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be X-rayed just as a matter of good procedure. You speak of economic feasibility. It costs $10 for an X-ray. Again it seems to me more emphasis needs to be put on preventive medicine up here, because certainly the cost of caring for a TB patient is far in excess of any $10 that might be spent for the cost of X-raying a youngster or an adult, for that matter.

Mr. ANGELL. You have many parents, relatively speaking, that have their children X-rayed several times every year, or at least once every year.

Mrs. Green. But the ones who actually need it the most are probably the ones not getting it.

Mr. ÅNGELL. That is right, other than when the nurse feels they need it. Of course, every one of these youngsters that come from a home where there is TB, that child is under the welfare setup and if they need it, is X-rayed under her program. Is Miss McDonnell here? She is our public health nurse.

She is not here. She can answer the questions.

Mrs. GREEN. Of course, a great deal of evidence has been accumulated upon other things which are discovered from the tuberculosis X-rays, the beginning of cancer. I have known of cases. A friend of mine discovered she had cancer in the early stages as a result of a TB X-ray.

So, Mr. Chairman, I would certainly urge this committee to give more serious attention to this matter of preventive medicine and what might be done as far as TB, which is one of the major problems, as I understand it, in the Territory.

Mr. ANGELL. I made the suggestion—I don't believe you were here--that one of our major school problems was relative to ventilation, that we should have in every room in the building one of these units that clears the air. I don't remember the technical name now. That type of equipment. Every school building should have that. We don't have the ventilation that you would have in the ordinary school outside because of the shifting condition of our school where you can't push the windows in or out.

Mrs. GREEN. Do the children sell TB seals?

Mr. ANGELL. Yes. Our program here on that, we sell about $450 worth, and 20 percent of that is kept for local consumption. We have a TB Christmas committee.

Mrs. GREEN. And 80 percent goes?
Mr. ANGELL. Goes out of here, goes to Juneau.
Mr. O'BRIEN. Does any of that come back?

Mr. ANGELL. The 20 percent is kept here. Mobile units that come through and those things. I imagine that is how that money is spent. I wouldn't know. Locally, though, we keep about $100, approximately.

(Subsequently, the following statement was submitted by Carl C. Webb, chief of police, Nome, Alaska.)


Nome, Alaska, September 21, 1955.
To the Chairman and Members of the House Committee on Territories and Insular

At the request of your chairman and another member of your committee after
your return to Fairbanks from hearings in Nome, Alaska, September 19, 1955,
we were not on account of plane connections from attending the Kefauver com-

mittee hearings, able to question the testimony of Dr. Langsam of Nome regarding
the hospital services at Nome. The writer wishes to inform the committee that
this is not a personal issue but is based on facts and police records of this depart-
ment and are open for inspection by your committee if they are needed; also sworn
affidavits can be subpened regarding refusal to admit natives to the hospital
which are pure violations of civil rights of the native when put under scrutiny by
your committee. Following are the cases since I have been chief of police and
full reports are kept regarding all refusals for emergency care before arrest or
have come to our attention as a citizens emergency assist.
Case No. 1

7. p. m., July 13, 1955, officer making report, G. J. Austerman; patient, Lydia Norton, native woman, came to station in an intoxicated condition, was suffering from great pain in the abdominal lower region as the result of a knife wound at the vaginal opening that had been stitched 2 nights before by Dr. Langsam. The native women needed help and Austerman called hospital and talked to Dr. Langsam who stated that we should give her a sitz bath, and the doctor was informed that we had no facilities for that.

She was still in pain and Dr. Langsam was contacted again regarding prisoner; he then informed officer that he should contact City Clerk McLain and see if the city would pay the bill for treatment of the woman. (Note. I want to call attention to the committee that any hospitalization required by natives, all the doctor has to do is call the Native Service representative, Mr. Jack J. Jenkins, or that office and state how many days are needed for treatment and the request is granted for payment.) United States Marshal Oliver was called and he could not get the woman in the hospital but was instructed that we go ahead and take her to hospital. Hospital was notified that we were bringing her in and the nurse on duty that time stated 0. K. Austerman took patient to hospital, met by Dr. Langsam who stated that the hospital was full and that they could not take her in. Doctor did not examine her and stated again to give her a sitz bath.

