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Cardinal) John Henry Newman in the celebrated Tracts ABBOTT, LYMAN, D. D., was born Dec. 18, 1835, in for the Times. He charged the author with introducing Roxbury, Mass., the third son of Rev. Jacob Abbott. rationalistic principles into religion and approaching So- He received a thorough collegiate education at New York cinianism. But the popularity of the series was unabated, University, graduating in 1853. Subsequently, down to and while thousands of copies were sold in the United 1860, he studied and practised law with his elder brothers, States, numerous editions were issued in England. Benjamin, Vaughan, and Austin, under the firm-name of Mr. Abbott was ordained Sept. 18, 1834, as an evan- Abbott Brothers. They published several legal works: gelist, and ministered to the Eliot Church, which he Admiralty Reports, 1 vol. ; New York Practice Reports; had organized in Roxbury, Mass., but about a year Forms of Pleading under the New York Code; an edition later gave up his charge to his brother, John S. C. of Salgwick on Damages

, with notes; contributed a seand devoted himself chiefly to authorship, especially of ries of articles to various law and commercial magazines; works for the young. In 1834 he had commenced and together, under the nom-dle-plume “Benauly,' "The Rollo Books,” and when he removed to Farm- published the novel Conecut Corners, advocating the ington, Me., in 1839, he continued writing these and prohibitory temperance laws. Lyman later withdrew others of a similar character until 1843, when he made from the firm, and after studying theology with his his first visit to Europe. On his return he joined with uncle, the Rev. John S. C. Abbott

, accepted a minishis brothers Gorham and Charles in establishing a terial charge over the Congregational Church of Terre school for young ladies in New York. In 1845 a school Haute, Ind., in 1860. He remained here five years, for boys was added, of which he was principal for five and in 1865 became associated with the American years, but in 1851 he relinquished teaching for author- Freedmen's Union Commission as its general secreship. He still resided in New York, but made several tary, in which service he continued for three years. voyages to Europe and frequent visits to Farmington. In 1866 he received and accepted a call to the New In 1870 he made the latter place his residence, and England Congregational Church in New York City, and died there, Oct. 31, 1879. He was the sole author of remained there for three years, resigning in 1869. In 180 volumes, and editor or joint author of 31. Most of 1871 he became editor of the Illustrated Christian these were issued in series, as the “Rollo Books” (28 Weekly, of which he was the first editor and organizer, vols.), " The Lucy Books" (6 vols.), "Harper's Story- published by the American Tract Society. He retained Books" (36 vols.). He also prepared biographies of this position for six years, resigning it in the autumn many prominent persons of ancient and modern times. of 1876 to assume, with Henry Ward Beecher, the His last series was Science for the Young (4 vols., N. Y., joint-editorship of the Christian Union of New York 1871-73). His success was due to constant familiarity City. The paper was published under the double manwith children and to his good judgment, which limited agement until the autumn of 1881, when Mr. Beecher him to the work for which he was fitted by nature and withdrew and Mr. Abbott became editor-in-chief. Since experience. His style is clear and simple; he wrote 1869, Mr. Abbott has resided at Cornwall-on-the-Hudnot for literary effect, but with a moral purpose, and his son, engaged in literary and editorial duties. He has manner and spirit have had great effect on other writers published numerous works, of which the

most important for the young. Many of his books have been repub-are-Jesus of Nazareth, His Life and Teachings, 1869; lished in Europe, and his religious writings have been Old Testament Shadows of New-Testament Truths, translated into several European and Asiatic languages. 1870; Morning and Evening Excercises, selected from

ABBOTT, JOHN STEVENS CABOT (1805–1877), an the Writings of Henry Ward Beecher, 1871; Laicus ; American historian and religious writer, was born in or, The Experiences of a Layman in a Country Parish, Brunswick, Me., Sept. 18, 1805. He graduated at 1872; A Popular Religious Dictionary, 1873; Revision Bowdoin College in 1825, studied theology at An- of New-Testament Notes, by Jacob and John S. C. Abdover, and became pastor of a Congregational church bott, 1881; and is now (1882) engaged in writing a Comin Worcester, Mass. His first book, The Mother at mentary on the New Testament, the four volumes of Home, was published in 1833, and was soon followed which already published carry the student up to and by The Child at Home. These were favorably re- through the Acts of the Apostles. He received some ceived, and have since been translated into several years since the honorary title of D.D. from the New of the European languages, as well as by missionaries York University. in Asia and Africa. In 1836 he succeeded his brother ABBREVIATIONS. American usage has modified Jacob in charge of the church in Roxbury, and after- See Vol. I. many of the abbreviations in use in Europe, wards removed to Nantucket. In 1844 he retired p. 31 Am. and has established several classes in disfrom pastoral labors to devote himself to literature,

tinctive forms little applicable to use elsethough at intervals he took charge of congregations for Edini

