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Then the basin from Cape None to Quartz Creek, every stream of which is known to carry placer gold and from which millions have been recovered and with improved machinery, gold allowed to take its proper place in our economy, many more millions will be recovered.

On Charley Creek, a tributary of the Sinnook River, Margrafand Co. have opened up an immense deposit of bismuth in a ledge—the only known_ledge deposit in North America. The surveyed road from Fairbanks to Nome, Teller, and Wales goes within a few miles of this deposit. Known deposits of antimony, copper, silver, lead, and sheelite have been found and some small development carried on all through this section in the Sawtooth Mountains, which is a spur of the chain with which the range ending at Cape Prince of Wales is the main portion. Rich placer deposits have been worked in the upper basin of this section, roughly described as the Kougarok, from the principal stream from which the placer gold was recovered.

Placer deposits were quite rich in the streams adjacent to Teller and both shores of Grantly Harbor. Near the head of Imaruk Basin and back in the mountains many ledges have been found carrying copper and other associated minerals. Dr. Alfred Brooks told me that in time, in his opinion, tin mining would be centered in the Wales section, both placer and ledge.

In the Kotzebue Sound area the Immachuch and Keewalik Rivers have both been sources of rich gold production. Other streams as yet have not been so productive; float ores have been found assaying quite highly and indicative of potential mining possibilities * * * silver, lead, and a possible uranium deposit. The whole of the Kobuk River carries possibilities. Quite a recovery has been made at Klery Creek at Kiana and on Dahl Creek at the extreme head of the river. The Anaconda Mining Co., it is reported, are showing interest in a deposit of copper in the lower section of the valley.

Gold was our economy-placer-it was a one-way haul for the steamship companies, so with the restrictions placed on it, the immense work of the military in other parts of Alaska and the high wage scale, along with the rise in price of everything used by us in the second division, it has had the effect of paralyzing our whole economy.

A well-planned road system (contracted for), a series of arterial roads, in my opinion, would have a very enervating effect on out whole division and would be reflected in the economy of the Territory. Respectfully yours,


Senator, Second Division, Territory of Alaska. Mr. ABBOTT. Mr. Chairman, there are two other items.

One is a statement over the signature I believe of Helen M. Carlisle, relative to the need to reestablish a United States Land Office in Nome.

(The statement referred to follows:)



Enclosed is a map of Alaska with the boundaries of second division outlined.

I understand there will be a bill introduced in the next session of Congress to transfer land around Barrow from second division to fourth division.

If you will notice on the map, Nome is about equally distant from Barrow as compared to Fairbanks. Fairbanks has the advantage of the Alaska Highway. Nome has the cheaper transportation by water during the "open season.

The land office in Nome was established by Congress in 1943 and was absorbed by the district land office, Fairbanks in 1951. The regional administrator for Alaska, Lowell M. Puckett, recommended this change as the land office, Nome, did not bring in enough financially to the Bureau of Land

Management, disregarding the needs of the people of ail second division and the laws that limited the possibilities of land office income.

A trip to Fairbanks to obtain information from the land office costs $99. a round trip. This does not include the cost of living while there and the difficulty of finding the information about the division that they know nothing about.

Second division resources which concern the land office

Gold, tin, other minerals, in amounts unknown but plentiful.

Coal estimated at 3 trillion tons according to the former territorial assayer located in Nome. Oil and gas lands.

Timber along the Kobuk River east of Kotzebue, near Unalakleet, Haycock, Council, White Mountain, and along the Yukon.

The regional administrator did not want the gas and oil lease applications come to the land office, Nome. Land that can be patented or purchased from the Government through the land office

Land under the homestead laws.-Land can be taken up by veterans as they are not required to show cultivation if they do not delay in fulfilling other requirements.

Land under the homesite law.-Residence under this law is almost prohibitive as the weather conditions are against residing a distance from town for 5 months of each year for 3 years. If this division could have residence of 3 months for 5 years, the requirements could be fulfilled for some much desired land for summer dwellings.

Land for small tracts could be surveyed by the Bureau of Land Management. This gives people who cannot fulfill residence requirements under other laws an opportunity to patent land for homes.

Trade and manufacturing sites are possible to take up but usually the business can be combined with residence and both be included in a homesite application unless more land is needed. Lands for lease through land office

Coal lands, oil and gas lands, rights-of-way for ditches carrying water for mining operations.

U. S. S. R. & M. Co. pays for over 100 miles of ditches that carry water over public land to their mining operations. Reservations (of record in land office)

Native reservations, reservations for churches, power sites, radar sites, reserves for other departments of the Government. Sledge Island is a reserve for a United States Navy hospital. This dates from 1902. St. Lawrence Island is reserved as a reindeer reservation. ACS and CAA have a reserve east of Cape Nome which covers about 3 by 4 miles. This has been abandoned by them and should be returned to public domain.

Mining locations for lode and placer mining should be filed in the land office rather than in the United States commissioner's office.

Assessment declarations for mining claims should be yearly filed in the land office rather than in the United States commissioner's office.

The last two mentioned should be a source of income for the land office rather than increasing the income of the United States commissioner.

