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ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treas- To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and ury of the United States. They shall in all of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the and Measures; Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their To provide for the Punishment of counterfeitAtterdance at the Session of their respective ing the Securities and current Coin of the Jnited Ilouses, and in going to and returning from the States; same; and for any Speech or Debate in either To establish Post Offices and post Roads, Ilouse, they shall not be questioned in any other To promote the progress of Science and use il Place.

Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors No Senator or Representative shall, during the and inventors the exclusive Right to their nisi Time for which he was elected, be appointed to spective Writings and Discoveries; any civil Office under the Authority of the Uni- To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme ted States, which shall have been created, or the Court; Emoluments whereof shall have been increased To define and punish Piracies and Felonies during such time; and no Person holding any committed on the high Seas, and Offences against Office under the United States, shall be a Mem- | the Law of Nations; ber cf either House during his Continuance in To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Office.

Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures SEC. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall on Land and Water; originate in the House of Representatives; but To raise and support Armies, but no Approthe Senate may propose or concur with Amend- priation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer ments as on other Bills.

Term than two years ; Every Bill which shall have passed the House To provide and maintain a Navy; of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before To make Rules for the Government and Reguit becomes a Law, be presented to the President lation of the land and naval Forces; cf the United States; If he approve he shall sign To provide for calling forth the Militia to exeit, but if not he shall return it, with his Objec- cute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections, to that House in which it shall bave orig- tions and repel Invasions; inated, who sball enter the Objections at large To provide for organizing arming, and discion their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. plining, the Militia, and for governing such Part If after euch Reconsideration two-thirds of that of them as may be employed in the Service of the House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be United States, reserving to the States respectivesent, together with the objections, to the other ly, the Appointment of the Officers, and the AuHlouse, by which it shall likewise be reconsid- thority of training the Militia according to the ered, and if approved by two-thirds of that Discipline prescribed by Congress; House, it shall become a Law. But in all such To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be deter- whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding mined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the ten miles equare) as may, Ly Cession of particPersons voting for and against the Bill shall be ular States, and the acceptance of Congress, beentered on the Journal of each IIouse respective come the seat of the Government of the United ly. If any Eill shall not be returned by the Pres- States, and to exercise like Authority over a!l ident within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislait shall have been presented to him, the Same ture of the State in which the same shall be, for shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, Unck signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjourn. Yards, and other needful Buildings: And ment prevent its return, in which Case it shall To make all Laws which shall be necessary not be a Law.

and proper for carrying into Execution the Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested Concurrence of the Senate and House of Repre- by this Constitution in the Government of the sentatives may be necessary (except on a que:- United States, or in any Department or Officer tion of Adjournment) shall be presented to the thereof. President of the United States; and before the Sec. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, Persons as any of the States now existing shall or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed think proper to ada it, shall not be prohibited by by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Repre- the Congress prior to the Year one thousand sentatives, according to the Rules and Limitations eight hundred and eight, but a Tax cr Duty may prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding SEC. 8. The Congress shall have Power

ten dollars for each l'erson. To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of common Defence and general Welfare of the Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may reUnited States; but all Duties, Imposts and Ex- quire it. cises shall be uniform throughout the United No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall States;

be passed. To borrow Money on the credit of the United No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be States;

laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or EuvTo regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, meration herein before directed to be taken. and among the several States, and with the In- No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exdian Tribes;

ported from any State. To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, No Preference shall be given by any Regulaand uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies tion of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one throughout the United States;

State over those of another; nor shall Vessels

bound to, or from, cne State, be obliged to enter, Majority, then from the five highest on the List clear, or pay j'uties in another.

the said House shall in like manner chuse the No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, President. But in chusing the President, the but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Votes shall be taken by States, the RepresentaLaw; and a regular Statement and Accourt of tion from each State having one Vote; A Quorcm the Receipts and Expenditures of all Public for this Purpose shall consist of a Member cr Money shall be published from time to time. Members from two-thirds of the States, and a

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a United States; and no Person holding any Office Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the President, the Person having the greatest Number Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, of Votes of the Electors shall be the ViceEmolument, Office, or Title, of any kind what- President. But if there should remain two or ever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State. more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall

Sec. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.*]
Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of The Congress may determine the Time of
Marque and Reprisal; coin Money, emit Bills of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which
Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be
Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any the same throughout the United States.
Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, cr Law No person except a natural born Citizen, or a
impairing the Obligation of Contracts; or grant Citizen of the United States, at the time of the
any Title of Nobility.

Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to No State shall, without the consent of the Con- the Office of President; neither shall any Pergress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or son be eligible to that office who shall not have Exports, except what may be absolutely neces attained to the Age of thirty-five Ycars, and sary for executing its Inspection Laws: and the been fourteen Years a Resident within the United net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by States. any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the In Case of the Removal of the President from Use the Treasury of the United States; and Office, cr cf his Death, Resignation, or Inability all such laws shall be subject to the Revision to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said and Controul of the Congress.

Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-PresiNo State shall, without the Consent of Con- dent, and the Congress may by Law provide for gress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, cr the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation, cr InShips of War, in time of Peace, enter into any ability, both of the President and Vice-President, Agreement or Compact with another State, cr declaring what Officer shall then act as l’resiwith a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless dent, and such Officer shall act acccrdingly, u:.actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger til the Disability be removed, or a President as will not admit of Delay.

shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive ARTICLE II.

for his services, a Compensation, which shall Sec. 1. The executive Power shall be rested in reither be encreased nor diminished during the a President of the United States of America. He Period for which he shall have been elected, and shall hold bis Office during the Term of four le shall not receive within that Period any other Years, and, together with the Vice-President, Emulument from the United States, or any of chosen for the same term, be elected as follows: them.

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as Before he enter on the Execution of his Ofthe Legislature thereof may direct, a Number office, he shall take the following Oath cr AffirmaElectors, equal to the whole Number of Sena- tion:tors and Representatives to which the State may “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator cr faithfully execute the Office of President of the Représentative, or person holding an Office of United States, and will, to the best of my AbilTrust or Profit under the United States, shall be ity, preserve, protect, and defend the Constituappointed an Elector.

tion cf the United States." (The Electors shall meet in their respective SEC. 2. The President shall be Commander in States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of Chief of the Army and Navy of the United whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of States, and of the Militia of the several States, the same State with themselves. And they shall when called into the actual service of the make a list of all the Persons voted for, and of United States; he may require the opinion, in the Number of Votes for each; which List they writing, of the principal Officer i j cach of the shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the executive Departments, upcn any Subject relatSeat of the Government of the United States, ing to the Duties of their respective Offices, and directed to the President of the Senate. The he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and ParPresident of the Senate shall, in the Presence of dons for Offences against the United States, exthe Senate and House of Representatives, open cept in Cases of Impeachment. all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be lle shall have Power, by and with the Advice counted. The Person having the greatest Num- and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, ber of votes shall be the President, if such Num- provided two-thirds of the Senators present conber be a Majority of the whole Number of Elect- cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the ors appointed; and if there be more than one Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint who have such Majority, and have an equal Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consul:, Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of * This clause of the Constitution has been annulled. them for President; and if no Person bave a See twelfth article of the Amendments.

Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other Offi- shall consist only in levying War against them,
cers of the United States, whose Appointments or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid
are not herein otherwise provided for, and wbich and comfort. No person shall be convicted of
shall be established by Law: but the Congress Treason unless on the Testimony or two Wit-
may by Law vest the Appointment of such infe- nesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession
rior Officers, as they think proper, in the Presi- in open Court.
dent alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads The Congress shall have Power to declare the
of Departments.

Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of
The President shall have power to fill up all Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or For-
Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of feiture except during the Life of the Person at-
the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall tainted.
expire at the End of their next Session,
Sec. 3. He shail from time to time give to the

ARTICLE IV. Congress Information of the State of the Union, Sec. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in and recommend to their consideration such each State to the public Acts, Records, and measures as he shall judge necessary and ex- judicial Proceedings of every other State. And pedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, the Congress may by general Laws prescribe convenc both Houses, or either of them, and in the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Case of Disagreement between them, with Re- Proceedings shall be proved, and the effect spect to the Time of Adjournment, he may thereof. adjourn them to such lime as he shall think SEC. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be enproper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other titled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citipublic Ministers; and he shall take Care that the zens in the several States. Laws be faithfully executed, and he shall Com- A Person charged in any State with Treason, mission all the Officers of the United States. Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Jus

SEC. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all tice, and be found in another State, shall on civil Officers of the United States, shall be re- Demand of the executive Authority of the State moved from Office on Impeachment for, and from which he led, be delivered up, to be reConviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high moved to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one
ARTICLE III.

State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into an-
SEC. 1. The judicial power of the United States other, shall, in consequence of any Law cr Regu-
shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such lation therein, be discharged from such Service
inferior Courts as the Congress may from tima or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of
to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both the Party to whom such Service or Labour may
of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold be due.
their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at Sec. 8. New States may be admitted by the
stated Times, receive for their Services a Com- Congress into this Union ; but no new State shall
pensation, which shall not be diminished during be furmed or erected within the Jurisdiction of
their Continuance in Office.

any other State; nor any State formed by the Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all | Junction of two or more States, or Parts oi cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this States, without the Consent of the legislatures Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and of the States concerned as well as of the ConTreaties made, or which shall be made, under gress. their Authority ;-to all Cases affecting Ambas- The Congress shall have power to dispose cf sadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls;-to and make all needful Rules and Regulations reall Cases of admiralty and Maritime Jurisdic specting the Territory or other Property belongtion ;-to Controversies to which the United ing to the United States; and nothing in this States shall be a party ;-to Controversies be- Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice tween two or more States ;-between a State and any Claims of the United States, or of any parCitizens of another State;-between Citizens of ticular State. different States;-between Citizens of the same Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to State claiming Lands under Grants of different every State in this Union a Republican Form of States, and between a State cr the Citizens Government, and shall protect each of them thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. agains: Invasion; and on Application of the

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other pub- Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislic Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a lature cannot be convened) against domestic State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall Violence. have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall

ARTICLE V. have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Reg. Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose ulations as the Congress shall make.