, ed.), where or known in other countries, yet ina short time. After writing Kings and Queens and dispensable to the general student They may be some brief biographical works, he was led to attempt classified as-first, those applicable to the government, the more ambitious subject with which his name is the army, and the navy; second, those in use in legal chiefly connected, The History of Napoleon Bonaparte, proceedings and the statutes; third, those applied to first issued as a serial in Harper's Monthly Magazine the States, or geographical; fourth, scientific and medfrom 1851 to 1855. In it he showed himself what had ical; fifth, those relating to weights, measures, money, never before been found in the English language, an and business; sicth, those used by secret and other soextravagant eulogist of the great emperor. Though cieties; and seventh, those of various religious bodies, his extreme partisanship has been universally con- etc. The increasing use of abbreviations in ordinary demned, in his subsequent works, Napoleon at St. writing might justify the enlargement of these classes Helena, Correspondence of Napoleon and Josephine, or the

addition of others; but the rule here adopted is he maintained the same views, and in his History of to accept nothing lacking in the requirements of both Napoleon III. extended his advocacy to the latter. necessity and fixedness as a distinctive and significant He wrote also The French Revolution of 1789, A His abbreviation, meaning what it stands for, and not to tory of the Civil War in America (1863-1866), Lires be mistaken for anything else. of the Presidents (1867), Histories of Austria, Russia, Spain, and Italy, and The History of Frederick the A. A. G., Assistant Adjutant-|A. Q. M. G., Assistant Quar

First-The Government, Army, and Navy. Second, called Frederick the Great (1871). The interest

termaster-General. of his subjects and the animation of his style have se- A.G., or Adjt.-Gen., Adjutant- Asst. Sec., Assistant Secrecured him numerous readers, but he is deficient in the General.

tary. judicial traits which should characterize an historian. Agl. Dept., Department of Asst. Supt., Assistant SuperAmong his later writings was a volume addressed to Agriculture.

ed. (p. 26

General.

intendent. young men on Practical Christianity. He died at A. Q. M., Assistant Quarter- Asst. Treas., Assistant TreasFair Hilven, Conn., June 17, 1877.

master.

urer.

V.-P.,

Atty., Attorney.
Int. Rev., Internal Revenue. Mex., Mexico.

P. E. I., Prince Edward Atty.-Gen., Attorney-Gene-Lt., or Lieut., Lieutenant. Mich., Michigan.

Island. ral. Maj., Major.

Minn., Minnesota.

Phila. or Phil., Philadelphia. Brig.-Gen., Brigadier-Gene- Maj.-Gen., Major-General. Miss., Mississippi.

P. R., Porto Rico. ral. M. C., Member of Congress. Mo., Missouri.

Prov., province. Capt., Captain.

Mess. & Docs., Message and Mon. or Mont., Montana. R. or Riv., river,
Ch. Clk., Chief Clerk.

Documents.
Mts., Mountains.

R. I., Rhode Island.
Col., Colonel.
Pat. Of., Patent Office.

N. A., North America. S. A., South America.
Com., Commodore.
P. M., Postmaster.

N. B., New Brunswick. S. C., South Carolina.
Com., Committee.

P. M.-Gen., Postmaster-Gen- N. C., North Carolina. Tenn., Tennessee. Comr., Commissioner.

eral.

N. E., New England. Tex., Texas. Com. & Nav., Commerce and P. O., Post-Office.

Neb., Nebraska.

Tp., township.
Navigation.
Pres., President.

Nev., Nevada.

U.S., United States.
Cong., Congress.

Pub. Doc., Public Document. N. H., New Hampshire. Va., Virginia.
Dept., Department.
Q. M., Quartermaster.

N. J., New Jersey.

Vt., Vermont. Dist., District.

Q. M.-Gen., Quartermaster- N. M.or N. Mex., New Mexico. Wash., Washington.
Div., Division.

General.
N. O., New Orleans.

W. I., West Indies.
Doc., Document.
Sec., Secretary.

N. S., Nova Scotia.

Wisc., Wisconsin. Eng. Dept., Department of Sen. Doc., Senate Document. N. Y., New York.

W. T., Washington TerriEngineers. Sergt., Sergeant. 0., Ohio.

tory. Ex. Doc., Executive Docu- Surg.-Gen., Surgeon-General. Or. or Oreg., Oregon. W. Va., West Virginia. ment. U.S., United States.

Pa., or Penn.or Penna., Penn-Wy. Ter., Wyoming Terri. Gen., General. U. S. A., United States of sylvania.

tory. Gov., Governor.

America, United States
Govt., Government.
Army.

Fourth-Scientific, Literary, and Medical.
Hon., Honorable.