District Attorney Herman was contacted and also stated that she should be taken to hospital, when this writer took her to hospital and demanded an examination; after calling the mayor, United States marshal, city clerk, and district attorney, the examination was made. Case No. 2

July 26, 1955, 1:25 a. m., officer reporting, B. J. Grey. Officer called to restaurant at this time found Garfield Okitkin, native, lying in street, bleeding profusely from wound in head approximately 1/2 inches in length. Taken to hospital, Dr. Langsom asked if man was drunk or had been drinking, was told "yes"; told to take him to jail and bring back to hospital when sober to sew up laceration. Case. No. 3

Winnifred Olanna, native, August 25, 1955, 1:40 a. m., officer reporting, Casperson. Officer called to scene at a local restaurant, man injured cut on head bleeding profusely. Air Force doctor and several medics at the scene.

Air Force doctor advised take patient to hospital. Dr. Langsom seen patient; advised to take him to jail and bring back when sober to sew up laceration; would not admit for first aid, or treatment. Case. No. 4

August 28, 1955, 12:20 a. m., officers, Yates and this writer. Joe Regula, white man, beat over the head several times with beer can, unconscious, taken to hospital, twice refused aid; told to bring back at 1 p. m. next day when sober for suturing (bled all night on mattress). Case No. 5

Thomas Assila, native, August 28, 1955, 3 a. m., officers same as above case. Knife wound left side of neck, bleeding profusely, came to station, passed out due to lack of blood; had been drinking; first aid given by officers; refused treatment by Dr. Langsom, by telephone told to bring to hospital at the same time as above case. Jaw was broken; laid 10 hours in jail before admittance; had to let him use jail; couldn't turn out into street.

The committee should contact the local representative of the United States Department of Public Health regarding treatment of persons. Also the files of the local office of the department of public welfare regarding the treatment and refusal of treatment by this doctor.

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The committee should ask for under supena the files of the local director of the Alaska Native Service, Mr. Jack Jenkins, for cases in the past year of violations against the native refusal of admittance; in some cases death occurring within hours from such refusal, etc., all sworn affidavits on these cases in those files and Mr. Henson, of the Juneau office, has had correspondence with the doctor regarding the costs of his operation and charges; a thorough audit should be made of his charges against the native service and a check made of the releases made; also an investigation should be made whether natives that could pay were also charged by the doctor against the native service in addition. The committee also should interrogate confidentially nurses at the hospital and employees regarding the different cases who are afraid to talk because of reprisals by the doctor.

A petition a number of years ago was signed by 70 of the community for his removal to the Methodist Hospital foundation who sent in an investigator who was "buttered by the doctor" and the report was carried back that the stink was caused by a bunch of drunks in the community and there was no basis for the charges. This investigation was started at that time by responsible people in the community but nothing was done.

I want to stress to the committee these are cases that have happened in the past year and these are police records; also in the native service files are sworn affidavits that have been in the past year. Also I would like to stress further, as I told the doctor, as long as I was chief of police of this community, no matter if the person was rich or poor, drunk or sober, native or white; and further I did not care if he was Protestant, Jew, or Catholic and he came to me for assistance and it was medical I would bring him to that hospital for assistance and if not admitted I would care for them in the jail and because of any reasons they could not be admitted until a later time I was not going to leave them on the street or dump them on the breakwater until they were sober for treatment.

It is the feeling of this officer and other responsible people in the community that Federal funds are involved and a complete investigation of this situation is in order because of former reprisals by the doctor against these people I am omitting; but will furnish names for your counsel to interrogate in the future if it is the will of the committee.

I hope to clear the record of the committee and I think you members also would like to have your hearings straightened out regarding the testimony presented by the doctor and that a full investigation is in order.

You may call on me at any time that I can be of service to you.
Respectfully submitted.


Chief of Police. Mr. ABBOTT. Mr. Chairman, our next witness, I believe is Paul Tiulana. I might say, as he comes forward, some of us had the privilege of going down to King Island Village at the end of the seawall here. I got out in what I considered an extremely crisp wind coming off the Bering Sea with a little ice water in it, and the first two people I saw were leaning on the leeward side of a building eating ice-cream cones.

I think whatever Mr. Tiulana has to say, if he has a brief statement, would be of interest to the committee.

STATEMENT OF PAUL TIULANA, NOME, ALASKA Mr. TIULANA. I am not here to speak this morning but to listen to what the other folks say.

Mr. ABBOTT. Could you tell the committee, Paul, a little about who you and your people are and where they come from? You are an unusual group, I think, in the fact you are today here and then at King Island. Tell them what King Island is. Could you do that? ?

Mr. TIULANA. I am Paul Tiulana, from King Island. I don't know what the subcommittee wants to know about King Island. They could ask questions if they like.

Mr. ABBOTT. Where is it located? And how many native people are there?

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Mr. TIULANA. Less than 200 population over there now. Most of the population moved to mainland now. There is about 35 miles to nearest mainland.

