istence of a landlord class is beneficial to society partly lents, he brings into or consumes in his house in Lon for these reasons; and it is not to be wondered that the don or Paris. “It is never, in short, by sending abroad practice of non-residence has created a demand for the revenue, but by sending abroad capital, that nations abolition of the class and the creation of a peasant proare impoverished.” Should absentees return, there prietorship. would be an increased demand for commodities or labor In this discussion we have assumed that residence both to the extent of three or four millions sterling; implies the consumption of native products elaborated but that would be balanced by an equal diminution in by native labor. If the four millions sterling are spent the foreign market.”
in British or French products imported into Ireland, In discussing these statements let us assume, for con- the country derives no more benefit from them than venience, that the rents of estates owned in Ireland by if its landlords had chosen to live in London or Paris. absentee landlords are four millions sterling, and the Here it is that defence of absenteeism coincides with value of the crops on those estates twenty millions ster- the theory of free trade. In Ireland, to recur to our ling. This would leave to the tenants sixteen millions example, this is unhappily true. The country is supsterling to reward them for their labor and to pay the plied with manufactures from every corner of Europe, interest on the capital they have invested in farming. especially from England, but has almost none of its If the merchants who furnish the landlords with bills own. The benefits which its people would derive from expend the four millions in the purchase and export the superior tastes and the higher ideas of comfort of raw produce, the effect will be the same as though among its wealthier classes are not attained. Popular one-fifth of the crop had been exported, and, so far as instinct stamps the landlords as a useless excrescence, the industry of Ireland is concerned, this fifth might and proposes to rid the country of those from whose as well have been burned. No advantage is derived superior culture it might derive great indirect benefits. from it by either Irish capital or Irish labor. Both
(G. B. D.) must confine their gains to the remaining four-fifths. ABSOLON, JOHN, an English artist, was born in The country from the start will be the poorer by the 1815. He began as a miniature-painter, but about four millions sterling it might have used in home con- 1836, after having studied for some time at Paris, be sumption. It will not become poorer and poorer so devoted himself chiefly to water-color painting. He, long as the rents are not raised; it will be poor at a has been an active member of the New Water-Color fixed rate.
Society and of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, If the landlords and their families, while living in and has frequently exhibited at the British Institution idleness, consumed just this share of the Irish harvests and at the Royal Academy. Absolon's works are exas food, it might be a matter of indifference whether cellent representatives of that tendency in English art they did this at home or abroad. But, in fact, their which Taine condemns, or at least disparages, with the fourth is converted into money which pays for the word "literary.' Nearly all his best pictures are repservices of a vast variety of persons and in buying a resentations of incidents described by popular authors, great number of material objects other than food. The or are of that anecdotal character which appeals to landlords, therefore, in using these articles and employ- the spectator's knowledge of the commonplaces of life ing these services exclude the rest of the community rather than to his appreciation of its poetical moments. from the enjoyment of less than one-fourth the value His works are usually pleasing in matter and in manner, of their rents—from no more, indeed, than the value and they are frank and honest statements of their subof the raw material which enters into the commodities jects, which suggest nothing more than they tell in a they consume. The rest - three-fourths or more-- language that all can readily understand. Among his pays for services in the production of elaborated com- best-known pictures may be mentioned The Vicar of modities or direct services.
Wakefield, Joan of Arc, The Field of the Cloth of Gold, Resident landlords, consuming their rents in Ireland, The First Night in a Convent, Captain Macheath Beprocure the working up of their four millions sterling traying his Mistress
, Threading the Needle, The Courtof raw commodities into finished products of far greater ship of Miles Standish, The Courtship of Gainsborough, value, say eight millions sterling. Of this sum, seven Home, The Missal, Facing the Storm, Ready for the millions sterling or more go to the support of other Ball
, Rescue of St. Arthur and Miss Wardour, and classes. But with landlords non-resident the whole After a Walk to Islington.
(W. J. C., JR.) amount of raw material paid in rent is lost to the coun- ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE OF AMERICA. In try by its exportation in that condition. Were the ex- See Vol. I. treating of American scientific institutions a port one of finished commodities, one-half of their p. 67 Am. brief allusion to the rise and progress of value represents payment for labor and capital ex- ed. (p. 68 science in the Western hemisphere may not
Edin. ed.). pended in their elaboration, and this half will be ex
be undesirable. American science is chiefly pended on other products, half of it going for the pay- confined to the United States, though Canada has of ment of labor and capital, and so on. The export of late years shown some commendable activity in this finished products means the creation of an effective direction. There are museums and academies of deniand for other products within the country, and the science in the principal cities of Spanish America, as finer the export the greater the demand. That of raw Mexico, Buenos Ayres, etc., and printed results of products results in no such advantage.
their observations are issued by the University of Chili, the Argentine Scientific Society of Buenos Ayres, the reputation rests particularly upon the theories which Mexican Society of Natural History, etc., yet these they promulgated, vast edifices of thought into whose can scarcely claim to rival the scientific productions of walls fell thousands of facts, as harmoniously combined the United States' institutions. These latter have been, as are the building-stones in a grand temple. America until recently, confined to the older seaboard cities, but has as yet produced few deductive scientists, and none culture in this direction is now spreading through all whose work fairly compares with that of those above the States, and each of the large cities of the West has named. The theories of Franklin were based on an its young but ardent and rapidly growing academy of imperfect series of facts, and since his day American science. In many of the smaller towns minor associa- scientists have devoted themselves almost exclusively tions exist, and the foundations for a broad and liberal to the observation of facts and the collection of mateculture in the knowledge of the facts and laws of Na- rials
. Only very recently has there been shown any ture have been deeply laid.