U.S. N., United States Navy. , ana, of each.
H. R., House of Representa- U.S.S., United States Senate. A. B. or B. A., Bachelor of

makes 32° the freezing-and

212° the boiling-point. tives. U.S. S., United States Steam

Arts. Int. Dept., Department of the ship (of war).

fol., folio.

Acad., Academy.
Interior.
Vice-President.

gen., genus, genera, generic. Acad. Nat. Sci., Academy of gr., grains or grammes. Natural Sciences.

Gr., Greek.
Second-Statutory and Legal.

Amer. Acad., American Acad- Heb., Hebrew.
Abb., Abbott's U. S. Circuit hab. corp., habeas corpus, have emy.

i. e., id est, that is. and District Court Reports. the body.

Amer. Ass. Adv. Sci., Ameri- LL.B. Bachelor of Laws. ad lib., ad libitum, at pleasure. How., Howard's U. S. Su

can Association for the Ad- LL.D., Doctor of Laws. Admr., Administrator. preme Court Reports.

vancement of Science. M. D., Doctor of Medicine. Admx., Administratrix, ib., or ibid., ibidem, in the A. M.or M. A., Master of Arts. Mem., Memoirs. Ald. Alderman.

same place.

Amer. Phil. Soc., American Misc., Miscellaneous.
Ans., Answer.
J., Justice or Judge.

Philosophical Society. MS., MSS., Manuscript, ManArt., Article, a distinct pro- J. P., Justice of the Peace. Ann., Annales, Annals. uscripts. vision or stipulation. Jud., Judicial.

Ass, or Assn., Association. n. 0. P., not otherwise proBiss., Bissel's Circuit Court L. S., locus sigilli, place of seal bar., barometer.

vided for. Reports.

(on documents).

C. or Cels., Celsius' scale for oct. or 8vo, octavo. Blatch., Blatchford's Circuit Pet., Peters's Reports U. S. the thermometer.

ol., oleum, oil. Court Reports.

Circuit Court.

Cent., Centigrade, a scale of p. and pp., page and pages. C., ch., chap., chapter. Plf, or Plff., Plaintiff.

100 degrees from freezing Ph. D., Doctor of PhilosoCirc., Circuit. pro tem., pro tempore, for the to boiling.

phy. C.J., Chief-Justice.

time.

D. D. S., Doctor of Dental Proc., Proceedings.
Clk., Clerk.
Repts., Reports.

Surgery.

4to, quarto. C. P., Common Pleas. Res., Resolution.

deg., degree.

Q. E. D., quod erat demonstranCrim. Con., Criminal Con- Rev., Revenue.

dr., drams or drachms.

dum. nection.

Rev. Stat., Revised Statutes. duo, 12mo, duodecimo (twelve q. s., quantum sufficit. Curt., Curtis's Supreme Court s., sec., section.

folds).

R., Reaumur thermometric Reports. sci. fa., scire facias. Ed., Editor.

scale. Cush., Cushing's Massachu- Sess., session.

ed., edition.

R., Recipe, prescription. setts Reports. ss., sessions.

ex., example.

Sp. grav., specific gravity. Cr., Credit, Creditor. Stat., Statute.

ex. gr., exempli gratiá, for ex- Tab., table, tabular stateCt., Court. Sum., Sumner's Reports U.S. ample.

ment. Dall., Dallas's Pennsylvania Circuit Court.

et seq., et sequens, and what Tr. or Trans., Transactions. Reports. Sup., Supreme.

follows.

V., VS., verse, verses. Def., Dft., Defendant. Sup. Ct., Superior Court. F.or Fahr., Fahrenheit's scale vol., volume. Dill., Dillon's Reports. r. and vs., versus, against. of the thermometer, which V.S., Veterinary Surgeon. et al., et alii, and others. Wall., Wallace's Supreme et seq., et sequens, and follow- Court Reports.

Fifth-Business, Weights, and Measures. ing. Wheat., Wheaton's Supreme A., acre.

pounds, used authoritative. Exr., Executor.

Court Reports.
acct., account.

jy in California for grain. Exx., Executrix.

Wood., Woodbury & Minot's
U.S. Circuit Court Reports. avdp., avoirdupois.

agt., agent. fi. fa., fieri facias.

cub., cub. ft., cubic, cubic

foot.

advt., advertisement. cur., currency. Third-Geographical.

bbl., bbls., barrel, barrels. cwt., hundredweight. (In the Ala., Alabama. (Fla., Florida. bdls., bundles.

U.S. custom-houses a hunAlb., Albany. Ga., Georgia. bds., bonds.

dredweight is 112 pounds; Ari. or Ariz., Arizona. Galv., Galveston.

bk., bark-a vessel.

in ordinary business transArk., Arkansas. Ia., Iowa. bls., bales.

actions, in the United Balt. or Balto., Baltimore. Id., Idaho.

br., brig.

