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hair, but not usually so soft and silky in the staple as the last. Cotswold wool is similar to the Leicester, but somewhat harsher. It is not suited for luster goods. Highland wool is long stapled, and of coarse quality, but known to be susceptible of great improvements. The prac tice of smearing' greatly depreciates its value. It is chiefly used for the coarsest kinds of woolen fabrics, as carpets, rugs, and similar articles. It is also used for Scotch blankets.

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"Of the short wools,' the different breeds of Downs partake very much of the same characters, but soil and climate so far affect them. The Southdown is a short-stapled, small-haired wool, the longer qual ities of which are put aside for combing purposes, and the shorter for the manufacture of light woolen goods, such as flannel. The Hampshire Down differs from it in being coarser, and in having the staple usually longer. The Oxford Down, again, exceeds the last in length and coarseness of staple. The Norfolk Down, on the other hand, when clean, is of a very fine and valuable character. The Shropshire Down is a breed increasing in importance, and is longer in the staple, and has more luster than any of the other Down breeds. Ryeland's wool is fine and short, but the breed is nearly extinct. The Welsh and Shetland wools have a hair-like texture, deficient in the spiral form, upon which depends the relative value of high-class wools. They are only suited for goods where the properties of shrinking and felting are not required. Shetland wool is obtained of various natural tints, which enables it to be used for producing different patterns without dyeing.

"Of the intermediate wools, Dorset is clean, soft, and rather longer, and not quite so fine in the staple as the Down breeds. The Cheviot has increased very much of late years in public estimation. It is a small, fine-haired wool, of medium length, and is suitable for woolen and worsted purposes, for which it is largely used."

ENGLISH TERMS APPLIED TO SHEEP.

[From the American Sheep-Breeder and Wool-Grower, September, 1887.]

"The male is usually denominated a 'ram' or 'tup.' The term lamb is applied to the suckling young of both sexes; but the male, until weaned, is distinguished as a 'tup-lamb,' a 'ram-lamb,' a 'per-lamb,' or a 'heeder.' When weaned, until shorn (supposing him not shorn while a lamb) is called a 'hog,' a 'hogget,' a 'haggerel,' a 'teg,' a 'lamb-hog,' or a 'tup-hog;' and if castrated a 'wether-hog.' After shearing, say when a year and a half old, he is called a 'shearing' or 'shearling,' a 'shear-hog,' a 'diamond' or 'dinmont ram,' or 'tup;' and if castrated a 'shearing wether.'

666 Hogget-wool' is the wool of the first shearing, supposing the lamb was not shorn while it retained that title. After the second shearing, he is called a 'two-shear ram,' 'tup,' or 'wether;' next, a 'three-shear ram,' &c., the appellation indicating the number of shearings. In the

north of England and in Scotland, he is called, until his first shearing, a 'tup-lamb,' then a 'tup-hog,' after that a 'tup; or if castrated a 'dinmont' or a 'wedder.' The female while sucking is a 'ewe-lamb' or 'gimmer-lamb;' and when weaned a 'gimmer-hog,' a 'ewe-hog,' a 'teg,' a 'sheeder-ewe.' After the first shearing she is called a 'shearing-ewe' or 'gimmer;' sometimes a sheave' or a 'double-toothed ewe,' or 'teg.' After she is called a 'two-shear,' or a 'three-shear,' or a 'fourth-tooth, or a 'six-tooth ewe,' or 'sheave.' In some of the northern districts, ewes not in lamb, or that have weaned their lambs, are termed 'eild, or 'yeld' ewes. There are, besides these, other terms not in general use, but restricted in certain localities, which must be regarded in the sense of provincialisms. It is a singular fact that the age of a sheep is not calculated from the date of its birth, but from its first shearing, though at any time it may be, in reality, fifteen, sixteen or seventeen months old. How this custom arose is not known, but it is established."

COMMERCIAL WORDS AND PHRASES DEFINED.

"Woolens" and "Worsteds”—What is the difference between them?

There are two great classes of manufactures using wool as a raw material; in the one where carded wool is employed the goods are called "woolen fabrics"; in the other where combed wool is used the goods are called" worsted fabrics." To the uninitiated, and in popular conception, there is no difference between the two fabrics. It is proper, therefore, that the distinctions of commerce in respect to them be clearly defined.

