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He foretells the persccution


of the first Christians. A. 11.4031. Spirit of your Father which speaketh 22 And ye shall be hated of all men An. Olymp. in you.

for my name's sake : 'but he that en- An. Olymp. 21 And the brother shall deliver dureth to the end, shall be saved. up the brother to death, and the father the 23 But when they persecute you in this city, child: and the children shall rise up against flee ye into another : for verily 'I say unto you, their parents, and cause them to be put to Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, death.

ftill the Son of man be come.

· Mic. 7. 6. vcr, 35, 36. Luke 21. 16.- Lb Luke 21. 17.-c Dan. 12. 19, 13.

ch. 24. 13. Mark 13. 13.

4 Ch. 2. 13. & 4. 12. & 12, 15. Acts 8. 1. & 9. 95. & 14. 6.- Or, end, or,


of ch. 16. 28.

ignorance itself, could hurt the cause of God, in the primitive Christ, an advice to those who might imprudently draw upon times, when the hearts and minds of those divine men were themselves persecution, and of indulgence for those who are influenced by the Holy Spirit.

weak. But this flight is highly criminal in those mercenary Your father] This is added to excite and increase their con- || preachers, who, through love to their flesh and their property, fidence in God.

abandon the flock of Christ to the wolf. See Quesnel. · Verse 21. And the brother shall deliver up the brother, &c.] In this city, flee ye into another] There is a remarkable repetiWhat an astonishing enmity is there in the soul of man against tion of this clause found in the MSS. DL. and eight others; the God and goodness! That men should think they did God ser-Armeniun, Saxon, all the Itala except three; Athan. Theodor. vice, in putting to death those who differ from them in their po-Tertul. August. Ambr. Hilar. and Juvencus. Bengel, in his litical or religious creed, is a thing that cannot be accounted gnomon, approves of this reading. On the above authorities, for, but on the principle of an indescribable depravity. Griesbach has inserted it in the text. It probably made a por() shame to men! devil with devil damn'd

tion of this gospel as written by Matthew. Firm concord holds, men only disagree

Ye shall not have gone over (ended or finished, margin) the Of creatures rational; though under hope

cities, &c.] The word Titone here is generally understood as Of heavenly grace: and, God proclaiming peace, implying to go over or through, intimating that there should Yet live in hatred, enmity, and strife

not be time for the disciples to travel over the cities of Judea Among themselves, and levy cruel wars,

before the destruction predicted by Christ should take place. Wasting the earth, each other to destroy!

But this is very far from being the truth, as there were not less

Par. LOST, b. i. 1. 496. than 40 years after this was spoken, before Jerusalem was deVerse 22. Ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake] || stroyed. TÉEW» xas parlavartav are used by the Septuagint, Because ye are attached to me, and saved from the corruption 1 Chr. xxv. 8. for those who teach and those who learn. And that is in the world; therefore the world will hate you.

“ The

TOUS TEMELOIS is used by the Apostle 1 Cor. ii. 6. for those who are Jaws of Christ condemn a vicious world, and gall it to re- || perfectly instructed in the things of God. Ovid has used the

Latin perficio, which answers to the Greek TEMEbow in exactly the He that endureth to the end, shall be saved.] He who holds fast faith and a good conscience to the end, till the punishment Phillyrides puerum cithard perfecit Achillem. threatened against this wicked people be poured out, he shall be “ Chiron taught the young Achilles to play on the harp." saved, preserved from the destruction that shall fall upon the For these reasons some contend that the passage should be workers of iniquity. This verse is commonly understood to translated, ye shall not have instrUCTED, i. e. preached the refer to the destruction of Jeruzalem. It is al:o true that they | gospel in the cities of Israel, till the Son of Mun be come. The who do not hold fast faith and a good conscience till deuth, have | Greek divines call baptism TEA.wors or initiution. See Leigh. no room to hope for an admission into the kingdom of God. Crit, sacr. Edit. Amst. p. 326, 328.

