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they continued to throw a few shells at Spring, but the enemy scattering in the camp of the fugitives, where they every direction, made no attempt at rehad sought refuge. The pursuers now sistance. From the condition of the resting on their arms, bivouacked on roads, however, and for fear of being at the ground for the night. Early next too great a distance in a hostile and poor morning the Tenth Indiana, Tenth Ken- country from the basis of operations, tucky, Fourteenth Ohio, and Fourth General Thomas was compelled to check Kentucky regiments were ordered to the rapidity of his advance and wait for take possession of the enemy's intrench- his train of supply-wagons. He subseed camp, which was found entirely aban- quently withdrew his main force and doned. The Tenth Kentucky was the posted it within the intrenchments on first to enter, followed by the other regi- the north side of the Cumberland, abanments. "We found everything left," doned by the enemy, while General says one of the Indiana men. "Horses Schoepf continued to advance on the stood saddled and bridled ; teams were south until he reached Monticello, near hitched up ; the horses were standing the borders of Tennessee, where a great attached to the cannon ; officers' trunks number of the enemy's wounded were were found strewn on the bank of the found abandored by their comrades, river. We took about 2,000 head of who continued to scatter in flight over horses and mules, 250 wagons, 14 can- the country. nons—two of which were captured by General Crittenden, with the small them at Bull Run-some 4,000 or 5,000 force he was able to keep together, restand of arms, and any number of treated until he reached Gainesborough, flags."

where he arrived on Sunday, January General Schoepf's force had in the 28th, one week after the battle. mean time arrived, and joining General “The retreat,” reports one of the Thomas' troops, pursued, in company enemy, “was made in good order, and with the victors, the flying enemy. A by three o'clock in the afternoon our steamboat was seen moving on the river, army was inside its intrenchments. Imand being fired at with shells was soon mediately a severe cannonading was in a blaze. The combined force, having commenced by the enemy, making it seized several boats which the fugitives evident that their superiority in guns had used, but in their haste failed to de- could eventually drive our forces from stroy, crossed the Cumberland at Mill their camp.

“ Between dusk and dawn our entire • The same writer gives the account of the death of Zollicoffer : “ You have seen it reported in the papers army was taken across the river, with that Colonel Fry and Zollicoffer had some conversation, the loss merely of the artillery and and that Fry shot Zollicoffer. This is a great hoax. Zollicoffer was shot three times ; the ball that killed him

worn-out tents and camp equipage. was from an Enfield rifle, and entered his heart. The shot Long before the enemy dreamed of the was fired by Corporal James Swan, of Company H, who is a dead shot."

evacuation, our forces had gained an

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available point to resist any onward felt to be a great loss to the cause of the movement of theirs. The abandonment secessionists. Not educated as a soldier, of the artillery was a necessity. The he had exhibited perhaps little military approaches to the river on both sides skill, but daring and unscrupulous, he were very high and precipitous; the had shown great enterprise in the kind roads almost belly deep in mud to a of irregular warfare he had adopted. horse, and the conveyance of the guns Felix K. Zollicoffer, as his name—that across would have exhausted hours and of a distinguished family in Switzerland means imperatively demanded for the -indicates, was of Swiss origin. He men.

was born in North Carolina in 1812, and “The army camped on Monday night at an early age emigrated to Tennessee, two miles beyond Monticello, the sick where he for a time worked as a printand wounded having been sent on be- er, and subsequently became the editor fore. From Monticello it marched by of a newspaper. In 1834 he edited and easy stages to Livingston, where it published the Columbian Observer, and spent Saturday, the 25th [January], from 1835 to 1837 held the profitable and reached Gainesborough on Sunday place of State printer of Tennessee. In evening."

1842 he became the editor of the NashThe victory of the Unionists at Mill ville Banner, and through the partisan Spring* was a heavy blow to the enemy, influence of this Whig journal obtained and caused them great discouragement. various political offices. They had been not only driven from the He was thrice elected controller of disputed ground of Kentucky, but so the State from 1843 to 1847, and in 1849 broken and scattered as to be hardly was chosen a State senator. In 1850 he capable of making a stand on the bor- received the contract for building the ders of Tennessee, a State they especially imposing suspension bridge across the claimed as their own. Great inquietude Cumberland at Nashville. In the meanwas now felt for the safety of their other time he had given up the editorship of positions in Kentucky, of which inquie- the Banner, which, however, he resumed tude the government of Jefferson Davis as a means of aiding him in attaining at Richmond gave proof by transferring the position of member of Congress. In Jan. General Beauregard to Kentucky this he succeeded, and acquired a fair 27. from his important position at Ma- position as a debater. The Democratic nassas, where he was succeeded by Gen- party having the political control of eral Gustavus W. Smith.

