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VII. ENGLISH ORTHOEPY,

191

Johnson's English Dictionary, as improved by Todd, and

abridged by Chalmers; with Walker's Pronouncing Dictiona-

ry combined: To which is added, Walker's Key to the Classi-

cal Pronunciation of Greek, Latin and Scripture Proper Names.

Edited by Joseph E. Worcester.

VIII. FRANKLIN'S SECOND EXPEDITION,

Narrative of a Second Expedition to the shores of the Polar

Sea; in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827. By Captain Franklin,

R. N., F. R. S., &c. Commander; and Dr. Richardson, F. R. S.,

&c.; Surgeon and Naturalist to the Expedition. Published by

authority of the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for

Colonial Affairs.

IX. SAXE-WEIMAR'S TRAVELS,

244

Reise Seiner Hoheit des Herzogs Bernhard zu Sachsen-

Weimar-Eisenach, durch Nord-Amerika, in den Jahren 1825

und 1826. Herausgegeben von Heinrich Luden. Travels of his

Highness Bernard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, through

North-America, in the years 1825 and 1826. Edited by Henry

Luden.

X. CONTROVERSY RESPECTING THE PRETENSIONS OF

Marcus Bull TO THE RUMFORD PREMIUM, 266

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, held at *

Philadelphia, for promoting useful knowledge-Vol. iii. part

1; new series—Containing.--"Experiments to determine the

comparative quantities of heat evolved in the combustion of

the principal varieties of wood and coal used in the United

States for fuel ; and, also, to determine the comparative quan-

tities of heat lost by the ordinary apparatus made use of for

their combustion."-By Marcus Bull.

A Defence of the Experiments to determine the compara.

tive value of the principal varieties of Fuel used in the United

States, and also in Europe; containing a correspondence with

a committee of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences;

their Report and Remarks thereon; and animadversions on the

manner in which the trust confided to the Academy, by Count

Rumford, has been managed. By Marcus Bull, Member of the

American Philosophical Society, &c.

A short reply to a Pamphlet published at Philadelphia ; en-

titled, “A defence of the Experiinents,” &c. By one of the

Committee of the American Academy.

An Answer to “ A short reply," &c. &c. &c. By Marcus

Bull, M. A. P. S., &c. &c. &c.

448

Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-General of India,

to the Courts of Siam and Cochin-China ; exhibiting a View of

the Actual State of those Kingdoms : by John Crawfurd, Esq.,

late Envoy, &c.

IX. New MARITIME ARTILLERY,

480

Nouvelle Force Maritime et Application de cette force a quel.

ques parties du Service de l'Armée de Terre; ou Essai sur l'état

actuel des Moyens de la force Maritime ; sur une espêce nou-

velle d'Artillerie de mer, qui detruirait promptement les Vais.

seaux de haut-bord; sur la Construction de Navires à voile et à

vapeur, de grandeur modérée, qui, armés de cette artillerie, don-

neraient une Marine moins Couteuse et plus puissante que cel-

les existantes ; Et sur la force que le système de bouches-a-feu

proposé offrirait a terre, pour les batteries de siége, de place, de

côtes et de campagne. Par H. I. Paixbans. Ancien élève de

l'Ecole Polytechnique; Chef de bataillon au Corps Royal de

l'Artillerie ; Chevalier de l'Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-

Louis ; Officier de l'Ordre Royal de la Legion-d'Honneur.

New Maritime Force, and the application of it to certain parts

of the Land Service; or an Essay on the actual System of Ma.

ritime Force ; on a new species of Marine Artillery, which would

promptly destroy ships of the line ; on the construction of both

sailing and steam vessels, of moderate size, which, being armed

with this New Artillery, would furnish a less costly and more

powerful force than the present marine; and on the advantages

which the New System of Artillery would offer by its employ-

ment on shore, either in battering or field pieces, or in the de.

fence of Towns and Coasts. By H. I. Paixhans, Pupil of the

Polytechnic School; Chef de Bataillon of the Royal Artillery ;

Knight of the Royal and Military Order of St. Louis; and Mem-

ber of the Legion of Honour.