Verse 23. But when they persecute you] It is prudence and Dr. Lightfoot supposes the meaning to be, " ye shall not humility (when charity or righteousness obliges us not to the have travelled over the cities of Israel preaching the gospel, contrary) to avoid persecution. To deprive those who are dis- | before the Son of Man is revealed by his resurrection, Rom. i. posed to do evil, of the opportunities of doing it; to convey | 4. compare Act. iii. 19, 20. and v. 26. To you first God the grace which they despise to others; to accomplish God's de- || raising up his son, sent bim to bless you, &c. The Epoch of the signs of justice on the former, and of mercy on the latter, are Messialı is dated from the resurrection of Christ.” After all, consequences of the flight of a persecuted preacher. This flight the place may be understood literally; for suv tas works, to is a precept to those who are highly necessary to the church of finish the cities, is only a concise mode of speech for teduy odas


same sense.

The disciples must not expect


better treatment than their Master. A.M. 4031.

24 · The disciple is not above his || If they have called the master of A. M. 1631. A. D. 27. An. Olymp. master, nor the servant above his the house · Beelzebub, how much An Olymp. CCL, 3. lord.

more shall they call them of his 25 It is enough for the disciple that he be as household? his master, and the servant as his lord. 26 Fear them not therefore : d for there is no

CCI. 3.

a Luke 6. 40. John 13. 16. & 15. 20.

• Ch. 12. 94. Mark 3. 22 Luke 11. 15. John 8. 18, 52.- Gr. Beelzebul.

• Mark 4. 22. Luke 8. 17. & 12. 2, 3.

dia 725 7285, to complete the journey through the cities. To “ For the searching out the sense of this horrid blasphemy, finish the survey, to preach in every one:--till the Son of Man be these things are worthy observing. come, may refer either to the out-pouring of the Spirit on the I. Among the Jews it was held, in a manner, for a matter day of Pentecost, or to the subversion of the Jewish state. of religion, to reprouch idols, and to give them odious names. See Rosenmuller.

R. Akibah saith idolatry pollutes, as it is said, Thou shalt cast Verse 24. The disciple is not above his master] Or in plainer | away the (idol) as something that is abominable, and thon terms, A scholar is not above his teacher. The saying itself || shalt say to it, Get thee hence (Esai. xxx. 22.) R. Lazár saith, requires no cominent, its truth and reasonableness are self- || thou shalt say to it, Get thee hence: that which they call the evident, but the spirit and design of it should be carefully at- || face of God, let them call the face of a dog. That which they tended to. Jesus is the great teacher, we profess to be his call dia i'v ein cos, the Fountain of a cup, let them call av scholars. He who keeps the above saying in his heart, will | rp ein kuts, the fouNTAIN OF Toil (or of fails.) That never complain of what he suffers. How many irregular || which they call "na gediyah FORTUNE, let them call 32 geliya thoughts and affections is this maxim capable of restraining ! || a stisk, &c. That town which sometimes was called Bethel, A man is not a scholar of Christ unless he learn his doctrine; I was afterwards called Bethaven. See also the Tract Schabbath. and he does not learn it as he ought, unless he put it in “ II. Among the ignominious names bestowed upon idols, the practice.

general and common one was 5127 Zebul, DUNG, or a DUNGHILL. Verse 25. It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master) Even to them that have stretched out their hands 51213 besebul,

any man who pretends to be a scholar or disciple of Jesus in a dunghill (that is, in an idol temple, or in idolatry) there is Christ, expect to be treated well by the world? Will not the | hope. Thou canst not bring them (into the Church) because they world love its own, and them only? Why then so much impa- have stretched forth their hands, bezebul, in a dunghill. But tience under sufferings, such an excessive sense of injuries, yet you cannot reject them, because they have repented.And such delicacy; can you expect any thing from the world a little after, He that sees them dunging, yobara, (that is, sacribetter than you receive? If you want the honour that comes ficing) to an idol, let him say, cursed be he that sacrifices to a from it, abandon Jesus Christ, and it will again receive you strange God. Let them therefore, who dare, form this word into its bosom. But you will, no doubt, count the cost before in Matthew into Beelzebub. I am so far from doubting that you do this. Take the converse, abandon the love of the the Pharisees pronounced the word BEELZEBUL, and that World, &c. and God will receive you.

