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wonderful indeed it would be, if their hostility were not proportionable. No morality accordingly do they acknowledge, that does not include, with or without other things, hatred, -with or without contempt, of pleasure. Such, too, as is their morality, such is their law. Death is scarce severe enough, for a pleasure, which they either have, or would be thought to have, no relish for. So at least says what they teach : but, teaching how to act is one thing; acting accordingly, another. Thus we all see it is, in so many instances : and thus, without much danger of injustice, we may venture to suppose it may have been, in that of the self-constituted Apostle.
Not so Jesus: no harm did he see in eating and drinking, unless with the pleasure it produced greater pain. With this reserve, no harm,-for any thing that appears in any one of the four histories we have of him, -no harm did he see in any thing that gives pleasure. What every man knows—and what Jesus knew as well as any man--for neither in words nor in acts did he denyit—is,—that happiness, at what time soever experienced,,happiness, to be any thing, must be composed of pleasures: and, be the man who he may, of what it is that gives pleasure to him, he alone can be judge.
But, to return to eating and drinking. Eating and drinking-he gives his men to understand-even he, holy as he is, should not have had any objection to, had it not been for this same resurrection of his, which he was telling them of: eating and drinking-a practice, to which, notwithstanding this resurrection of his, and so much as he had told them of it, he had the mortification to find them so much addicted. So much for his Corinthians. It was, as we see, for want of their paying, to what he was thus telling them about the resurrection, that attention, to which it was so well entitled,- that they still kept on in that bad habit. But his Thessalonians—they too, as we have seen, had
got that same bad habit. Well: and what was it that gave it them? What but their paying too much attention to this same resurrection of his, dished up in the same or another manner, by the same inventive and experienced hand. In conclusion, on laying the two cases together, what seems evident enough is—that, in whatever manner served up to them, his resurrection, whatever it was, was considerably more effectual in making people eat and drink, than in weaning them from it.
Explanation relative to Chap. II. 5. 6. False Pre
tences employed. To the self-constituted Apostle, false pretences were familiar. They were not-they could not have been -without an object. One object was power: this object, when pursued, is of itself abundantly sufficient to call forth such means. But, another object with Paul was money: of its being so, the passages referred to as above, will afford abundant proofs. A man, in whose composition the appetite for money, and the habit of using false pretences are conjoined, will be still more likely to apply them to that productive purpose, than to any barren one. In the character of a general argument, the observations thus subunitted, are not, it should seem, much exposed to controversy.
But, of a particular instance, of money obtained by him on a false pretence,-namely, by the pretence of its being for the use of others, when his intention was to convert it to his own use, --a mass of evidence we have, which presents itself as being in no slight degree probative. It is composed of two several declarations of his own,-with, as above referred to, the explanation of it, afforded by a body of circumstantial evidence, which has already been under review: and as, in the
nature of the case, from an evildoer of this sort, evidence to a fact of this sort, cannot reasonably be expected to be frequently observable,—the labour, employed in bringing it here to view, will not, it is presumed, be chargeable, with being employed altogether without fruit.
First, let us see a passage, in the first of his Epistles to his Corinthians, date of it, A° 57. In this, we shall see a regularly formed system of money-gathering: an extensive application of it to various and mutually distant countries, with indication given of particular times and places, in which it was his intention to pursue it: also, intimation, of a special charitable purpose, to which it was his professed intention to make application of the produce of it, at a place specified : namely, Jerusalem.
First then comes, 1 Cor. xvi. 1-8. A° 57. “1. Now concerning the collection for the saints,
I have given order to the churches of Galatia, “even so do ye 2. Upon the first day of the “ week, let every one of you lay by him in store, as “God hath prospered him, that there be no gather“ings when I come.—3 And when I come, whom“soever ye shall approve by your letters, them will “I send to bring your liberality unto Jerusalem.“4. And if it be meet that I go also, they shall go
-5. Now I will come unto you when "I shall pass through Macedonia; for I do pass is
through Macedonia.--6. And it may be that “I will abide, yea and winter with you,
ye may bring me on my journey whithersoever I go. -7. For I will not see you now by the way: but “I trust to tarry a while with you if the Lord permit. “-8. But I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost:” at Ephesus, where he becomes an object of jealousy, as we have seen, to the church-silversmiths; and, from
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his declared business at those other places, some evidence surely is afforded of what was his probable business in that place.
Next let us see a passage in his Epistle to his Romans: date of it, A°58. Here, in two instances, we shall see the success, with which this system was pursued by him: as also a maxim, laid down by him-a maxim, in which the existence of this same system, on his part, is acknowledged: a maxim, in which his hopes of success in the pursuit of it, are declaredly founded.
Rom. xv. 24-28. A° 58.
“24. Whensoever I take my journey into Spain, “ I will come to you; for I trust to see you in my jour“ney, and to be brought on my way thitherward by
you, if first I be somewhat filled with your com
pany: —25. But now I go unto Jerusalem, lo mi" nister unto the Saints.--26. For it hath pleased " them of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain “contribution for the poor saints which are at Jeru“salem.-27. It liath pleased them verily: and “ their debtors they are. For if the Gentiles have “ been made partakers of their spiritual things, their
duty is also to minister unto them in carnal things. “_-28. When therefore I have performed this, and o have sealed to them this fruit, I will come by you “into Spain."
In the instance in question, money (we see)--of the quantity of course nothing said—is mentioned by him, as being actually in his hands: the purpose, for which it was there, and to which he would of course be understood to intend applying it,-being also mentioned by him :-applying it, at Jerusalem, to the use of the poor saints. So much for professed intentions. Now then for real ones. Answer, in his own words: that those Gentiles, who by him had been made partakers of his spiritual things, might, as in “ duty bound, “ minister” to him, so much the more effec
tively “in carnal things :" that he, who preached, what he called the Gospel, might, as he had been preaching to his Corinthians also (1 Cor. ix. 14) be enabled so much the more comfortably to “ live by” it.
“The poor saints which are at Jerusalem :"-the poor saints—to wit, not here and there a saint or two, but the whole Christian population living together on a common stock-if now, A° 58, they were living, as Ao 53 they were (Acts ii. 44 ; vi. 1) and, in this particular, from the beginning to the end of the history, no change is mentioned-in Jerusalem--was it in the nature of man, in that state of men and things,—was it in the nature of men and things, that any man, who had any knowledge of their situation, and of the terms on which Paul, from first to last, had been with them, could for a moment have thought of lodging, for their use, any the smallest sum of money in his hands ? as well might it be said, at this moment—a man, whose wish it was to convey money to Spain, for the use of the Cortes, would choose the hand of the Duc d'Angouleme to send it by. All this time, there were the Apostles of Jesus—-patrons of those same saints: and; any where more easily than there, could he be. That, with this money in his hands, among his objects was
-the employing more or less of it in the endeavour to form a party there, may not unreasonably be supposed, from what we have seen of that Invasion Visit, by which his designs upon Jerusalem were endeavoured to be carried into effect. For, according to Acts xix. 21, already when he was at Ephesus, as above, was it his known design, to try his fortune once inore in Jerusalem, and after that in Rome. This may have been among his designs, or not.
Be this as it may, this would have been no more than a particular way, of converting the money to his own use.
Not that, if at this time, and for this purpose from even the quarters in question, money had come, as he