States, it is 100 pounds.) Bost., Boston. III., Illinois.

bus., bushel, bushels. d., penny, pence - English Cal., California. Ind., Indiana. bx., bxs., box, boxes.

currency. Ches., Chesapeake.

Ind. Ter., Indian Territory. C., cts., cent, cents--money. dis., disc., discount.
Chic., Chicago.
I., is. or isl., island.

cent., centum, hundred. do., ditto, the sanie. Cin., Cincinnati.

Kan, or Kans., Kansas. cert., certif., certify, certifi- dols., dollars-English use in Co., county. Ky., Kentucky.

cate.

place of sign $. Colo., Colorado. L., Lake.

Co., company.

doz., dozen, dozens. Conn. or Ct., Connecticut. La., Louisiana.

C. 0. D., Collect (or Cash) on Dr., debtor.
Dak., Dakota.
Lat., latitude.

delivery.

dr., drachms or drams. D. C. or Dist. Col., District L. I., Long Island.

Cr., creditor.

E. E., errors excepted. of Columbia. Long., longitude.

cs., cases.

f. o. b., free on board. Del., Delaware. Mass., Massachusetts.

csks., casks.

fr., frs., franc, francs-19 Dist., district. Ma., Maryland.

ctl., ctls., cental, centals- cents United States curs Div., division. Me., Maine.

weights of one hundred

rency

ft., foot or feet.
|No. or no., number.

Pres., Presbyterian. (S. T. D., Doctor of Sacred fur., furlong (nearly obso- n. s., not specified.

Prot., Protestant.

Theology (Sacræ Theologias lete). oz., ounce, ounces. Prov., Province.

Doctor). gal., gals., gallon, gallons. pròx., proximo, the coming P. E., Protestant Episcopal. U. B., United Brethren. gr., grs., grain, grains.

month.

P. B., Primitive Baptist. U. P., United Presbyterian. hhd., hogshead; two barrels' pk., peck.

R. C., Roman Catholic. V. G., Vicar-General. capacity.

per ct., per cent., by the hun. R. E., Reformed Episcopal. W. B. M., Women's Board of in., inch.

dred.
Ref., Reformed.

Missions. inst., instante, the present pref., preferred.

Rev., Reverend.

W. B. M. I., Women's Board month. prs., pairs.

Rt. Rev., Right Reverend. of Missions of the Interior. kgs., kegs. pt., pint.

R. P., Reformed Presbyterian. W. C. A., Women's Christian kilo., kilogramme, French, 9., question.

S. B. C., Southern Baptist Association. equal to 24 pounds. qr., quarter.

Convention.

W. C. T. U., Women's Chriskil., kilometre, French, 3281 qt., quart.

S. I. M., Society for the In- tian Temperance Union. feet, or sixty-two hun- R. R., railroad.

crease of the Ministry (P. W. H. M. A., Women's Home dredths of a mile. rect, receipt.

E. Church).

Missionary Association. £, l., pound sterling-Eng- s., shilling-English.

S. J., Society of Jesus. X., Xplotós, Christ. lish, sch., schooner.

S. P. R. L., Society for the Xmas, Christmas. lb., lbs., pound, pounds. sq., sq. ft., sq. yd., square, Promotion of Religion and Y. M. C. A., Young Men's lin., lineal, right-line meas- square foot, square yard. Learning (P. E. Church). Christian Association.

ures; e. g., lin. yd., lin. ft., str., steamer, 'steam vessel. S. S., Sunday School. Y. M. C. U., Young Men's etc. T., ton. SS., Saiuts.

Christian Union. M., mille, one thousand. t. f., till forbid; printer's S. T. B., Bachelor of Sacred Y. W. C. A., Young Women's m. or mi., mile. mark on advertisements. Theology.

Christian Association. Messrs., Messieurs, Sirs. ult., ultimo, the last month. ABD-UL-AZIZ (1830-1876), the thirty-second sulmfd., manufactured.

val., value. mfs., manufactures.

tan of the Turkish empire, was born Feb. 9, 1830. He wt., weight. ms. or mth., month. lyd., yard.

was the second son of Mahmoud II. (1785–1839), the

first sultan who fully recognized the superiority of WestSixth-Societies and their Officers.

ern civilization and endeavored to introduce its results A. F. A. M., Ancient Free and I. O. R. M., Improved Order among his subjects. The eldest son, Abd-ul-Medjid Accepted Masons. of Red Men.

(1823-1861), had continued the same policy, but, owing A.P.A., American Protestant K. of P., Knights of Pythias. to his weak disposition, with less success. Abd-ul-Aziz, Association.