Matthew so wrote it, that I doubt not but the sense fails, if it Beelzebub] This name is variously written in the MSS. | be writ otherwise. Beelzeboul, Beelzeboun, and Beelzebud, but there is a vast ma- III. Very many names of evil spirits, or devils, occur in the jority in favour of the reading Beelzebul, which should, by all|| Talmud, which it is needless here to mention. Among all means, be inserted in the text instead of Beelzebub. See the the devils, they esteemed that devil the worst, the foulest, as reasons below, and see the Margin.

it were, the prince of the rest, who ruled over the idols, and It is supposed that this idol was the same with 9137 bys by whom oracles and miracles were given forth among the Baal zebub the God fly, worshipped at Ekron, 2 Kings i. 2,&c. Heathens and Idolaters. And they were of this opinion, for who had his name changed afterwards by the Jews to 5197 bya | this reason, because they held idolatry above all other things, Baul sebul, the dung God, a title expressive of the utmost chiefly wicked and abominable, and to be the prince and head contempt. It seerns probable that the worship of this vile idol of evil. This Dæmon they called 5137 yya Buat-zebùl, not so conunued even to the time of our Lord; and the title, being much by a proper name, as by one more general and common; applied by the Jews to our blessed Lord, affords the strongest as much as to say, the Lord of idolatry: the worst devil, and proof of the inveteracy of their malice.

the worst thing: and they called him the prince of devils, beDr. Lightfoot has some useful observations on this subject, cause idolatry is the prince (or chief) of wickedness.” which I shall take the liberty to subjoin.

Verse 26. Fear them not] A general direction to all the

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What Christ has spoken in private St. MATTHEW.

must be published to the world. A.M. 4031.

thing covered, that shall not be reveal- | but are not able to kill the soul: but ...11. 4031. An. Olymp. ed; and hid that shall not be known. rather fear him which is able to destroy. An. Olymp.

27 What I tell you in darkness, that both soul and body in hell. speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, 29 Are not two sparrows sold for a • farthing? that preach ye upon the housetops.

and one of them shall not fall on the ground 28 · And fear not them which kill the body, without your


CCI. 3.

CCI. 3.

* Isni. 3. 12, 13. Luke 12. 4. 1 Pet. 3. 14.

6 It is in value half-penny farthing in the original, as being the tenth part of

the Roman penny. See on ch. 18. 28.

persecuted followers of Christ. Fear them not, for they can theirs in the city; the third that they should light the sabbath make you suffer nothing worse than they have made Christ candle, &c. sufler, and under all trials he has promised the most ample

Verse 28. Fear not them which kill the body] TWY OTTOXTELVOPTUV. support.

Those who slay with acts of cruelty, alluding probably to the For there is nothing covered, &c.] God sees every thing: this cruelties which persecutors should exercise on his followers in is consolation to the upright, and dismay to the wicked, and their martyrdom.—But are not able to kill the soul. Hence we he will bring into judgment every work, and every secret find that the body and the soul are distinct principles, for the thing whether good or bad. Eccl. xii. 14.

body may be slain and the soul escape ; and secondly, that the Verse 27. What I tell you in darkness] A man ought to soul is immaterial, for the murderers of the body are not preach that only, which he has learned from God's spirit, andable, men duroc pevæv, have it not in their power to injure it. his testimonies; but let him not pretend to bring forth any Fear him] It is not llell-fire we are to fear, but it is God; thing new, or mysterious. There is nothing that concerns our without the stroke of whose justice, Hell itself would be no salvation that is newer than the new covenant ; and in that there punishment; and whose frown would render leaven itself inis, properly speaking, no mysteries : what was secret before, is supportable. What strange blindness is it to expose our souls now made manifest in the Gospel of the everblessed God. See to endless ruin, which should enjoy God eternally; and to save Ephes. iii. 1-12.