Tennessee, Zollicoffer was thwarted in The death of General Zollicoffer was his aspirations to the governorship. He

now abandoned the Whig party, and be• The battle has been variously called the battle of came a conspicuous leader of the “Know Somerset and the battle of Mill Spring, but it occurred at Nothings,” or Native Americans. neither place; both being several miles distant from the field of battle, which was on the road to Mill Spring. At the beginning of the secession

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inovement in Tennessee, Zollicosser op December, 1853, he was made a full posed it, but was finally induced to risk captain of artillery ; and on the 12th of his fortunes upon the cause of the South- May, 1855, was appointed major of the ern confederacy, by which he was ap- Second Cavalry. At the beginning of pointed brigadier-general. He was a the civil war, General Thomas was proman of great energy and courage, but moted to the lieutenant-coloneley of his without military knowledge or experi- regiment, and on the 3d of May, 1861, ence, and devoid of prudence. The at- was made colonel of the Second Cavtack at Mill Spring-supposed to have alry. As colonel he had charge of the been suggested by Zollicoffer--which United States regular forces under Genresulted so disastrously to him, was a eral Patterson, in the Department of the movement alike characteristic of the en- Shenandoah, and led the troops across terprise and audacity of the man. the Potomac. He was next appointed

Zollicoffer had only joined the seces an acting brigadier-general in the same sion force at Mill Spring a few hours department, in which capacity he served before the movement, and served in under General Banks. On the 17th of the battle under General Crittenden, August

, 1861, he was promoted to the to whom belonged the chief command. rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, The latter, brother to the General T. L. and was ordered to Kentucky, where, Crittenden, who commanded a division after serving under Generals Anderson of General Buell's army, and a son of and Sherman, he was appointed by the venerable Senator Crittenden, of their successor, General Buell, to the Kentucky, was formerly an officer in command of the tenth division, designed the United States army.

to operate in the south-eastern part of General George H. Thomas, the chief Kentucky. in command of the tenth division of the General Alvin Schoepf is a HungaFederal army in Kentucky, and who led rian, who came to this country as a in the battle of Mill Spring, was born in political refugee, and was employed for Virginia. He entered West Point in some time as a draughtsman and clerk 1836, and in 1840 was appointed a sec- in the Patent Office at Washington. He ond lieutenant of artillery. In the subsequently was transferred to the War campaign against the Indians in Florida Department; here, giving proof of his he earned the brevet of first lieuten- | capacity as an engineer, he was sent ant, and during the war with Mexico into Virginia to conduct a military surso distinguished himself that he was vey. He was soon after appointed brigsuccessively rewarded with various bre- adier-general of volunteers and ordered vet ranks to that of major. In 1850 he to Kentucky, where he gave, by his spirwas appointed a teacher of artillery and ited defence at Wild Cat, a signal proof cavalry at the West Point Academy. of his spirit and skill.


The breaking of the Enemy's Line in Kentucky.—The combined Expeditions in Kentucky and Tennessee.—The Forti

fications of the Enemy on the Mississippi, Cumberland, and Tennessee.--Fort Henry described.—Its Commander. -Sketch of Tilghman.-Great Preparations at Cairo and Paducah.- General Grant.--His life and character. ---Life of Commodore Foote.- A combined Naval and Military Expedition against Fort Henry designed.— Delay of the land force.—Plan of co-operation. The Naval Expedition.-Its composition.—Sailing of the Fleet. -The attack on Fort Henry. - The Essex disabled. - Capitulation of the Fort.- Arrival of General Grant.- Occupation of Fort Henry.- Vigorous defence of the Enemy. Their losses.- Losses of the Unionists. — The Tennessee River opened.Expedition up the Tennessee.-- The result.--Welcome from the Enemy.

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THE breaking of the enemy's line in Forts Donelson and Henry were just

Kentucky by their rout at Mill within the boundary line of Tennessee, 1862.

Spring was the signal for the com- the former being somewhat more to the mencement of those combined expedi-south, and consequently farther removed tions by land and water which had been from the border of Kentucky than the so long maturing at St. Louis, Cairo, latter, which almost touched it. and Paducah. These posts were within After repeated reconnoissances in force the department of General Halleck, and from Cairo down the Mississippi and upon him devolved the preparation for from Paducah and Smithland* _-which and the direction of the important move- had been lately occupied by the Unionments contemplated in Kentucky and ists—up the Tennessee and Cumberland, Tennessee.

and a vigilant reconnoitring by land of The enemy had striven to secure the the enemy's strength and position, it was command of the Mississippi, Tennessee, determined to begin operations by an atand the Cumberland, by the construc- tack upon Fort Henry. tion of fortifications on these rivers. At This work stands on the east bank of Columbus, in Kentucky, on the left bank the Tennessee River, upon low ground, of the Mississippi, were the most formi- about the height of the high-water mark. dable of these works; at Dover, on the A bend just above prevents any command left of the Cumberland, in a southeasterly up the stream ; but the Tennessee below, direction from Columbus, was Fort Don- being straight for two miles, the guns elson with its extensive intrenchments; of the fort have an effective range for the next in importance, and on the right that distance in the direction of the flow of the Tennessee, which flows in a paral- of the river. On the opposite side of lel line with the latter river, and be- the Tennessee are three hills which comtween it and the former, was Fort Henry,

o Smithland is situated to the east of Paducah, on the the least considerable of the three works. Ohio, near the mouth of the Cumberland.

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