active disposition to collate these facts and to deduce For many yeurs after the settlement of America the thence Nature's underlying principles. Some importconditions requisite for scientific research were absent. ant theoretical views have been advanced, and there Americans are yet, to a considerable degree, pioneers are growing indications that American science is on in a new world, and have not fully achieved that phys- the verge of entering its second stage, and of drawing ical conquest of the country which occupied the time from the material which it has gathered in a century and exhausted the mental energy of the earlier inhab- of active research important additions to man's knowitants. Even when growing wealth and increasing ledge of the laws and principles of Nature. In addileisure in the older cities yielded some of the necessary tion to the scientific treasures possessed by the instituconditions for the pursuit of a knowledge of Nature, tions specially devoted to research, the universities of the other conditions were wanting. There was no in- the country are also largely provided with scientific citement to scientific study, and there were no schools material, and in their classes a new generation of for scientific education, no collections of scientific books American scientists is being formed, destined, perhaps, and materials, and no demand for scientific informa- to carry forward the science of the Western World to tion. Thus, while the first important steps in the a high level of accomplishment, and to pursue that progress of modern science in Europe were being ardent study of the laws of Nature which is the contaken, the minds and the time of the citizens of Amer- verging-point of all study of its phenomena. ica were occupied in the development of a new conti
The oldest scientific institution in America owes its nent. The earlier American scientists, such as Dr. origin to the conception and efforts of Dr. Franklin. Franklin and Count Rumford, probably gained their It was first advocated by him in a paper dated May 14, first thirst for scientific research in Europe. Franklin 1743, and entitled A Proposal for Promoting Useful spent several of his youthful years in London, and Knowledge among the British Plantations in America. Rumford was American only in birth; his scientific In the succeeding year (1744) he succeeded in organizlabors were wholly European.
ing an association called the American Philosophical SoThe discoveries, the theories, and the active organ- ciety, with Thomas Hopkinson as president, Benjamin izing spirit of Benjamin Franklin were the first import- Franklin as secretary, and among its members John ant incitements to American research. The reflection Bartram the botanist. Thomas Godfrey the mathemaof his European fame back to his native shores roused tician, and other well-known persons. Franklin's time a spirit of emulation, which was fostered and encour- being otherwise engaged, this society languished, and aged in the institutions which he founded. Some of discontinued its meetings after a few years. It was these institutions yet exist as the oldest and most active revived in 1767, and reorganized in 1768 as the Amerof American organizations for the pursuit of knowledge. ican Society held at Philadelphia for Promoting UseTo him, therefore, may be fairly, given the title of the ful Knowledge. Meanwhile, another society was formed “Father of American Science.
in Philadelphia, called the Junto, or Society for the It is not our purpose here to attempt any review of Promotion of Useful Knowledge. Its date of organthe progress of science in America, and it will suffice to ization is not known, but its preserved records begin say that the desire for scientific knowledge, once awak- Sept. 22, 1758. Possibly, it was a revival of the youthened, incited many able men to the study of Nature, ful society of the Junto, established by Franklin in particularly as displayed in the Western hemisphere. 1727. On Jan. 2, 1769, these two societies united This desire for knowledge has widened and deepened, under the title of the American Philosophical Society and has produced an activity of research into scientific held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge. facts and collections of scientific material rapidly ap- Of this society Dr. Franklin became the first president, proaching, if not equalling, those of the older institu- and was annually re-elected until his death. The tions of Europe.
American Philosophical Society is still in active existIt must be admitted, however, that American science ence, and is the oldest of American scientific instituhas as yet been principally confined to its primary field, tions. Its original object was the promotion of knowthe collection of facts and of material for study. This, ledge in general, and such branches in particular as though an absolutely necessary first step in all useful might be of service to the British colonies. The title scientific progress, is by no means its final stage of this society does not well indicate its present characScience has its two separate fields, induction and de- ter, since it is almost exclusively scientific in its labors. duction. In the growth of science deduction preceded These are included in a valuable series of published induction-a vitally false method, since great edifices Transactions dating from 1789, and of Proceedings from of ideas were based upon fancies, and were destined to 1838 to the present. The society possesses a fine lisink into ruin at the first touch of facts. The true brary of about 30,000 volumes. scientific method is the discovery of the facts of Na- The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ture, followed by the collocation of these facts, and the is, in several respects, the most important of American deduction thence of natural principles. This is the scientific institutions. It was organized and its constitumode of investigation now pursued, it being evident tion adopted in 1812, and incorporated in 1817. During that a knowledge of facts, though useful in itself, has its seventy years of active labor it has gathered an exits highest utility as an aid to the discovery of principles. ceptionally fine museum and a highly valuable library
American science is as yet almost wholly inductive. which contains about 30,000 volumes. The library European science has long been largely deductive. The is more complete in respect to natural history than fame of the greatest European scientists is based much any other in the United States, and is particularly more largely upon their discovery of principles than upon rich in valuable illustrated works. The museum calls their observation of facts. Newton, Laplace, Young, for some special reference, its collections in some deHumboldt, Cuvier, Darwin, Spencer, and many others partments being unsurpassed, not only in this country, who might be named, were active observers, but their but in the world. In the department of conchology