K. T., Knights Templar. on his accession, June 25, 1861, manifested the sanie inA. Y. M., Ancient York O. U. A. M., Order of United clination as his predecessors. He even went further, Masons. American Mechanics.

and, besides largely reducing the civil list, dismissed the C.O.S., Charity Organization P. M., Passed Master. Society. Sec., Secretary.

seraglio, announcing his intention to have but one wife. C.T.A. U., Catholic Total Ab-S. P. C. A., Society for the He confirmed the liberal constitution, Hatti-humayun, stinence Union.

Prevention of Cruelty to granted by his brother in 1856, attempted various reG. A. R., Grand Army of the Animals.

forms in administration, and promised equality of rights Republic.

S.P.C. C., Society for the Pre- to all his subjects. These measures, however, were in G. P. M., Grand Passed vention of Cruelty to Chil. many cases in opposition to Mohammedan law as well Master.

dren. 1.0.G. T., Independent Order S. T., Sons of Temperance.

as to the prejudices of the people, and were imperfectly of Good Templars. T. A. B., Total Abstinence executed. His chief advisers in public affairs were Aali 1.0.0. F., Independent Order Brotherhood.

Pacha and Fuad Pacha, each of whom was in turn of Odd Fellows. Treas., Treasurer.

grand vizier. Both were men of superior capacity, and

throughout their career acted in harmony: They negoSeventh-Religious.

tiated treaties of conimerce with England, France, and A.B.C. F. M., American Board Coad., coadjutor.

Italy. The internal affairs of the empire were greatly of Commissioners for For-C.P., or C. Pass., Congregatio disturbed by the conflicting demands of the various reeign Missions. A. B. M. U., American Baptist r. P. s., Congregational Pub: ligions, races, and nationalities comprised in it. The Missionary Union. Jishing Society.

Danubian principalities secured a greater degree of inA. B. H. M. Š., American Bap-c. ss. R., Congregatio Sanc- dependence. The Christians of Montenegro, who had

tist Home Missionary So- tissimi Redemptoris, Re-excited insurrections in the neighboring provinces, were ciety.

demptorist Fathers, defeated in 1862 by Omar Pacha, after a bloody war. Abp., Archbishop.

D. D., Doctor of Divinity. A. B. P. S., American Baptist D. F. M. S., Domestic and For: and was for a time openly supported by the king and

A still more formidable rebellion began in Crete in 1866, Publication Society. eign Missionary Society (of people of Greece. At last the great powers, alarmed

at A. B. S., American Bible So- the P. E. Church). ciety. Dio., Diocese.

the probable consequencés, induced Greece to withdraw A. C. A., American Congrega- Dis., Discipline.

her support, and Crete was obliged to submit in 1869. tional Association. E. L., Evangelical Lutheran. To bind Egypt more firmly to his power, the sultan had A. C. U., American Congre- F. B., Free Baptist.

visited that country in 1863, and four years later he gational Union. F. M., Foreign Mission.

bestowed on Ismail Pacha the title of khedive. In the A. F. B. S., American and For- F. W. B., Freewill Baptist. eign Bible Society. H. M., Home Mission.

summer of 1867 the sultan attended the Exhibition at A. F. C. U., American and H. Y.'M. A., Hebrew Young Paris, and visited also England, Germany, and Austria. Foreign Christian Union. Men's Association.

This journey, like the previous one to Egypt, was conA. H. M. S., American Home Luth., Lutheran.

ducted at an extravagant cost, but eventually did not Missionary Society. Meth., Methodist.

produce the results that were expected from it either by A. M. A., American Mission- M. E., Methodist Episcopal. his ministers or the people of Western Europe. Howary Association.

Mgr., Monsignor.
A. P., Associate Presbyterian. Monsig., Monsignore.

ever, he returned to Constantinople still more deeply A. R. P., Associate Reformed M. P., Methodist Protestant. imbued with French ideas, established a high school Presbyterian.

N. s., New School or New open equally to Christians and Moslems, encouraged A.S. S. U., American Sunday Side.

scientific work, and directed the supreme court to revise School Union. N. V., New Version.

and publish the civil code. The ambitious Ismail had A. T. S., American Tract So-N. W. E. C., North-western continued his efforts to secure the independence of ciety.

Education Commission. A. V., Authorized Version. 0. P., Ordinis Prædicatorum, visit Constantinople and renew formally his allegiance

Egypt, but in 1870 he was persuaded by Aali Pacha to B. V. M., the Blessed Virgin Mary.

0.S., Old School or Old Side to the sultan. This was the last success of Abd-ul-Aziz; Bp., Bishop.