and pamper the body, by which we enjoy nothing but the What ye hear in the ear] The doctor who explained the law creatures, and them only for a moment ! in Hebrew, had an interpreter always by him, in whose ears Verse 29. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing?] he softly whispered what he said; this interpreter spoke aloud Assagiou. A Roman As was one tenth of a DENARIUS, which was what had been thus whispered to him. Lightfoot has clearly about sevenpence-halfpenny, and one tenth of sevenpenceproved this in his Hora Talmudicæ, and to this custom our halfpenny makes just three farthings. Lord here evidently alludes. The spirit of our Lord's direction The word cookęsov, which we translate farthing, is found appears to be this = :whatever. I speak to you is for the benefit | among the Rabbins in the word 70'y aisur, which, according of mankind,-keep nothing froin them, declare explicitly the to Maimonides, is equal to four grains of silver; but is used whole counsel of God, preach ye (xnqužérs, proclaim) on the among them to express a thing of the lowest, or almost no house-tops. The houses in Judea were fat-roofed, with a bal- | value. Our Lord seems to have borrowed the expression, one lustrade round about, which were used for the purpose of of them shall not fall on the ground, &c., from his own countaking the air, prayer, meditation, and it seems, from this trymen. In Bereshith Rabba, sect. 79. fol. 77. it is said, In place, for announcing things in the most public manner. As the time in which the Jews were compelled to apostatize, Rab. there are no bells among the Turks, a criar proclaims all times Simeon, Ben. Jochai, and Eliezer his son, hid themselves in a of public worship from the house-tops. Whoever will give cave, and lived upon dry husks. After thirteen years they came himself the trouble to consult the following scriptures will find out, and sitting at the mouth of the cave, they observed a a variety of uses to which these house-tops were assigned. fowler stretching his nets to catch birds; and as often as the Deut. xxii. 8. Josh. ii. 6. Jud. ix. 51. Neh. viii. 16. 2 Sam. Bath Kol said duron dimos, escape ! the bird escaped : but xi. 2. 2 Kings xxiii. 12. Isa. xv. 3. Jer. xxxii. 29. and Acts when it said. 'spod spicula, a dart, the bird was taken. Then

the Rabbin said, Even a bird is not taken without Heaven, i. e. Lig oot thinks that this may be an allusion to that custom, without the will of od, how much less the life of man! The :when the minister of the Synagogue, on the sabbath eve, doctrine intended to be inculcated, is this : The providence of sounded with a trumpet six times, upon the roof of a very high God extends to the minutest things; every thing is continually house, that from thence all might have notice of the coming in | under the government and care of God, and nothing occurs witir of the sabbath. The first blast signified they should leave off out his will or permission: if then he regards.sparroa's, hdw much their work in the field; the second that they should cease from more man, and how much more still the soul that trusts in hiru.

X. 9.

The necessity of faithfulness


in the cause of Christ.

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30 · But the very hairs of your head 33 4 But whosoever shall deny me A. D. 27. An. Olymp. are all numbered.

before men, him will I also deny before An.Olymp. CCI. 3.

31 Fear ye not therefore, ye are of my Father which is in heaven. more value than many sparrows.

34 - Think not that I am

come to send 32 - Whosoever therefore shall confess me be- peace on earth: I came not to send peace fore men, him will I confess also before my but a sword. Father which is in heaven.

35 For I am come to set a man at vari

a 1 Sam. 14. 15. 2 Sam. 14. 11. Luke 21. 18. Acts 27. 31.

b Luke 12. 8. Rom. 10. 9, 10.- - Rev. 3, 5. Mark 8. 38. Luke 9.96.

2 Tim. 2. 12. Le Luke 12. 49, 51, 52, 53.

Fall on the ground] Instead of eni tny ynv, Origen, Clement, That is, whosoever shall acknowledge me to be the Messiah, and Chrysostom, Jurencus, and six MSS. of Mathai, read as the have his heart and life regulated by my spirit and doctrine. It =xyiên, into a snare. Bengel conjectures that it might have is not merely sufficient to have the heart right before God, there been written at first, επι την παγην; that the first syllable σα must be a firm, manly, and public profession of Christ before being lost out of the word, yny the earth, instead of waynu men. “ I am no hypocrite,” says one ; neither should you. sare, became the common reading.