X. TRAVELS to Russia,

507

St. Petersburgh. A Journal of Travels to and from that Ca.

pital ; through Flanders, the Rbenish Provinces, Prussia, Rus-

sia, Poland, Silesia, Saxony, the Federated States of Germany,

and France. By A. B. Granville, M. D. F. R. S. F. L. S. M.

R. A. F. S. S. & M. R. A. S.

AMERICAN QUARTERLY REVIEW.

No. VII.

SEPTEMBER, 1828.

ART. I.-Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind,

by the late Thomas Brown, D. D., Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. 2 vols. 8vo. Boston. 1826. Stereotyped.

“KNOWLEDGE is Power.” It may seem superfluous to insist on this truth at the present day, when every department of material science is crowded with new discoveries, and when the beneficial and splendid results of this vast accession of knowledge are so apparent. And yet there is one department of science, the philosophy of mind, which it might be thought would be regarded as the most important, still believed by many to be incapable of furnishing any results which could have a practical bearing on our present or future interests, but on the contrary, is supposed to have a tendency to mislead us from more useful paths of knowledge. The cause of this prejudice is to be sought, not less in the history of philosophy, than in the nature of the science itself.

That the science is far behind all others that have engaged the attention of mankind, cannot be denied; but this is no proof that the study is not highly interesting and important. That knowledge which is requisite for the support and improvement of the animal and social principles, has been of necessity the first object of pursuit; while those studies which tend to the development and gratification of the intellectual powers, though equally essential to the perfection of our whole nature, are the last to obtain attention. The reason of this order is so obvious, that it needs not to be pointed out. And yet the fact, has given VOL. IV.--NO. 7.

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some plausibility to the opinion that the study of our mental powers is visionary and useless. If society, it is said, has existed for so long a time, and made such progress in arts and refinement, without the aid of intellectual science, where is the proof that the cultivation of this science will be of advantage? But are there no improvements yet to be made in politics, in education, or in morals? and is it not to the philosophy of mind that we must look for these improvements?

Other circumstances have contributed to bring the science into disrepute, and to divert from its use, that practical sense and calm judgment which are more important in this, than in any other inquiry, because its objects are subtle and abstract, and its language vague and figurative. One of the most influential of these causes has been, the maxims and systems received from the ancients. That turn for intellectual pursuits which distinguished the Greeks above every other people of antiquity, was in a great measure directed to metaphysical inquiries; but in consequence of a false method of philosophizing, error instead of truth was often the result of their efforts. When we reflect on the high endowments and vast labour, which have been wasted hy them, as well as by later philosophers, in vain speculations, we are ready to pardon those who regard the philosophy of the human mind as a fruitless study. “Zeno,” says Dr. Reid, “endeavoured to demonstrate the impossibility of motion ; Hobbes, that there was no difference between right and wrong; and Hume, that no credit is to be given to our senses, to our memory, or even to demonstration."

The ancient philosophers mistook not less in the object of their study, than in the method of its investigation. Their inquiries were directed to the nature and essence of mind, and the mode of its union with matter, rather than to the laws of its operation and influence, as exhibited in the human constitution. On this subject, the most they could effect, was the invention of hypotheses which appeared plausible to their finite apprehension, bụt which could not, from the very limited nature of the human understanding, have approached the truth. Adopting these hypotheses as axioms, because nothing which appeared nearer the truth had been devised, they raised on this foundation vast systems of philosophy, which, set off by the eloquence of Plato, and the acuteness of the Stagirite, absorbed in vain speculation some of the rarest geniuses of ancient and even modern times.

“ Could half the zeal, and even half the genius, (says Brown,) which were during so many ages employed in attempting things impossible, have been directed to investigations adapted to our limited faculties, there are many names which we now regard

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