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XIV. CENSUS OF CHARLESTON, S. C., IN 1848. THIS census was taken under the authority of the City Council, by J. L. Dawson, M. D., and H. W. Desaussure, M. D., who have published the results in an octavo volume of 262 pages, containing "an accumulation of facts which, if properly studied, will enable one to form an opinion of the future prospects of the city." We should judge that the labor had been faithfully and intelligently performed, and the result is creditable alike to the liberality and forethought of the city, and to the ability and industry of those who collected and digested the material of which the work is made up. The enumeration of the inhabitants was made in the month of November, when the city is generally fullest. We give below those statistics of the city for which we can find room.
Population of the City at Different Enumerations.
The decrease in the population since 1840 is among the slaves and free colored, and is accounted for in this way; that the slaves and free colored have removed to the Neck, a suburb beyond the corporate limits of the city, where, there being no restrictions upon the material or style of building, houses suited to their condition are numerous, and of moderate rents. Since the census of 1848 was taken, the Neck, by act of the Legislature, has been added to the city, with its population, exceeding, as is supposed, 16,000 persons.
The Total and Annual Increase, and Per cent. of Increase of Population, since 1790.
Of the white population there were born in Charleston 8,229, or 58 per cent.; in the United States, but not in Charleston, 2,939, or 20.72 per cent.; not born in the United States, 3,019, or 21.28 per cent.
1810 5,863 5,705
123.57 102.75 130.04 90.87 134.68 98.72 121.87
1820 5,323 5,330 6,318 7,809 49.97 50.03 44.72 55.28 100.12
Proportion of Population surviving specified Ages, in Charleston, Buston,
There were in 1848, 3,147 houses, of which number 2,789 were used wholly or partially as dwellings, and 358 as stores, &c. The whole number of inhabited houses was 2,666; the whole number of families 3,320. There were 1.20 families to each house, and 4.40 persons to each family. In 1820, the number of dwelling-houses was 2,336; in 1830, 2,481; and in 1840, 2,804. In 1848, 1,463 houses had a well, 257 a cistern, 691 both cistern and well, and 354 neither cistern nor well.
Occupations of the Population in 1848.
224 49 529 138 138 52 278 122 95 20 278 334 97 1559 3923
54 91 1 6
Pauperism. — There are two classes of persons receiving public charity. 1. Paupers, those admitted to the poor-house and supported there. 2. Out-door pensioners, those living at their own homes, and receiving daily stipulated quantities of food from the house. The following tables show the number of paupers and pensioners, and the cost of pauperism for a series of years.
Education. There are four free schools in the city, and one on the Neck, which are conducted by five teachers; three male teachers at a salary of $1,200 per annum each, and two female, at $750 each. From this salary the teachers are obliged to furnish a school-room, and often books. In 1848, the whole number of scholars in these schools was 394, and the money expended on the schools $3,900. There is, besides, a High School, averaging from 130 to 150 pupils; in which the tuition is $10 per quarter. Charleston College is also under the direction of the City Council. *The difference, if any, between this column and the sum of the other two columns, shows the number of those the place of whose birth was unknown.
Births, Marriages, and Deaths.
No record has been kept by the city or State of the births and marriages. By inquiries, it was found that in 1848 there were among the whites 465 births, males 229, females 236; among the slaves, 484, males 258, females 226; among the free colored, 56, — males 31, females 25. The deaths during the same year were, of whites, 303; of colored persons, 311. 142 marriages were ascertained to have taken place during the year. Fuller records are kept of the deaths, as shown in the following table.
Extended tables are given, showing the ages at death, the mortality in the different months of the year, for whites and blacks, and full abstracts of the causes of death, and accounts of the prevalence of epidemics and contagious diseases, for which we have not space. The climate is variable, there having been a variation of 83° between the heat and cold of different days of the same year, and of 46° in the different hours of the same day. Provident Institution for Savings, incorporated December, 1843. Average Am'ts paid depositors. Amounts remain Dividends ing on deposit in at 5 per ct. Jan. of each year.
Amounts to each opn'd. Deposited. depositor. Capital. * 1844 429 $33,064 $76 34 $4,075 1845 339 58,943 117.28 10,757
There is no valuation of the personal or real estate in the city. The debt of the city is stated at $935,671.47. The assets of the sinking fund are $547,438.93, which gives $388,232.54 as the real indebtedness of the city.
In addition to what we have given above, the volume contains full statistics of the production and prices of the staples, cotton and rice; of trade and commerce; of prices and rates of exchange; of banks; of the slave-trade; of the South Carolina Railroad; and of the several manufacturing establishments in the city.
XV. A STATISTICAL VIEW OF THE PRINCIPAL PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN EUROPE AND AMERICA, IN 1848.
FROM "A Statistical View of the Principal Public Libraries of Europe and
* Paid out, when accounts are closed, and deposits are withdrawn.
† For first half-year after the Institution was in operation.
: A Statistical View of the Principal Public Libraries of Europe and America. By Ed
America," published in London in 1849, by Edward Edwards, Esq., of the British Museum, we gather the following information and statistical tables. Approximate Tabular View of the Libraries containing 10,000 Volumes or upwards, accessible to the Public, in the several States of Europe; also, the whole Number of Libraries in said States, and the Number of Volumes and of Manuscripts contained therein in 1848.
ward Edwards, Esq., of the British Museum. Third Edition, corrected, with Additional Tables, and Illustrated Plans. London. 1849. Folio, pp. 70.
* In these states the enumeration embraces libraries of less extent than 10,000 volumes. For the total population of the several states, see "European States," near end of volume.