O.S. B., Ordinis Sancti Bene- from this time his career was a series of disasters. The Card., Cardinal.

dicti, Benedictine Friar. downfall of the French Empire in 1870 gave Russia an C. M., Congregatio Missionum, O. §. F., Ordinis Sancti Fran opportunity to demand modifications of the Treaty of Lazarist Fathers. cisci, Franciscan Friar.

Paris of 1856, and in Jan., 1871, the unrestricted use

of the Black Sea was restored to her by a conference of liged to submit to further loss; Austria took possesthe great powers at London. Fuad Pacha had died in sion of Bosnia ; the territory of Greece was enlarged by Feb., 1869, and Aali Pacha died in Sept., 1871, De- the districts of Epirus and Thessaly; and in accordance prived of these advisers, the sultan tell more and more with a provision which for a time was kept secret Engunder the influence of the Russian ambassador, Gen. land took possession of Cyprus. The sultan resisted Ignatieff. The khedive again visited Constantinople the execution of several of these arrangements as long in 1872, and, taking advantage of the sultan's financial as he dared, and displayed an energy and ambition embarrassments, purchased a practical independence, which had not been expected. Devoutly believing that and at the same time secured the right of succession he is the head of the true faith, he has listened eagerly for his eldest son. The social and financial condition of to the assurances of the fanatical priests that, in spite the Turkish empire became every day more alarming, of the appearances to the contrary, Islam will yet conbut Abd-ul-Aziz, exhausted by his earlier attempts to quer the world. Anxious to hasten its triumph, he introduce reform, seemed bent only on amassing a pri- has sent his agents to other Mohammedan countries to vate fortune and securing the succession to the throne unite the people in a great effort for this end. Aware for his eldest son, in violation of the very custom to of the corruption which had prevailed at Constantinowhich he owed his own position. He had from the first ple in former reigns, and distrusting the civil officers by lavished large sums upon the army, and felt secure of whom he is surrounded, he has endeavored to adminis its support in any emergency. But the revenues were ter all affairs himself, and has almost effaced the Subdiminishing, while the taxes were enormous. At last, lime Porte, or council of government. Yet, compelled in 1875, some villages in Herzegovina resisted the tax- to use new and untried agents, he has often failed in gatherers, and soon the insurrection spread through improving the administration. Though acute and acBosnia. The sultan was unable to take effective meas- tive, he is wanting in resoluteness and persistency. His ures for its suppression, and in October Turkey declared irregular methods have produced contradiction and conher inability to pay more than half the interest on the fusion. The modern Turkish party have not ceased to public debt. Another conference of the great powers agitate for a change, and to threaten to restore his was held, and the sultan was induced in Feb., 1876, to brother Murad to the throne, on the ground that he is accept some measures of reform proposed by them. the rightful heir. To strike terror into his foes the sulThe Moslems, however, stoutly resisted the attempts tan determined to remove the most prominent. Midhat to confer equal rights upon the Christians, and in some Pacha was arrested on the charge of murdering the towns massacres took place. The Softas, or theological former sultan, Abd-ul-Aziz. With scarcely a pretence students, who were gathered in Constantinople to the of a trial he was condemned to death, but at the protest number of 20,000, clamored for the abdication of the of the British Government this sentence was commuted sultan, and at last the sheik-ul-Islam, or head of the to banishment to Southern Arabia. The sultan, still Moslem faith, pronounced him unworthy to be caliph. haunted by fears of assassination, leads a secluded life. He was deposed May 30, 1876, and his nephew, Murad ABEL DE PUJOL, ALEXANDRE DENIS (1785– V., was proclaimed his successor. A few days later 1861), a French artist, was born at Valenciennes, Jan. it was announced that Abd-ul-Aziz had committed sui- 30, 1785. He was descended from an aristocratic family, cide (June 4).