Worsted is the fiber of wool all laid exactly parallel. Woolen is crossed and uneven like a spider's web. They take all the long hairs and straighten them exactly parallel; and the shorter ones, or the noils, are used for woolen yarn. Only the long fiber can be made into "worsted."

The fibers of wool to be used in worsted are separated from the short by combing, and the fibers of woolen are crossed by carding. The former are combing wools. The latter, card or clothing wools, which formerly were the only wools used in cloths.

Mr. John L. Hayes, secretary of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, in a paper submitted to the Senate Committee on Agriculture, 1886, says:

Until the invention of combing by machinery or power, in the early part of the present century, the long-stapled wools, like those from the English mutton sheep, were regarded as combing wools exclusively. In England and in this country, which has always followed the English system, only the long-stapled wools were classified as combing wools until as late as 1867, the period of the tariff of that designation. Until after that time combed wools or yarns made of such wools had never been used in cloths, or the fabrics for the ordinary wear of men, but were used only in stuffs or thin unfelted fabrics, such as dress goods and linings.

Woolens, according to Simmond's Dictionary of Trade and Commerce, are textile fabrics made of wool, or of wool mixed with cotton, or some other similar material. Worsted is a thread spun of wool that has been combed, and which in the spinning is twisted harder than ordinary. It is chiefly used for knitting or weaving into carpets, stockings, caps, gloves, &c.

Chambers' Encyclopedia:

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The difference between woolen and worsted fabrics is owing, in great part, to the way the yarn for each is spun. Yarn for woolen cloth is very slightly twisted, so as to leave the fibers as free as possible for the felting process. Worsted yarn, on the contrary, is hard spun, and made into a much stronger thread. On account of the feebleness of woolen yarn, it is more difficult to weave it by power-looms than either worsted, cotton, linen, or silk. The term "worsted" is said to have derived its origin from a village of that name in Norfolk, England, where this manufacture was first carried on. Up to the end of the last century worsted goods were a staple trade of Norwich; but the neglect of the factory system there led to its being transferred to Bradford, which has become renowned as the metropolis of the worsted manufacture. It is also extensively carried on at Halifax and other places in Yorkshire.

Messrs. Mauger & Avery, 105 Reade street, New York, in a letter to the former chief of the Bureau of Statistics, dated April 10, 1884, said:

Worsted yarn is made entirely of wool that has been combed. Strictly speaking, worsted goods are made entirely of worsted or combed yarns, but to cheapen the goods cotton yarn is frequently used for warp, and carded (woolen) and silk yarns are also frequently used for the same purpose. You are correct in your conclusion that the combing of the wool previous to spinning constitutes the basis of the distinction between "worsted" and "woolen" goods, but the processes are somewhat different all through. Woolen goods are generally "fulled," i. e., shrunk up in finishing, while worsted goods are generally finished without fulling. ity of most worsted goods is the silky or glossy finish which they have. our fine wools go into ladies' dress goods, but knit goods, cassimere shawls, overcoatings, braids, bunting, in fact, a large variety of goods, are made now of worsted yarns. By the process of manufacture, which separates the short and weak staples, the fibers that are left are uniform in length and strength, and laid side by side; the yarn can thus be drawn out farther, and is smooth and glossy. For any class of goods requiring to be light and strong, worsted yarns are especially suited.

Other words and phrases defined.

The peculiar-
The bulk of

Donskoi wool.-A coarse carpet wool imported from Southern Russia. It is coming in direct competition with the coarse wools of New Mexico and Colorado.

Moquette.-A tapestry Brussel's carpet of a fine quality; a species of Wilton carpet. (Simmons' Commercial Dictionary.)

Waste. Three kind of wool waste are quoted in the English wool markets: White stockings, pulled; colored stockings, pulled, and black, pulled.

Clippings.-The least valuable portion of wool clipped from the fleece and known as peddler's wool.

Territory. The wool of the Western Territories, which has as yet no established character, but is from sheep of all grades, from the Mexican or Churro sheep of Spain to Merino. The wools of Texas and California are marked as shown, without washing.

Shoddy consists of cast-off woolen and worsted goods, reduced by powerful machinery to its original state, to be respun and woven alone or mixed with new wool.

Hard or superfine goods, reduced in the same way, makes a better class of goods than shoddy from soft or common goods, and is sometimes distinguished from it by the name of Mungo.

