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Thank you.

All of this air transportation means that there is a tremendous amount of merchandise and passengers to be moved to our outlying districts.

Again, may we impress upon you the necessity of a direct through flight from the States to Nome. If the CAA cannot obtain funds in the normal procedures to repair and maintain our airfield, perhaps your committee can.

We appreciate your being with us, the opportunity of having been able to explain our problems and difficulties, and hope that you will give every consideration to our needs.

Mr. O'BRIEN. I would like to get on the record-I know the answer I think-how much does it cost for a quart of fresh milk in Nome?

Mr. Harwood. Eighty-eight cents.

Mr. O'BRIEN. And I understand, after that is sold for 88 cents, very frequently there is a loss, a little leakage.

You have the only drugstore?
Mr. O'BRIEN, You are the only pharmacist?
Mr. HARWOOD. In the second division.

Mr. O'BRIEN. Has this lack of transportation increased considerably the cost of drugs and medical supplies? Could you give the committee 1 or 2 instances of the cost of those things which are essential to health, as compared with the States?

Mr. HARWOOD. I think I know what you mean. But if-well, we will take antibiotics, the mold type, which is penicillin and things of that nature. I can bring those in as cheaply by air as I can by boat; so it does not add to the

price of medication. But it does mean that if I have to carry a year's supply on hand that I have invested a good deal of money. Those items are also what we call dated items, that they are out of date after 6 months or a year, or whatever the pharmaceutical house determines the age of their medicine to be. So that quite often, if I get in merchandise of that nature and keep it for a year's time, maybe half of it will be outdated. I can send that back to the house and get credit for it, but the point is that when that becomes outdated I may be out of merchandise, where I could send a wire, say, to Seattle and have it here in 24 hours providing my freight was not uploaded somewhere along the line.

Mr. Dawson. You are required to pay the freight back to the house?

Mr. Harwood. That is right. Mr. Dawson. So you get a double freight load, too? Mr. HARWOOD. That is right. Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. Chairman, I would like to compliment Mr. Harwood for making a most explanatory statement, and I would like to suggest that the committee staff might well call upon the Administrator of the Civil Aeronautics Administration, who has charge of the field at Nome, for a statement regarding their intentions. I am told that not only has the CAA ruled out DC-6 traffic here, but it is almost on the verge of forbidding flights by DC-4's, which would present a most serious situation since this community and the surrounding area, as Mr. Harwood says, are bound to live to a very considerable extent by air transportation.

I am hopeful this committee will be able to give a hand to Mr. Harwood in bringing about a better condition there.

Mr. HARWOOD. Thank you.

Mr. ABBOTT. Before you leave the stand, will Mr. Walsh comment further on the airport development as such?

Mr. Harwood. Yes.

Mr. ABBOTT. Is it true that a smelting and refining company owns the land on which the base presently sets?



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Mr. GLAVINOVIch. My name is Carl Glavinovich. I am manager of the Nome department of the United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co.

The lands on which the present Nome field is located, with on minor exception, are owned outright by the mining company or under lease.

Mr. ABBOTT. Thank you. I simply want that on the record.
Mr. Dawson. Off the record.
(Discussion off the record.)

Mr. GLAVINOVICH. I do not like to take up your time, but a little bit of background might help you in understanding the condition of the field and one reason possibly why it has not been repaired.

On an engineering basis now, any fill would take approximately 10 years to stabilize. The gravel is tamped down after a fashion due to the heavy equipment traveling over it, but nonetheless leaves some spots, muddy spots, holes that have been filled in that will continually settle, but eventually it will become stabilized. When it is stabilized you will find humps, declivities, holes which should be filled, firmly tamped, and a new soil coating and asphalt base on top. I still think they would have a good field. That is a personal observation and personal feeling

Mr. DAWSON. What is the depth of the permafrost in this area? Mr. GLAVINOVICH. Actually the known depth has never been recorded. From our mining operations, from the surface to bedrockbedrock varies from the site of the courthouse here, 50 feet deep, to a maximum depth in our operations up here in the foothills of 120 feet deep. Let me say, without exception a small percent of the area is naturally thawed, but in the main it is permanently frozen. How deep the permafrost extends in I could not say, but in Umiat I believe they went as far as 900 feet in the oil operation.