Amendments to this Constitution, cr, on the ApThe Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of plication of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial several States, shall call a Convention for proshall be held in the State where the said Crimes posing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall shall have been committed ; but when not com- be valid to all intents and Purposes, as part of mitted within any State, the Trial shall be at such this Constitution, when ratified by the LegislaPlace or Places as the Congress may by Law have tures of three-fourths of the several states, or directed.

by Convention in three-fourths thereof, as the Sec. 3. Treason against the United States one or the other Mode of Ratification may be

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ARTICLE VII.

proposed by the Congress; Provided that no nor shall private property be taken for public Amendment which may be made prior to the use, without just compensation. Year one thousand eight hundred and eight sball Ant. 6. In all criminal prosecutions, the acin any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses cused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and pubin the Ninth Section of the first Article; and lic trial, by an impartial jury of the State and that no State, without its Consent, shall be de- district wherein the crime shall have been comprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. mitted, which district shall have been previously

ascertained by law, and to be informed of the ARTICLE VI.

nature and cause of the accusation; to be conAll debts contracted and Engagements entered fronted with the witnesses against him; to have into, before the Adoption of the Constitution, Compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in shall be as valid against the United States under his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel this Constitution, as under the Confederation. for his defence,

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United ART. 7. In suits at common law, where the States which shall be made in Pursuance there- value in controversy shall exceed twenty dolof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be lars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, made, under the authority of the United States, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reshall be the Supreme Law of the Land; and the examined in any Court of the United States, Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, than according to the rules of the common law. any thing in the Constitution or Laws of any ART. 8. Excessive bail shall not be required, State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

nor excessive fines be imposed, nor cruel and The Senators and Representatives before men unusual punishments inflicted. tioned, and the Members of the several State Art. 9. The enumeration in the Constitution, Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Offi- of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny cers, both of the United States and of the several or disparage others retained by the people. States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to Art. 10. The powers not delegated to the support this Constitution; but no religious Test United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited shall ever be required as a Qualification to any by it to the States, are reserved to the States re. Office or public Trust under the United States. spectively, or to the people.

THE ELEVENTII AMENDMENT—1798. The Ratification of the Conventions of nine

ART. 11. The Judicial power of the United States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment States shall not be construed to extend to any of this Constitution between the States so ratify

suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted ing the Same,

against one of the United States by Citizens of

another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any AMENDMENTS.

Foreign State.

THE TWELFTH AMENDMENT-1804.
THE FIRST TEN AMENDMENTS-1791.

ART. 12. The Electors shall meet in their reART. 1. Congress shall make no law respecting spective States, and vote by ballot for President an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom not be an inhabitant of the same State with of speech, or of the press; or the right of the themselves; they shall name in their ballots the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the person voted for as President, and in distinct Government for a redress of grievances. ballots the person voted for as Vice-President,

ART. 2. A well regulated Militia, being neces- and they shall make distinct lists of all persons sary to the security of a free State, the right of voted for as President, and of all persons voted the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be for as Vice-President, and of the number of infringed.

votes for each, which lists they shall sign and ART. 3. No Soldier shall, in time of peace be certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the quartered in any house, without the consent of government of the United States, directed to the the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner President of the Senate;—The President of the to be prescribed by law.

Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and ART. 4. The right of the people to be secure llouse of Representatives, open all the certifiin their persons, houses, papers, and effects, cates and the votes shall then be counted ;-The against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall person having the greatest number of votes fer not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but President shall be the President, if such number upon probable cause, supported by Oath or Af- be a majority of the whole number of Electors firmation, and particularly describing the place appointed; and if no person have such majorto be searched, and the persons or things to be ity, then from the persons having the highest seized.

numbers not exceeding three on the list of those ART. 5. No person shall be held to answer for voted for as President, the IIouse of Representaa capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on tives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, President. But in choosing the President the except in cases arising in the land or naval votes shall be taken by States, the representation forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service from each State having one vote; a quorum for in time of War or public danger; nor shall any this purpose shall consist of a member or memperson be subject for the same offence to be bers from two-thirds of the States, and a majertwice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall ity of all the States shall be necessary to a be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a wit-choice. And if the House of Representatives ness against himself, nor be deprived of life, shall not choose a President whenever the right liberty, or property, without due process of law :' of choice shall devolve upon them, before the