“ I will keep iny religion to myself,” i. e. you will not conWithout your Father.] Without the will of your Father: tns fess Christ before men; then he will reno!ınce you before God. Brians, the will or counsel is added here by Origen, Coptic, all We confess or own Christ when we own his doctrine, his the Arabic, latter Persic, Gothic, all the Itala except two; ministers, his servants, and when no fear binders us from supTert. Iren. Cypr. Novatian, and other Latin fathers. If the porting and assisting them in times of necessity. evidence be considered as insufficient to entitle it to admission Verse 33. Whosoeder shall deny me] Whosoever prefers his into the tert, let it stand there as a supplementary Italic word, worldly interest to his duty to God, sets a greater value on necessary to make the meaning of the place evident.

earthly than on heavenly things; and prefers the friendship All things are ordered by the counsel of God. This is a great of men to the approbation of Gov. consolation to those who are tried and afflicted. The belief of Let it be remembered, that to be renounced by Christ, is to an all-wise, all-directing Providence, is a powerful support have him neither for a mediator nor saviour. To appear bennder the most grievous accidents of life. Nothing escapes fore the tribunal of God without having Christ for our advobis merciful regards, not even the smallest things, of which he cate, and, on the contrary, to have him there 'as our judge, may be said to be only the creator and preserver; how much less and a witness against us,--how can a man think of this and those of whom he is the father, saviour, and endless felicity? | not die with horror ! on Luke xii. 7.

Verse 34. Think not that I am come to send peace, &c.] The Verse 30. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered.) || meaning of this difficult passage will be plain, when we conNothing is more astonishing than the care and concern of God sider the import of the word peace, and the expectation of the for his followers. The least circumstances of their life are re- Jews. I have already had occasion to remark (ver. 12.) that gulated, not merely by that general providence which extends to the word Oisu shalom, rendered by the Greeks signen, was used all things; but by a particular providence, which fits and directs among the Hebrews to express all possible blessings temporal all things to the design of their salvation, causing them all to and spiritual; but especially the former. The expectation of Co-operate for their present and eternal good. Rom. v. the Jews was, that when the Messiah should come, all tem

Verse 31. Fear ye notye are of more value] None can esti- | poral prosperity should be accumulated on the land of Judea; mate the value of a soul, for which Christ has given his blood therefore thyyny, in this verse, should not be translated the earth, and life! Have confidence in his goodness, for he who so dearly but this lund. The import of our Lord's teaching here, is this, purchased thee, will miraculously preserve and save thee. Did Do not imagine, as the Jews in general, vainly do, that I am the poet intend to contradict Christ when he said,

come to send forth (Baaa...v) by forcing out the Roman power, “ He sees with equal eyes, as God of all,

that temporal prosperity which they long for; I am not come “ A HERO perish, or a Sparrow fall ?

for this purpose, but to send forth (Banasv) the Roman sword, How cold and meagre is this shallow deistical saying! That to cut off a disobedient and rebellious nation, the cup

of whose is, a sparrow is of as much worth in the sight of God, who re- | iniquity is already full, and whose crimes cry aloud for speedy gards (if we may believe the poet) things only in general, as an | vengeance

. See also on Luke xii. 49. From the time they immortal soul, purchased by the sacrifice of Christ!

rejected the Messiah, they were a prey to the most cruel and Verse 32. Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men] destructive factions; they employed their time in butchering



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(CI, S.

Christ and his religion

St. MATTHEW. to be preferred before all things. * against his father, and the me, is not worthy of me: and he that 1.11.,1031. daughter against her mother, and the loveth son or daughter more than me, An. Olymp.

daughter in law against her mother is not worthy of me. in law.

38 « And he that taketh not his cross, and fol36 And "a man's foes shall be they of his own loweth after me, is not worthy of me. household.

39 He that findeth his life shall lose it: and 37 He that loveth father or mother more than he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it.

a Mic. 7.6.

... Ps. 41. 9. & 55. 13. Mic. 7. 6. John 13. 18.

Luke 14. 26.