Mr. ABBOTT. What did you state your ownership of the ground was?

Mr. GLAVINOVICH. Patent in fee ownership and some long-term leases.

Mr. O'BRIEN. Thank you very much.

Mr. ABBOTT. If we might depart from the schedule we have-Mrs. Green, I believe, is examining some of the facilities for the mentally ill, and we might move up to Mr. Angell for his presentation.

Mr. O'BRIEN. May I state for the record before you start, after you finish your testimony, the committee will take a short break, but we would like to devote about 5 minutes or so to the youngsters who are here. Maybe a little explanation of how the committee functions

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and what our responsibilities are. And if one of the young men or young ladies would care to testify briefly, speak briefly, we would appreciate that.

Mr. ABBOTT. None of these students will be recorded as absent today, will they?

Mr. ANGÉLL: No. Mr. ABBOTT. They may want that shown on the record officially with you here.



Mr. ANGELL. I am William Angell, superintendent of Nome public schools.

Mayor Andersen asked me to testify or rather answer some questions, and I told him I would be willing to do so.

The main problem that this committee might help us out on is this: About 8 years ago when the Federal Government closed its Alaska native school, a law was passed in Congress giving us $35,000. Now I understand another law will have to be passed before we can spend it. It has been down at Juneau, this money, for some little time, and we have been trying to get ahold of it. But I understand there are so many difficulties we just can't get this money.

The pertinent problem that I think relative to our school is that the Federal Government pulled out of here relative to the Alaska Native Service, closed their school, and then assumed no responsibility other than the $30,000 we haven't gotten. At the time I requested å new building. Dón Foster was Superintendent of Alaska Native Service at the time, and we had quite a little correspondence. If I remember correctly, I asked for about a $200,000 building. In other words, the Government had-I might state for the record that personally I am opposed to the new school system because it gave the youngsters the feeling they didn't belong. On principle, I opposed

. that. But I do think the Government was derelict in her responsibility relative to aiding us.

A bill was passed by our Congress to help the area, but it usually says, “If the Federal impact is such, say, in 1953–54, we will help you out.' But there is no law that has been passed to take care of our particular need, in that this impact goes way back to 1942. Originally this town was about 1,300. Now it is 2,000. And out of that 2,000 we have better than 25 percent of these youngsters in school.

I do not remember my statistics on that relative to the Nation as a whole, but I believe in most communities it wouldn't run over 10 or 15 percent. We are very high that way. That is one problem.

I asked my teachers to jot down a paragraph or two on what they considered pertinent problems relative to our school, which are about the same across the Nation, with a few things that are a little different.

For instance, on account of the tuberculosis hazard, I think the most crying need in this school would be to have ventilation in every room.

of our rooms, the only ventilation we have, the windows are you can't push them out, and we have these small holes up in the wall

, and that is the only ventilation we have. As I say, many of these youngsters coming from homes where there is tuberculosis, there is a tuberculosis hazard.

In many


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I remember 10 or 11 years ago when I came in here I asked the nurse why they didn't give the Manita test in every school to see how many youngsters reacted. She told me there wasn't any need because all these youngsters reacted. I would say that was one of our most crying needs.

I don't know what the committee could do on anything of that nature.

Another need is to broaden our educational opportunities for these youngsters. A few years ago about 70 percent of the children that graduated from our high school went to the universities-Southern California, Purdue, Washington University, Washington State and so on. But now our school population is changing from the standpoint of economic basis of children, and I believe that a smaller percent will be going on to high school. Therefore, we have a need for a wide vocational base.

We have had to do away with our home economics and with our manual training. Because of lack of space we had to use those rooms. In fact, the two rooms we used for home economics and the two rooms we used for manual training, we have in the neighborhood of 150 youngsters in there now.

