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invited. Certainly it would seem to me that is the most competent type of testimony.

The question has been asked of some witnesses about the use of land, and I am certainly not competent to testify on the use of land in support of this mental hospital program, but I do want to say this: I don't believe the Territory or the State of Alaska can carry the burden of taking care of these mental patients without Federal help, and I don't think it would be fair to expect us to. The United States has been caring for these patients for 50 years now. It could be that we might be able to take care of new patients if given time to do that.

Mrs. Prost. Do you mean without Federal help on a continuing basis?

Dr. HAYMAN. I think some continuing basis will be necessary. I don't know how long that will have to continue. It might be a diminishing amount, as I believe is in the act. But to expect us—to just hand over the patients to us and say, “You take them over and take care of them, I certainly don't believe we could or should be expected to do it. Certainly we have got to have either land or money to do it.

I want to close with just one more point which it seems to me has not been mentioned at all by any of the witnesses and is most important, which is related to the statehood question which, incidentally, I am also in favor of tonight. That is to say, it will occur tomorrow rather than sometime in the future.

One of our greatest problems is the lack of a local government between the municipality and the Territory, something analogous to the county. That has been touched upon directly in the question of this property tax. You have the municipality, you have the school district, and outside of that you have nothing; and in health administration we are faced with the same problem. So much so that we have to divide the Territory into three regions-southeast Alaska, which is one health region, and then a line horizontally across the middle of Alaska, a central region, and a northern region. We can deal with Anchorage and Seward and in between, Bethel, let's say, and Seward there is nothing to deal with.

We feel it is most important for the registration of vital statistics for full development of local health services, that we should have something like a county. I am sure that the constitutional convention is considering that question in its preparation for statehood.

That is all I have.
Mr. BARTLETT. Thank you, Dr. Hayman.
Mr. Utt, do you have any questions?
Mr. UTT. I have no questions.
Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. Chenoweth?

Mr. CHENOWETII. I have been very much interested in your statement, Doctor. I want to follow up what Mrs. Pfost was asking you about the method of committing incompetents. What is your procedure now?

Dr. HAYMAN. As I said, I am not too familiar with this because I have not been dealing with it directly, but it is my understanding that there must be a complaint by someone to a United States commissioner.

Mr. CHENOWETH. To a commissioner?



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Dr. HAYMAN. United States commissioner. And then he must arrest the patient, put him in jail, and bring him before a jury of six people. Then the jury must decide whether the patient is insane or not. If he is insane, he can be taken to Morningside. If he is not insane, he must be released.

Mr. CHENOWETH. Is there no medical testimony?

Dr. HAYMAN. The medical testimony may be invited but is not mandatory.

Mr. CHENOWETH. I am amazed that such a procedure could exist up here. It is unbelievable, incredible that you could permit institutionalizing without medical advice.

Dr. HAYMAN. It is not necessary.

Mr. CHENOWETH. For 8 years I handled that type of case in Colorado, and you have to have 2 doctors to certify to the incompetency, and the patient has to have a lawyer to represent him. Does he have that here?

Dr. HAYMAN. I am not sure. He may request a lawyer. I don't believe that is required.

Mr. CHENOWETU. But a doctor is not necessary?
Dr. HAYMAN. He is not.
Mr. CHENOWETII. How in the world would a jury know?
Dr. HAYMAN. The jury may call for medical testimony.

Mr. CHENOWETH. Who handles a case like that—the county attorney or some deputy district attorney or someone like that?

Dr. HAYMAN. I am not familiar with that.

Mr. CHENOWETU. That is a pretty important proceeding to deprive a man of his liberty. Certainly he has the right to be safeguarded in every step of the procedure.

I think that is all I have.
Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. Sisk?

Mr. Sisk. No further questions. I would like to commend the doctor on a very fine statement.

Mr. BARTLETT. Dr. Taylor?
Mr. TAYLOR. Nothing, thank you.
Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. McFarland ?
Mr. McFARLAND. Nothing,
Mr. BartLETT. Our thanks go to you, Doctor.
Dr. HAYMAN. Thank you.
(Discussion off the record.)

Mr. TAYLOR. Before we adjourn, Mr. Bartlett, I think the newspaper reporters would like to know that we have had 1814 hours of hearings and 34 witnesses in Juneau. All told we have had 182 wit

. nesses and we have spent 6712 hours in committee hearings.

Mr. BARTLETT. Now we must prepare to leave for Sitka for more hearings and then go on to Petersburg for further hearings.

If there is no further business, the committee will now adjourn.


My name is Dr. C. Earl Albrecht, commissioner of health with the Alaska Department of Health, with offices at Juneau, Alaska. I have been in Alaska over 20 years, during which time I have been in private practice and served nearly 4 years in the Medical Corps of the United States Army, stationed within

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the Territory during the entire war. At the close of the war, in 1945, I was appointed as the first full-time commissioner of health for the Territory of Alaska.