Ch. 16. 24. Mark 8. 31. Luke 9. 23. & 1.6. 27.-

17. 33. John 12. 25.

ech. 16. 23. Luke

Even a

one another, till the Roman sword was unsheathed against enemy of his servant, and the servant that of his master, when them, and desolated the land.

the one takes no care of the other's salvation, and the latter is Verse 35. I am come to set a man at variance] The spirit of subservient to his master's passions.” Christ can have no union with the spirit of the world.

Verse 37. He that loveth father or mother more than me] He father, while unconverted, will oppose a godly child. Thus whom we love the most, is he whom we study most to please, the spirit that is in those who sin against God, is opposed to that and whose will and interests we prefer in all cases. If, in order spirit which is in the followers of the Most High. It is the | to please a father or mother who are opposed to vital godliness, spirits then that are in opposition, and not the persons. we abandon God's ordinances and followers, we are unworthy

Verse 36. A man's foes shall be they of his own household.] of any thing but Hell. Our Lord refers here to their own traditions. So Sota, fol. 49. Verse 38. lle that taketh not his cross) i. e. He who is not “ A little before the coming of the Messiah, the son shall in- ready, after my example, to suffer death in the cause of my relisult the father, the daughter rebel against her mother, the gion, is not worthy of me, does not deserve to be called my disciple. daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; and each man shall This alludes to the custom of causing the criminal to bear have his own household for his eneinies.” Again, in Sanhedrin, his own cross to the place of execution, so Plutarch, Erasos tuy fol. 97. it is said, “ In the age in which the Messiah shall come, xoxoveywo szpifen TOY AUTCU skugsu.

Each of the malefactors car. the young men shall turn the elders into ridicule; the elders | ries on, his own cross. See John xix. 17. shall rise up against the youth, the daughter against her mo- Verse 39. He that findeth his life, &c.] i. e. He, who for ther, the daugliter-in-law against her mother-in-law; and the the sake of his temporal interest, abandons his spiritual concerns, men of that

age shall be excessively impudent; nor shall the shall lose his soul; and he who, in order to avoid martyrdom, son reverence his father.” These are most remarkable sayings, abjures the pure religion of Christ, shall lose his soul, and perand by them our Lord shews them that he was the Messiah, haps his life too. He that findeth his life shall lose it, was lifor all these things literally took place shortly after their final re-terally fulfilled in Archbishop Crunmer. He confessed Christ jection of Christ. See the terrible account, given by Josepbus, | against the devil, and his eldest son, the Pope. He was ordered relative to the desolations of those times. Through the just judg- to be burnt; to save his life he recanted, and was, notwithment of God, they who rejected the Lord that bought them, standing, burnt. Whatever a man sacrifices to God is never became abandoned to every species of iniquity; they rejected lost, for he finds it again in God. the salvation of God, and fell into the condemnation of the devil. There is a fine piece on this subject in Jurenal, Sat. viii.

Father Quesnel's note on this place is worthy of deep at- || 1. 80. which deserves to be recorded here. tention. “ The father (says he) is the enemy of his son when,

ambiguæ si quando citabere testis through a bad education, an irregular love, and a cruel indul- Incertæque rei, Phalaris licet imperet ut sis gence, he leaves him to take a wrong bias, instructs liim not in Falsus, & admoto dictet perjuria tauro, his duty, and fills his mind with ambitious views. The son is Summum crede nefas ANIMAM præferre PUDORI, the father's enemy when he is the occasion of his doing injustice, Et propter vir.AM VIVENDI perdere causas. in order to heap up an estate for him, and to make his fortune.

If ever call's The mother is the daughter's enemy when she instructs her to To give thy witness in a doubtful case, please the world, breeds her up in excess and vanity, and suffers Though Phalaris himself should bid thee lic, any thing scandalous or unseemly in her dress. The daughter On pain of torture in his flaming bull, is the mother's enemy when she becomes her idol, when she en- Disdain to barter innocence for life; gages her to comply with her own irregular inclinations, and To which life owes its lustre and its worth. to permit her to frequent balls and plays. The master is the


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