Mr. ABBOTT. And you say most of them move over. Is that seasonal? They move over here when?

Mr. TIULANA. They start to move since 1949 because they say living over there is pretty hard because we don't have work over there. We carve ivory and make slippers for tourists, and we send some part of it to Juneau to the house there.

Mr. ABBOTT. You are now living in this King Island Village here beside Nome?


Mr. ABBOTT. What about your school situation? You are under the Alaska Native Service?


Mr. ABBOTT. Could you tell us a little about your school program; how many children you have? Or do you know offhand?

Mr. TIULANA. That is around 60 children who attend this school on King Island. They go up to eight grades.

Mr. ABBOTT. Do some of them go to other schools?
Mr. TIULANA. Yes; Mount Edgecumbe School,

Mr. ABBOTT. Have many children who want to go to Mount
Edgecumbe been able to get in there?

Mr. TIULANA. Yes, they do. They don't like to go down there because of their folks, I guess. We sent two boys already this year.

Mr. ABBOTT. They are a little shy at first about getting that far from home?


Mr. ABBOTT. Don't you think that after more of your children have gone to Mount Edgecumbe and come back and convince the parents and other children they may like it, you would have more of them going out to school?


Mr. ABBOTT. Do you feel, as the native spokesman at Point Barrow did, it would be desirable to develop a junior high school setup for your children so they can get a little further up than the eighth grade? Mr. TIULANA. Yes.

Mr. ABBOTT. The testimony there, of course, was that they wanted to sneak up on it kind of slowly and not too much all at once. Are you able to make your wants known to the Alaska Native Service? Do you

find you have a sympathetic group of people to work with? Mr. TIULANA. Yes.

Mr. TAYLOR. The youngsters that are here now, they have missed 2 weeks of school. Do any of them go to school here in Nome?

Mr. TIULANA. No; they have their own school down in the village.
Mr. TAYLOR. In King Village?
Mr. TAYLOR. Who is the teacher-a King Islander?
Mr. TIULANA. No; from United States.

Mr. TAYLOR. And that teacher—when you people all go back to
King Island will the teacher go with you or stay here?

Mr. TIULANA. She will go with us.
Mr. TAYLOR. The teacher will go back to King Island with you?

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Mr. Taylor. And next spring when do you come back again?
Mr. TIULANA. In June.
Mr. TAYLOR. Then your school will be all over?
Mr. TAYLOR. Are there any people left on King Island now?

Mr. TIULANA. No. They all come back last July. There is
nobody living over there now; just dogs.
Mr. Dawson. Who feeds the dogs while you are gone?
Mr. TIULANA. They feed themselves with the animals, I guess.
Mr. TAYLOR. You say your people started coming here in 1949?
Mr. TIULANA. Around that.

Mr. TAYLOR. Before that they remained at King Island throughout the year?

Mr. TIULANA. No. We live over there about 9 months of the year, and we come here for some kind of work, and we stay around 3 months.

Mr. ANDERSEN. I think what Paul is attempting to say is that since 1949 there have been more of the people migrating to the mainland. They have been coming to Nome for many, many years. Since 1949 there have been more migrating to the mainland and staying year around.

Mr. Taylor. Do the King Islanders make these boats we saw down in your village?


Mr. ABBott. If you will through the Native Service--because you know we have the Indian Affairs responsibility-if you will talk with some of the fine people we have dealt with, Mr. Penrod, who is accompanying us, and make the views of your people known.

It was very kind of you to come in this morning.
Mr. O'BRIEN. Thank you very much, Paul.

I might announce the hearing is drawing rapidly to a close, but we are very honored, members of the committee, because we have a distinguished member, Mrs. Gracie Pfost of Idaho, who has just flown in from Anchorage for this hearing, and if anyone should ever attempt to describe that as a junket, I am very sure they would get an argument from Mrs. Pfost.

Mrs. Pfost also is chairman of another subcommittee. She is chairman of the Subcommittee on Public Lands, which is an important subcommittee as far as Alaska is concerned. We are glad you made it.

Mrs. Prost. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. We are certainly happy to be here.

Mr. ABBOTT. It is particularly appropriate, I believe, that you have arrived at this time. Our next witness is Mr. Jones, who will talk about public land problems.

I might suggest in view of the fact there are other rivers in other areas having the name “Snake,” that as little reference as possible be made to the Snake River here in Nome.

Mrs. Prost. Do they have a Hells Canyon on the Snake in Alaska, too?

(Discussion off the record.) Mr. ABBOTT. The next witness we have is Mr. Jones, and then the mines and minerals presentation by Mr. Glavinovich; then Mr.

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