(J. P. L.) his father being the baron de la Gran et de Pujol. He ABD-UL-HAMID II., the thirty-fourth sultan of began his studies at Valenciennes, and continued them the Turkish empire, was born Sept. 22, 1842, and is at the École des Beaux-Arts of Paris, and under David. the second son of Abd-ul-Medjid. His brother, Murad As a pupil of the Beaux-Arts he in 1811 won the pric V., had reigned only three months when his unfitness de Rome. The style of Abel de Pujol was greatly influto rule, through insanity brought on by dissipation, be- enced by the precepts and example of David, and his came manifest. He was therefore deposed by the sheik- works are marked by a certain stiffness and hardness ul-Islam, and Abd-ul-Hamid succeeded to the throne of manner a manner which in the early part of the Aug. 31, 1876. He had been exposed to the same century was dignified by the title of “classic," but which temptations as his brother, but his more vigorous con- later has been condemned as academic. Abel de stitution enabled him to escape the same fate, and in Pujol's most important works are decorations at the later life he has been temperate. His visit to the Paris Museum of the Louvre and the palace at Fontainebleau, Exposition in 1867, in company with his uncle, Sultan and at the convent of the Sacred Heart. Among his Abd-ul-Aziz, had enlarged his views and led him to take pictures may be mentioned The Death of Britannicus, some interest in the study of geography. He has adopt- at the Museum of Dijon; St. Stephen Preaching the ed French habits and dress, yet he has always been an Gospel, at the church of Saint Etienne-du-Mont; Joorthodox Turk, and belongs to the Old Turkish party seph Explaining the Visions, at Lille; The Baptism of rather than to the imitators of Western civilization who Clovis, at the cathedral of Rheims; and The Raising of have borne șway in the Ottoman empire since 1840. Tabitha, at the church of St. Peter at Douai, He was At his accession the empire was in a chaotic state; in- made a member of the Institute in 1835, and an officer surrections were raging in Herzegovina and Bulgaria ; of the Legion of Honor in 1854. He died Sept. 28, war had been commenced in Servia, and Russia had 1861. almost completed her preparations for joining in it. ABENAKIS, the name usually given to the tribes Turkey's credit had been utterly destroyed, and she had of Algonkin Indians which formerly occupied the terno ally to whom she could look for help. The adherents ritory of Maine and New Hampshire. Under this title of the different religions in the empire were engaged in were included tribes extending from the Kennebec to bitter strife, which was ready to break into open vio- the St. John River. The name is of somewhat loose lence at any moment. To regain the allegiance of his application, but is generally considered as including the Christian subjects, Abd-ul-Hamid made the same decla- Caribas of the Kennebec, the Tarratines of the Penobration as his predecessors had done, that all his subjects, scot, the Malacites of the St. John, and other smaller whatever their religion, should have equal rights before tribes. Possibly there was a league or confederacy of the law. But this had no effect in winning back those these tribes. At all events, Capt. John Smith, who who were already in arms. Russia declared war April first described them, says that each tribe was governed 24, 1877, and, in spite of the unexpected bravery shown by a sachem, and that all the sachems were subordinate by the Turks, prosecuted the war with such vigor and to a general chieftain called the bashaba. The customs success that on March 3, 1878, the sultan agreed to the of these tribes are like those of the Algonkins generally, peace of San Stefano. By this his dominions were but their language is the harshest of the Algonkin diagreatly reduced ; Roumania and Servia were enlarged lects. From their position between the French settleand made entirely independent; the Bulgarian prov- ments in Canada and those of the English in New Enginces were erected into an independent princedom. At land they became involved in the wars of those bitter the Berlin Congress, July 13, 1878, the sultan was ob- ! foes, and played an active part as allies of the French

See Vol. I.

against the English. They were early approached by | fort, and in a skirmish Lord Howe, the ablest officer in the Jesuit missionaries, whose converts were induced to the English army, was killed. On July 8, Abercromremove to Canada, where they composed the mission bie attacked the defences on the isthnius leading to the of St. Francis. These christianized Indians were em- fort, and, as he persisted in observing the same rules of ployed by the French in raids on the English settle- war which had brought disaster on Gen. Braddock's ments, which they assailed with the crusading zeal of army three years before, he was completely defeated, new converts, and whose inhabitants they massacred losing 2000 men. He then retreated across Lake George, with the cruel torture of the savage aborigines. At a and remained inactive until superseded by Sir Jeffery later date Jesuit missions were established among the Amherst in September. He returned to England in Indians who had remained in their old haunts, and they 1759, and, afterwards entering Parliament, opposed the became generally christianized.

rights of the American colonies. While acting as depWe first hear of them in connection with “King uty governor of Stirling Castle in Scotland he died, Philip's War." A number of them were treacherously April 28. 1781. captured by Major Waldron of Dover, N.H., and sold into ABERDEEN, the county-seat of Monroe co., Miss., slavery, on the charge of having engaged in this war. is on the west bank of the Tombigbee River, at the In 1689, angered by the pressure of settlers upon their head of winter navigation for Mobile boats, and is conterritory, and perhaps instigated by French emissaries, nected with the Mississippi and Ohio Railroad by the they broke into open enmity, captured the town of Do- Aberdeen branch road, 9 miles long. It has a fine ver (then Cocheco), and barbarously murdered Major iron bridge, a handsome court-house, good public Waldron in reprisal for the injury he had done them schools, a female college, three hotels, and seven chalybthirteen years previously. This war continued for years, eate artesian wells. It is in a rich farming district, during which the English settlers suffered severely and ships annually about 25,000 bales of cotton. PopThe settlements at Salmon Falls and at Oyster River ulation, 2339. were raided and their inhabitants massacred, the towns ABEYANCE, in law, the condition of an estate of of Wells and York were captured, and Fort Royal, on