Mungo.--The appearance of Mungo is very deceptive, and the cheap Mungo broadcloths have considerably injured the woolen manufactures. Mungo cloth is, however, properly included with shoddy.

(We are indebted to Messrs. Justice, Bateman & Co., wool commission merchants, 122 South Front street, Philadelphia, Pa., for the following definitions :)

Ring waste.-Ring waste is so called only by exporters of the article to the United States. This name has been given to it within a few years, since the Treasury Department have promulgated the instructions to appraisers to admit articles for duty as they are commercially known. In France and Belgium, where this article is mostly manufactured, it is known as couronnes-crowns, or rings-is commercially dealt in under this name and bought and sold under this title by parties who are manufacturing it and selling it for export to the United States. It is a highly purified article of scoured wool, and is made from wool tops or combed wool, and the couronnes, when not made for export, is the tangled slubbing or wool top tha t, through accident, becomes disarranged in the process of spinning it into yarn. Before it was manufactured largely for export to the United States couronnes were carded over and recombed by the makers the same as other scoured wool.

A number of mills in the United States purchase it of importers, who have given it the name of ring waste for the purpose of avoiding the proper duties. It is in point of fact a very highly purified article of scoured wool, being made from wool top, which is the cream of the wool, by reason of having had the short and broken fibers or bottom combed from it by combing machinery.

American manufacturers treat it to a steam bath, which opens the crowns or rings ready for carding machines. This wool is principally used in the manufacture of cassimeres, the same as other scoured wools of merino blood. It is much more valuable than other scoured wool by reason of having been highly purified from noils, knots, and tangled fibers.

Garnetted waste.-Garnetted waste is the product of a garnett machine, which tears and ravels out the twist in thread, thus reducing it back to the original purified wool by reason of taking out the twist which is originally given to the wool to make it yarn or thread. In the

process of spinning yarn or thread from wool a percentage of this yarn becomes tangled and is called thread waste. By running it through a garnett machine the stock is restored to the original condition of wool, all the twist being taken out of the yarn, leaving the wool which com. poses it in a condition of unspun wool top." It is capable of being used for any purpose for which unmanufactured scoured wool can be used. It can be either combed or carded, and can be spun into worsted or woolen yarn. The garnett machine is only applied to tangled threads or yarn for the purpose of reducing them back to the original condition of purified wool. For purposes of making a saleable article noils and other scoured wools are frequently run through the garnett machine at the same time with the thread waste for the purpose of disguising the mixing. For instance, until recently garnetted waste was admitted at the same duty as waste, while scoured wools and noils made from scoured me. rino wools are subject to the duty of scoured wool, and to avoid this duty of 30 cents per pound on scoured wools, the latter were run through the garnett machine with thread waste for the purpose of mixing, and the material thus produced was a highly purified article of wool offered for sale as garnetted waste, but really scoured wool, noils, and garnetted waste, and by reason of the process of garnetting the scoured wool, noils were disguised. It was profitable to mix scoured wool with garnetted waste because of the large demand for the latter for export to the United States, where it was admitted at only the duty of waste. The demand for it for this purpose raised the price of it above the price of the scoured wool of which it is made, for the reason that scoured wool could not be sent to the United States because of the 30 cents per pound duty, while the same article under the name of garnetted waste could be admitted at only 10 cents per pound duty.

Wool tops.-Wool tops are highly purified scoured wool that have had the inferior particles, or so-called noils, removed by a process of combing. Unmanufactured scoured wool is fed to the combing machine, which combs out the short and broken fibers or bottom, and the long fibers are laid parallel with each other, and when drawn through the comb it becomes wool top and is capable of being manufactured into any kind of woolen goods, either worsted or woolen. In the original process of making worsteds practiced many years ago, only long coarse wools were combed and made into worsteds, but within a comparatively recent period wool of merino blood, after being carded, which is the first process in making woolen goods, is then combed and the long fibers laid parallel with each other, while the short fibers, knots, and bottom are called noils and are separated, but the long fibers so freed pass into what is called wool top, from which it is manufactured into yarn.

Garnetted thread waste.-Garnetted thread waste is a highly purified article of scoured wool restored to the original condition of manufactured wool by means of the garnett machine, and is fully described under the head of garnetted waste above.

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