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that it went further than was needed. I think what we need more at this point is regulatory powers rather than operational powers. I think that the existing agencies, the Bureau, the cities, the REA co-ops, are perfectly capable of operating their own facilities. What they need is cooperation and integration and an occasional nudge from a regulatory body when they get entangled in their local squabbles.

Mr. Dawson. Do I understand there are no regulatory bodies in the Territory?

Mr. Boyko. Not in the public utility field. That is correct.
Mr. ABBOTT. I believe that is all I have, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. O'BRIEN. Thank you, gentlemen, unless some other member
of the committee has any questions.

(Discussion off the record.)
Mr. O'BRIEN. Mr. Bartlett.

Mr. BARTLETT. I would like to ask unanimous consent there be included in the record a statement on tidelands submitted by the Bureau of Land Management here at Anchorage, and likewise one on townsite lands.

Mr. O'BRIEN. Without objection, those statements will be included in the record.

(The statements referred to follow:)

TIDELANDS

THE RESOURCE

Considerable permanent occupancy of tidelands and shorelands has already occurred and is continuing to occur, especially in Southeastern Alaska. This despite lack of proper authorization. Developments have been built on fills and pilings over tidelands and even beyond over the submerged lands. Rough topography of the uplands in many places precludes inland expansion of community development. Not only do these improvements involve docks and warehouses, but also streets, commercial establishments, hotels, and residences. Much of the commercial and business sections of southeastern Alaskan towns, including Ketchikan, Juneau, Cordova, Valdez, Wrangell, Sitka, and Petersburg. are located on the tidelands. This condition has existed for many decades and the improvements on tidelands in some of these towns are estimated to be worth many millions of dollars.

This situation is rapidly becoming more complicated and unmanageable because of the growth and expansion of the cities and towns fronting upon tidal waters. A few tideland occupants have received revocable permits from the Bureau of Land Management; others, or their successors in interest, have mistakenly improved land while relying upon sanction given by the Corps of Engineers to do so wherever occupancy and improvements would not interfere with navigation.

USE AND OWNERSHIP

There is, at present, no legislative anthority to issue ocenpancy leases or to dispose of title to the lands. The Territory has no jurisdiction, as the tidelands and the beds of navigable waters are held in trust for the Territory pending the granting of statehood. The Bureau of Land Management may only issue landing and wharf permits and special land-use permits which are revocable at will. Permittees are, therefore, generally discouraged from construction of permanent improvements. Although without present jurisdiction, the Territory shall be the successor in interest to the tidelands and shorelands of navigable waters and consequently has a vital interest in their present administration and development while under Federal jurisdiction.

There being only limited authority to legalize the occupancy of lands containing permanent improvements, it would probably be highly inequitable to bring trespass charges against the holders of real property assets on the tidelands. Positive action is needed to minimize uncertainties of occupancy of tideland

areas and to encourage further limited occupancy and development, as both are needed for the growth of coastal communities.

PUBLIC LAND MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

In the event of failure of enactment of pending legislation to grant statehood to the Territory of Alaska, or to transfer to the Territory of Alaska title to the tidelands on its coastline and the beds of navigable waters, it is incumbent upon the Bureau of Land Management to effect a satisfactory interim administration of tidelands and navigable water shorelands in the public interest. This is necessary particularly as to tidelands and shorelands of navigable waters within or in front of the limits of any city.

PROGRAM NEEDED TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES

1. If there is failure of enactment of legislation now pending in the Department to transfer to the Territory of Alaska title to the tidelands on its coastline and the beds of navigable waters, legislation might be introduced which would authorize the townsite trustee to establish inner harbor lines, make the townsite laws applicable to the tidelands, and make tidelands between the meander line and the inner harbor lines disposable property. Generally, this would require little additional survey of external lines as the townsite limits and meander lines have been surveyed for established townsites.

2. With adoption of the above provide for expansion of townsite administration to provide for beneficial use and disposal of tidelands through provision of subdivision surveys and leasing and disposal with recognition of the usual valid rights and preferences and community development patterns.

3. Formulation within present legislative authorities, unless tidelands and beds of navigable waters are transferred to the Territory of Alaska, a more effective interim administration of tidelands and navigable water shorelands beyond the limits of townsites for the transition period from Territorial to Statehood status of Alaska, with due consideration of present and future Territorial and community interests.

The formulation of such interim administration might be by joint effort of the Territorial department of lands, Alaska Resources Development Board, and the Bureau of Land Management upon appropriate inventory of the physical and tenure aspects of the problem in selected areas and appropriate examination of the methods and procedures aspects of such administration.

TOWNSITE LANDS

THE RESOURCE

areas.