As one of the witnesses appearing before this committee, I should like to express my appreciation that this committee has asked Alaskans about this subject. We are confident, that, as a result of these hearings, we will be given every consideration by the Congress to help Alaska meet the problems in connection with juvenile delinquency that are presently in existence in Alaska or those that might arise due to the conditions that are always peculiar to or are associated with a rapidly growing frontier country.

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As a witness, it is not my intention to comment specifically on the juvenile delinquency problem within Alaska, nor the extent of the problem or what is being done to meet it, because, other witnesses, much more closely in contact with the situation will amply present that aspect of the question. As the commissioner of health I have a constant interest and responsibility in furthering all of my efforts toward the prevention of any undesirable situation, even to a situation such as juvenile delinquency. Certainly we would all agree that if we could prevent its occurrence, we would feel that we had accomplished a great deal, and our efforts would have been most effective.

Everyone is in agreement that the environment in which a child is reared and lives, is bound to have a great effect upon his or her normal development or growth. If this environment is abnormal, it certainly may lead to abnormal tendencies in a child, and develop abnormal behavior patterns, The department of health as such, cannot do a great deal about the environment in which the child lives, but we are concerned with another factor that may predispose to juvenile delinquency, namely the mental and physical health of the individual.

I should like to report to the committee that a great deal of effort is being put forth to improve conditions by health agencies and groups within Alaska, which include Federal and Territorial agencies; the professional groups, medical and nursing; the hospitals and the several voluntary health associations which we have throughout the Territory. Although we are still burdened with some very serious health conditions, by and large, things are very much better than they were, and conditions are continuing to improve.




The area in which we feel ourselves least prepared to cope with our problems, is in the maintenance of good mental health of our people. It is not so much that Alaskans do not recognize that much needs to be done in this area, but we are handicapped in coping with the situation by reason of our Territorial status, with the attendant Federal controls that result therefrom.

You have undoubtedly had it brought to your attention already, that the care of the mentally ill of Alaska is entirely vested in the power of the Congress of the United States. In the original Organic Act, under which our Territorial government was established, the care of the mentally ill of Alaska was specifically mentioned as being retained by the Congress. You have also undoubtedly heard that the Alaskans are endeavoring to have this situation corrected through the enactment of a bill in Congress, which is referred to as the Alaska mental health bill. In brief, this bill provides for a correction of the antiquated, archaic, inbumane methods of commitment and the handling of our mentally ill. But it goes much further for it places a responsibility upon the people of Alaska and its government, by granting authority and responsibility to develop a compre. hensive program for the care of mentally ill individuals. It further provides for initial assistance from the Federal Government in the establishment of necessary facilities within the Territory, where, of necessity, early care must be given, by providing grants to the Territory, both in funds, and in land.

Juvenile delinquency does not by any means imply that the juvenile who is delinquent is necessarily mentally ill. The probabilities, however, are that when a child has some abnormal characteristics and behavior patterns, maladjustment, frustration, or psychoneurosis, and it is recognized early, and if the child is given some sincere, patient, kindly consideration and treatment, delinquent complications might never arise. This is a principle that has been advocated by specialists in this field for a long time and we in Alaska recognize it as being an unmet need.



It is our suggestion that this committee give consideration to the Alaska mental-health bill, which is now before Congress, as an immediate and urgent step that could be taken as one measure to help in staving off a serious juvenile delinquency problem in Alaska.

When this bill is enacted, it will make it possible for us to obtain the necessary trained persons, in sufficient numbers, so that it will be possible for us to hold clinics, to which juveniles may be referred to give them the necessary early assistance through patient consideration of their problems, directing them toward making wholesome plans and participating in worthwhile activities, and if the necessity arises, giving them early treatment to prevent more serious mental conditions arising, which might lead to permanent injury and damage. We have made a beginning, by employing 1 full-time psychiatrist, 2 psychologists, and 2 psychiatric social workers in the Alaska department of health. Without the necessary facilities to work in, and without the correction of the inhumane, archaic legal procedures now in effect, the work and efforts of this small number has been much less effective and worthwhile than it should be,

In reviewing the legislative history of the Alaska mental-health bill, the committee will find that it has had a very rough go of it. The reasons for this have varied. On of the reasons has been that there are always those who do not desire change, wishing to retain the old methods, even as outmoded as they might be. A second reason has been lack of understanding and appreciation of the importance of this type of legislation for the people of Alaska. The current status of the Alaska mental-health bill has discouraged Alaskans to a very marked degree, because delays have resulted from the fact that political implications and pressures have become involved in its passage. Unless a broader and more humanitarian point of view is taken, the bill may be again lost and valuable time wasted, and the situation will remain uncorrected. In a recent article in the Juneau Empire, there was expressed the concern Alaskans have that this bill may be delayed in its passage.