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fourth day of March next following, then the United States nor any State shall assume or pay Vice-President shall act as President, as in the any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurcase of the death or other constitutional disabil. rection or rebellion against the United States, ity of the President. The person having the or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall slave, but allsuch debts, obligations, and claims be the Vice-President, if such number be a ma- shall be held illegal and void. jority of the whole number of Electors appointed, Sec. 5. That Congress shall have power to and if no person have a majority, then from the inforce, by appropriate legislation, the provistwo highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall ions of this article. vhoose the Vice-President; a quorum for the

PROPOSED FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT-1870. purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole

ART. 15. SEC. 1. The right of citizens of the number of Senators, and a majority of the whole United States to vote shall not be denied cr number shall be necessary to a choice. But no abridged by the United States, or by any State, person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-Presi- of servitude.

on account of race, color, or previous condition dent of the United States,

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce THE TUIRTEENTH AMENDMENT—1865

this article by appropriate legislation. Art. 13. Sec. 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall bave been duly

CONDITION OF THE FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT. convicted, shall exist within the United States, ported from a Committee of Conference, Febru

The proposed Fifteenth Amendment was reor any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Sec. 2. Congress shal: have power to enforce ary 26, 1869. and its passage recommended. The this article by appropriate legislation.

Senate agreed-yeas 39, all Republicans; nays THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT-1868.

13, all Democrats, except Fowler of Tenn. 'In the Art. 14. Sec. 1. Al! persons born or naturalized

Hlouse the vote was-yeas 144, all Republicans; in the United States, and subject to the jurisdic- nays-44, all Democrats, except Hawkins of tion thereof, are citizens of the United States and Tenn., Loughridge of Iowa, and Mallory of Oreof the State wherein they reside. No State shall gon; 85 members did not 'vote, of whom about make or enforce any law which shall abridge 30 were Republicans. the privileges or immunities of citizens of the

The following shows the action taken by the United States; nor shall any State deprive any State Legislatures. There are 37 States ; 28 are person of life, liberty, or property, without due required to ratify. process of law, nor deny to any person within

States.
Senate

House Result.

Yea. its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Nay. Yea. Nay.

Alabama. Sec. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned

67 16 Adopted.

Arkansas ......19 among the several States according to their re- California.

Adopted

Will be Rejected. spective numbers, counting the whole number of Connecticut ...13 6 125 105 Adopted persons in each State, excluding Indians not Delaware...... 2 taxed.

2i Rejected. But when the right to vote at any elec- Florida

} .......13

26 13 Adopted tion for the choice of electors for President and Georgia.

Adopted. Vice President of the United States, representa

Illinois.........18

55 28 Adopted. Indiana.

27 tives in Congress, the executive and judicial | lowa

_**Adopted 54

Adopted. officers of a State, or the members of the Legis- Kansas

73 7 Adopted lature thereof, is denied to any the male in- Kentucky

5 86 Rejected. habitants of such State, being twenty-one years Louisiana . .18

55. 9 Adopted. of age, and citizens of the United States, or in Maine .25

Adopted

Will be Rejected. any way abridged, except for participation in Maryland..

Massachusetts .36 rebellion or other crime, the basis of representa- Michigan..

15 Adopted.

23 5 tion therein shall be reduced in the proportion Minnesota.

2. Adopted.

Adopted. which the number of such male citizens shall Mississippi

Adopted bear to the whole number of male citizens Missouri

.23

79 30 Adopted twenty one years of age in such State.

Nebraska..

Adopted. Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Rep- N. Hampshire. V.n.given 187

Nevada

6

23 16 Adopted. resentative in Congress, cr elector of President

13! Adopted. New Jersey

Will be Rejected. and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or New York.

.17 military, under the United States, or under any North Carolina.40

47 Adopted. %

20 Adopted. State, who, having previously taken an oath as Ohio....

Adopted. a member of Congress, or as an officer of the Oregon...

Will be Refected. United States, or as a member of any State Leg

Pennsylvania..18 13 62 38 Adopted.

Rhode Island.. islature, or as an executive or judicial officer of

Adopted. South Carolina. 18

88 3 Adopted. any State, to support the Constitution of the

Tennessee......

Rejected. United States, shall have engaged in insurrec- Texas

Adopted. tion or rebellion against the same, or given aid Vermont...

Adopted or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress Virginia..

Adopted.

6 may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, re

West Virginia..10

19 Adopted. Wisconsin .....15

62 move such disability.

29 Adopted. Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts in 1869, and subsequently ratified it in 1870.

The Ohio Legislature rejected the Amendment incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or re- and passed a rescinding resolution in 1870.

The New York Legislature ratified it in 1869, bellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the

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