inheritance where there is no person in being the site of the present city of Portland, was taken, P. 50 Am. in whom it is vested. Where, for example, while the whole border was devastated. In the year ed. (p. 48 an estate is devised or conveyed to A for 1703, instigated by the French, they made a simulta- Edin. ed.). life,

with remainder to A's unborn son, the neous attack on the English frontier settlements, and inheritance is said to be in abeyance until the birth of burned, slaughtered, and destroyed along the whole A's son, there being no person actually in being in border. In the quaint words of the chronicler, they whom it can be said to be vested. Some writers, instead spared "neither the milk-white brows of the ancient of using the phrase "abeyance," prefer to say that the nor the mournful cries of tender infants." In 1704 inheritance is in nubibus or in gremio legis. they made a winter assault on the town of Deerfield, Mr. Fearne, in his Essay on the Learning of ContinMass. This was one of the most terrible of Indian gent Remainders, has expressed the opinion that the raids. The town was utterly destroyed, many of its inheritance can never be said to be in abeyance, but that inhabitants slaughtered, and 112 prisoners carried by it remains vested in the grantor or testator or his beirs a frightful winter journey through the wilderness to until the birth or ascertainment of the person, who is Canada. This war was finally quelled by an English under the grant or will entitled thereto, enables it to invasion of the Indian country.

vest in him. In this opinion he is sustained by the War broke out again in 1722, caused by English in weight of modern authority: The title to personal sults to the Abenakis. The settlers suffered severely, property is also sometimes said to be in abeyance when but the Indian country was invaded and the Jesuit mis- it is undetermined, the property being meantime in the sion at Norridgewock assailed. This war ended in the grasp of the law. Where, for example, a vessel is capbrutal slaughter of Sebastian Rasles, the last of the tured in time of war, and brought into port for conCatholic missionaries in New England, and the break- demnation, the title thereto is said to be in abeyance ing up of the community of Christian Indians which he until she is duly declared by the admiralty court to be had formed. Peace was concluded with the tribes in a prize.

(L. L., JR.) 1726, and was never broken. During the American ABILENE, the county-seat of Dickinson co., Kan., Revolution they embraced the cause of the colonies is on the Kansas Pacific Railroad, 96 miles west of Toand did some service.

peka and 446 miles east of Denver, Col. It has good Some of the Abenakis still exist in Canada, where public schools, a high school, an academy, seven there are two villages bearing their name. Their rem-churches, two weekly newspapers, a Holly company nants in Maine are called Penobscots and Passamaquod-water-works, gas-works, a fine court-house, an operadics. Their language was studied by Sebastian Rasles, house, and many other handsome buildings. It has whose dictionary is of importance. Their history has grown rapidly and has a large trade. Population, 2360. been written by Rev. E. Vetromile (N. Y., 1866) and ABIOGENESIS (Gr. a privative; Bíos, life; yéveois, in more detail by Rev. J. A. Mauvault (Sorel, 1866). See Vol. I. generation), the generation of living from

(C. M.) P: 51 Am. not living matter-a modern form of the ABERCROMBIE, JAMES (1706–1781), a British edin (Pia 19 old doctrine of generatio æquivoca, or "spon

Edined.). general, was born at Glasshaugh, Scotland, in 1706.

taneous generation.". Since life upon this Having entered the army, he became colonel in 17:46 planet must have had a beginning in time and place, and major-general in 1756. He then came to America abiogenesis is a necessary postulate of a consistent theas second in command to Lord Loudoun. Little was ory of evolution. It is believed by most modern sciendone by them for the protection of the colonies, but, in tists and by all logically-consistent evolutionists that spite of the protests of the citizens, the soldiers were abiogenesis, once resulting in living protoplasm, has billeted in private houses in New York and other cities. never been re-enacted. Others, however, hold that In 1758, Loudoun was recalled, and Abercrombie had life is continually coming into material being by abiothe chief command. An expedition against Canada genesis in the cases of the lowest Protozoans. Reasonwas planned, and an army of 15,000 men, of whom able as the supposition may be upon a priori grounds, 9000 were colonial troops, was gathered. With this, no shadow of the proof has hitherto been forthcoming the largest force of European origin that had ever been The experiments which have been adduced in support assembled in America, Abercrombie marched against of abiogenesis proceed upon the argument that living Ticonderoga, where the French had a fortified camp matter is killed by a certain degree of heat; that liquids called Carillon. Gen. Montcalm, who held it with about have been subjected to such degree, entry of gering 3600 men, though aware of the large force marching from without being effectually precluded; and that against him, decided to take the risk of remaining. On living organisms have subsequently appeared in such July 1758, Abercrombie's advance landed near the liquids. Commenting upon the probable fallacy of

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