"By Dr. C. Earl Albrecht, Territorial commissioner of health "There are very few matters in Alaska that are receiving more serious attention on the part of Alaskans everywhere than their interest and desire to have their mental-health problems improved. Nearly every community, even many of the smaller ones, have in someway come close to the problems that arise from the present handling of a mentally ill person. It seems unnecessary to review the present archaic, inhumane method of managing these cases. because these facts have frequently been brought out into the open. Again, Alaskans are actively supporting the enactment of Federal legislation which will correct this unsatisfactory procedure.

“Now Alaskans are hopeful again, because we have heard that the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee reported out an Alaska mental-health bill. But it came out of the committee by a divided vote. This is distressing to Alaskans, because it is hard for them to understand why a matter which pertains to the health of their relatives, neighbors, and friends could have any possible political implications.

"For some Alaskans this is a matter of life and death. The present law which is a Federal law under which Alaskans are now subjected, meant the life of a mother in the Federal jail in Juneau several years ago. She was the mother of children who have now become beneficiaries of the Government as a result of her suicidal death in the jail during an excitement phase of her mental depression.

"Had it been possible for her to have been hospitalized within Alaska in the first stages of her illness, we are told by authorities and specialists in psychiatry that she might very well have been treated and returned to her family. But she is dead because of her improper care and disturbed mental condition. The correction of this situation is indeed a matter of life and death for Alaskans.

"Incidents of this kind have aroused Alaskans everywhere and strong appeals have been made to the Department of Interior, the Public Health Service, and the Congress that an adequate Alaska mental-health bill be passed by Congress. Only then will it be possible for a comprehensive mental care program to be established within Alaska.

“The present administration through the Department of Interior and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, with the approval of the

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Bureau of the Budget has placed before the subcommittees of the House of Representatives a very adequate bill. And yet, Alaskans read that this bill, which has administration support, has developed political implications and as a result has a very stormy course before the Rules Committee and the House of Representatives when it is up for passage.

"It is considered tha the bill before the Rules Committee of the House of Representatives is a good bill. I believe that it should be enacted promptly without political implications and have the support of both parties. This bill has the support of the Federal administration and the executive branches concerned ; it has the strong support of Gov. B. Frank Heintzleman, Delegate E. L. Bartlett, the Alaska Department of Health, numerous societies, medical groups, ministerial associations, legislative committees, members of the joint house and senate committee of the Alaska Legislature.

“With this overwhelming unanimity of opinion, over and above political considerations, it is hard for Alaskans to understand if this much needed legislation is not enacted.

"Alaskans do have faith, howerer, and believe that when full consideration is given by the House and Senate of our Congress, they will by an overwhelming majority, hastily enact the Alaska mental health bill. We must look to each and every Member of the House and Senate of the United States Congress as our special representative, and we must appeal to each one individually to give this inatter his serious attention."

We Alaskans recognize full well, that this type of legislation is unusual, but we have been forced to this procedure because of the organic act, which makes it necessary for us to go to the Congress to correct the outdated procedures and the antiquated legislation. We further recognize, full well that it is unusual to appeal to the Congress for Federal financial assistance in helping to meet our mental-health problem. The question is asked “Why should Alaska have assistance when other areas do not?” But Alaska needs this assistance, again because of the position the Federal Government has placed it in. For example, the vast resources of this great Territory, consisting of most all of its land masses, are still under the direct control of the Federal agencies. Its resources are, therefore, not available as yet to Alaskans as sources of income. If they were, it would make it possible for us to meet our own costs, excessive as they are, for the care of the mentally ill. For many years it has been pointed out by different officials from Alaska, that if the Territory were granted the income from the net profit of the sale of the Alaska seal certainly one of Alaska's own natural resources, rather than have the funds go directly into the !' deral Treasury, it would be possible for Alaska to meet some of these health problems.

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It is thus evident, Alaska is placed in an unusual situation. Alaska certainly is in a strategic location in world power politics. It must be a defense bulwark, so we must have healthy, strong, manpower to develop this great country, and to strengthen and build its defenses. To build and maintain this health and strength it is going to cost much more in every way than it will in other areas under the American flag.

This committee should be told that I realize that the enactment of the Alaska mental-health bill is not, by any means, the answer to all that is needed to prevent the occurrence of juvenile delinquency, but I am persuaded that it is a first and most urgent step that Congress needs to take to help make this aspect in the preventive program of juvenile delinquency effective. Much needs to be done, after the act is passed, but this is an urgent emergency step that needs to be taken.

ALASKA JUDICIAL SYSTEM AND PENAL SYSTEM Before I close my testimony, there are two other aspects of this whole problem, which I would like to refer to and that is that I believe that our judicial system in Alaska needs to be strengthened and improved. Somewhat in connection with this is that our penal system, by that I mean our Federal and municipal jails, need much improvement. When the juvenile delinquent reaches the point that he becomes involved with the judicial system or the penal system, unless these are working efficiently at a high level with good standards, it is inevitable that a profoundly bad impression will be made upon the juvenile. One of the most glaring deficiencies in Alaska, in Federal iary system, is the deplorable shortage of Federal judges. The very fine judges that we have are

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