Townsites are applied for through the land office. Kotzebue applied over 5 years ago and that is still pending.

We need a land office for this division to aid in the development of second division.

Mr. O'BRIEN. I would like to state briefly for the record that I believe you have provided us here in Nome with an excellent record. I think the presentations were very clear. Even some of us dudes from the East understood some of these complex problems, and we are grateful for your cooperation. We hope that when we come back again-and not if, when we will be able to stamp "accomplished" on some of the things you want us to do.

Thank you very much. The hearing is now adjourned.

(Whereupon, at 12:50 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned, to reconvene at the call of the Chair'.)

ALASKA, 1955


Aboard Alaska Railroad Train en route

Fairbanks to Mount McKinley, Alaska.
The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 9:30 a. m., Hon. Leo W.
O'Brien (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Mr. ABBOTT. The purpose of this hearing is to hear the testimony of Dr. John Reed, the staff coordinator of the United States Geological Survey, particularly as it might relate to Public Land Order 82 and the area which the committee flew over partially in the last 3 days.

Mr. O'Brien. Mr. Reed, would you identify yourself for the record?


Mr. REED. I am John C. Reed, staff coordinator of the United
States Geological Survey,

I am happy to try to give you some of the background in regard to northern Alaska.

Let me make it plain that I do not believe it to be my prerogative to state what should or should not be done about Public Land Order 82. However, I think I can give you some information that may be helpful to you people in forming your own judgment as to what might or might not be done about Public Land Order 82.

Mr. O'Brien. May I suggest at this point, Mr. Abbott, you outline the matter as it is before our committee now. Have we been asked to make a recommendation?

Mr. ABBOTT. I believe that the Secretary of the Interior addressed letters to the Armed Services Committees of the House and Senate and the Interior Committees of the House and Senate.

Is that correct, Mr. Bartlett?

Mr. BARTLETT. That is correct. (A copy of Secretary McKay's letter to Chairman Engle is found on p. 9.)

Mr. ABBOTT. Asking whether or not they could pass judgment on the propriety and desirability of revoking Public Land Order 82 insofar as it applies to the area lying outside what is known as Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4.

I thought at this point we might have inserted in the record a copy of Public Land Order 82. We have had called to our attention a copy of a letter from Mr. Vinson, chairman, House Armed Services Committee, in response to the request of the Secretary of the Interior, indicating that his committee saw no reason to object to the revocation

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Mrs. GREEN. Is this the general procedure? Does the Secretary of the Interior ordinarily direct letters to committees to ask for policy decisions?

Mr. ABBOTT. I am not familiar enough with the procedure in the past to know. It is clear, and the position of the Department in the letter, of course, the Secretary has presently authority and sole responsibility for opening lands to entry or closing them within the statutory responsibilities he has as to entry. There are some complicating factors, as I believe Dr. Reed can point out.

Mr. O'BRIEN. The record should show, I believe, that the House Interior Committee has not acted upon the letter, and that the information we obtain up here may determine whether we act and how we act. Without objection, Public Land Order 82 will be made a part of the record at this point.

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By virtue of the authority vested in the President and pursuant to Executive Order No. 9146 of April 24, 1942, it is ordered as follows:

Subject to valid existing rights, (1) all public lands, including all public lands in the Chugach National Forest, within the following-described areas are hereby withdrawn from sale, location, selection, and entry under the public-land laws of the United States, including the mining laws, and from leasing under the mineral-leasing laws, and (2) the minerals in such lands are hereby reserved under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, for use in connection with the prosecution of the war:

Northern Alaska All that part of Alaska lying north of a line beginning at a point on the boundary between the United States and Canada, on the divide between the north and south forks of Firth River, approximate latitude 68°52' N., longitude 141°00' W., thence westerly, along this divide, and the periphery of the watershed northward to the Arctic Ocean, along the crest of portions of the Brooks Range and the De Long Mountains, to Cape Lisburne. The area described, including both public and nonpublic lands, aggregates 48,000,000 acres.

Alaska Peninsula
Beginning at the highest point on Mt. Veniaminof, approximate latitude
56°13' N., longitude 159° 24' W.;

South, approximately 24 miles, to a point on the north shore of Ivanof Bay;
Northeasterly, approximately 400 miles, along the Pacific Ocean, Shelikof

Strait and Cook Inlet to Tuxedni Bay;
Northwesterly, approximately 46 miles, along the south shore of Tuxedni

Bay, to the headwaters of the principal stream entering Tuxedni Bay
from the west, across the Aleutian Range of mountains to the most

northerly point of Little Lake Clark; Southwesterly, approximately 340 miles, along the easterly shores of Little

Lake Clark, Lake Clark and Sixmile Lake to Newhalen River, downstream along the left bank of Newhalen River to Iliamna Lake, southwesterly along the north and west shores of Iliamna Lake to Kvichak River, downstream along the left bank of Kvichak River, and the shores of Kvichak Bay and Bristol Bay, to a point due north of the point of

beginning; South, approximately 22 miles, to the point of beginning. The area described, including both public and nonpublic lands, aggregates 15,600,000 acres.

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