The school's architecture is designed to take care of around 250 youngsters, but we have 521. But that condition exists in many places.

Of course, playground space. That is another one the teachers were pretty near all unanimous in considering a problem. But, of course, that is something I don't suppose this committee has anything to do with. Eventually we will have to buy more land, I imagine.

That is all I have unless there are questions by the committee.
Mr. O'BRIEN. Mr. Abbott.

Mr. ABBOTT. I understand from informal discussion with Mr. Bartlett that the matter of the funds approved but not expended arises from an interpretation by the legal staff of the Department of the Interior, the Solicitor's Office, that to expend the "new" matching funds, would result in Federal funds being matched with Federal funds.

Mr. ANGELL. That is correct.

Mr. ABBOTT. Is it correct you are advised, however, that the same funds might be used for building, say, an additional room or rooms?

Mr. ANGELL. That is what I understand.
Mr. ABBOTT, Is that correct, Mr. Bartlett?

Mr. BARTLETT. That is the information I was given by the Interior
Department only this summer.

Mr. ANGELL. What about buying home economic equipment, shop equipment? Or would it have to be building? Mr. BARTLETT. I cannot answer that. Let us find out.

Mr. ANDERSEN. May I say, you cannot build a schoolroom in the city of Nome for $35,000.

Mr. ABBOTT. You could not?

Mr. ANGELL. You might build a room which we will actually, what we need now, inasmuch as we have an APW appropriation for school and are getting room, it is going to take most of that fund for the construction, but if it would be humanly possible to change it

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so that the $35,000 could be used for equipment, it could be put to practical use.

(Discussion off the record.)

Mr. ABBOTT. As I understand it from my conversation with the chairman, we will have the opportunity, both at Anchorage and at Juneau, to talk with the Territorial representative, and the Department of the Interior along with the Alaska Native Service, on those questions which overlap in education. As the chairman has stated from time to time, some of these matters do not fall directly within the legislative responsibility of this committee.

It is the intention, is it not, Mr. Chairman, to extract from the record those portions which deal with matters of interest and responsibility of our other committees and transmit them over the signature of the subcommittee chairman, with some committee comment, to the responsible legislative committees in the House and Senate who handle those matters?

Mr. O'BRIEN. That is correct. We felt, as long as we were up here--from time to time we do run into testimony which concerns more directly other committees, and we felt it was our duty and also it would be helpful to you people if we would extract those particular matters and send them to those committees and they would have the benefit of what we heard and saw. I think it will mean better government for you and better legislating in Congress. Mr. ABBOTT. If I may make a suggestion. Mr. Angell

, do you have a prepared statement of any sort that details the actual programs here and some of the problems in a prepared statement?

Mr. Angell. No.

Mr. ABBOTT. Would it be possible for you to develop such a statement and we will insert it at this place in the record so we will have statistical information which might be needed to support some of the legislative efforts? Mr. ANGELL. Relative to the $35,000?

Mr. ABBOTT. That, and your general problems here, so that we have something that may be overlooked in the presentation at Juneau, perhaps, but from the local perspective. It would be most helpful, I am sure, to Mr. Bartlett in his efforts and so we might have it officially in the record. (Mr. Angell subsequently submitted the following statement:)



(Attention: Dr. Taylor.) In compliance with the committee's request, the following is a statement of needs of the Nome public school:

1. A release of the $35,000 to the Nome School Board with the stipulation moneys may be spent for equipment as found necessary.

2. Federal assistance in the vocational education program. Part of the money (the $35,000) to be used for equipment in the home economics and industrial arts departments.

3. The Eskimo living in Nome owns or rents a house or cabin. Thus, in a strict sense, upholds the economy of the town of Nome. However, in a broader sense, many are partial wards of the Government-in a welfare sense at least.

The Federal Government operated a school up to 1947 for Eskimo children. Since closing this school no aid or financial assistance in any way has been given the local community to lessen the tax burden that was increased because of the closing of this school. Seventy-seven percent of our schoolchildren are of Eskimo

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