Alaska is a frontier primarily of city dwellers. On April 1, 1950, 96,833 people or about 75 percent of the Territory's population lived in the greater area or recording districts of the 12 largest cities and towns. The relative importance of its larger cities is increasing. Between the census in 1939 and 1950, there was an increase of 122 percent in the number of persons living in these community

There has been a recent general increase in the number of cities, towns, and villages in Alaska. Large communities with 1,000 or more people numbered 7 in 1929, 8 in 1939, and 12 in 1950. Towns and villages with 500 to 1,000 people numbered 5 in 1929, 9 in 1939, and 12 in 1950. Smaller communities with 300 to 500 inhabitants numbered 13 io 1929, 14 in 1939, and 20 in 1950,

This increasing concentration of population in cities and towns requires greater attention to their land requiremenis for community growth. Important among these are lands for homes, business, recreation, and municipal purposes. Moreover, how well Alaskan communities are planned and developed in the years ahead will have a direct bearing on the standard and enjoyableness of living of inost Alaskans.

Unplanned and unregulated growth has helped to produce most of the improvement problems now faced by the larger Alaskan communities. Many Alaskans are disturbed by the way their communities have developed and have set themselves the task of examining the influences that have made them what they are and developing plans for better civic development. Recently a League of Alaskan Cities was organized to foster local and territorial remedial action on municipal problems.

Of the larger cities and towns, Anchorage, Seward, and Nenana originated as planned railroad townsites and Nome and Palmer as government townsites.

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In character, they are more open and spread out than other Alaskan cities. Fairbanks, Juneau, Kodiak, Sitka, Petersburg, Wrangell, and Cordova, which are trustee townsites, began as de facto mining, fishing, transportation, or administrative centers closely huddled along their water fronts. In their development, town plats too often came to be seen mainly as means of subdividing land for sale, resulting in cities not primarily as places to live, but as real estate, although in many lands were designated for public parks and municipal reserves.

With the impact of defense construction, the largest communities of Alaska burst into the suburbs where speculation reigned. The few attempts of suburb builders to produce livable planned developments have generally been overwhelmed by thoughtless building along traffic arteries.

USE AND OWNERSHIP

Townsites in Alaska have evolved under the administration of four separate acts, namely: Presidential (Government), railroad, native (de facto), and trustee (de facto). As indicated above, most have been developed as trustee townsites. Over the years, many townsites, including some of those of the larger cities, have been fully surveyed, platted, and lands patented or otherwise conveyed and are no longer of primary responsibility to the Federal Government. These include Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, Ketchikan, Nome, Seldovia, Skagway as well as a number of smaller communities. Not counting the additions, there being as many as four in some cases, there are 10 active trustee townsites at present in Alaska which have an average population of over 500 people. Of the active trustee townsites, 8 need immediate provision of townsite plans, 3 need subdivisional surveys, 3 are awaiting plat approval, 4 are awaiting patent to the trustee, 4 are awaiting awards of lots to claimants, and 16 are awaiting appraisal and sale of vacant subdivided land. Several new planned townsites, including Tok Junction, Buffalo Center, and Cantwell have been surveyed and are undergoing development under the Presidential Townsite Act.

PUBLIC LAND MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

1. Provision of effectively planned and platted new townsites or townsite additions and adaptations of form of de facto townsites in the survey and platting so as to provide community plans that take account of real living needs-economic, social, hygienic, and esthetic.

2. Provision of simplified and speedier townsite administration through the various processes of surveying, filing of plats, appraising and selling, and awarding

of patents.

PROGRAM NEEDED TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES

1. Provision of a new and simplified townsite law to replace the existing cumbersome, and in some respects contradictory, statutes now in operation in Alaska.

2. Provision whereby city planning services could be contracted in order to effectively plan and plat new townsites or townsite additions and adapt the forms of de facto communities to more adequately serve urban functional needs. This would eliminate necessity of employing full-time townsite planner and permit fuller attention to other aspects of townsite administration.

3. Consolidation of townsite adıninistration into a single office where all matters pertaining to townsite planning, surveying and platting, appraisal and selling, issuance of patent and awards, and maintenance of townsite records may be dealt with more expeditiously.

4. Provision for contract and payment of various townsite improvement projects out of townsite sale receipts remaining after payment townsite trustee expenditures in townsite administration.

5. Execution of townsite administration as follows, fiscal year 1956–60:

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Kenai
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Kodiak.
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Petersburg -
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Sitka, Indian village
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Wrangell.
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Mr. O'Brien. Dr. Hubbard, do you have a written statement?
Dr. HUBBARD. Yes.
Mr. O'BRIEN. Would you prefer just to place that in the record?
Dr. HUBBARD. That would be quite all right.
Mr. O'BRIEN. What is the pleasure of the committee?
Mr. Dawson. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, we accept it for the record.

Mr. BARTLETT. You do not have any additional verbal statement that you think it is necessary to supplement that written statement with?

Dr. HUBBARD. No, I think not.

Mr. O'Brien. Without objection, the statement will be made a part of the record.

(The statement referred to follows:)

DR. HUBBARD ON ALASKA MENTAL HEALTH ACT I am Dr. Oscar E. Hubbard, chief of the mental health section of the Alaska Health Department. I only came to Alaska to accept the position of chief of the mental health section on July 1. There are many things about the Territory and its problems I have yet to learn, but the care of its mentally ill is my serious

concern.

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