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days. Let man turn now where he may, he meets with science at every step and on every hand; not only in gaining his daily bread, but in the defence of what he owns, in the pleasures, comforts, and luxuries which soften his life, in the thoughts which ennoble it, in the working out of the rules which should guide it, science has things to say, so important, so far reaching, so insistent that it seems a merest truism to insist that, so soon as the growing mind is able to take them in, the ways

of science should be made known to it. Hence science now claims, and justly claims, that so soon as the fundamental methods of all learning are acquired, they should be turned in part at least to her, and not, as in the early days when she was in her swaddling clothes, to letters alone. In plain language science should form in all our schools, from the elementary upwards, a part, and that no small part, of the teaching, even of that general teaching whose aim is limited to fitting the scholar for the simple duties of citizenship.

When I say the teaching of science, I mean the right teaching of science. Science cannot be taught out of books; science is wholly at war with that modern idol, the written examination system, under whose heavy chariot wheels the budding potentialities of countless minds have been crushed. Science has to do with the things which are going on always before our very eyes, and the only right way to teach science is to bring the mind to the thivgs themselves. Not by primers and text-books, not by didactic expositions, easy or hard, but by direct seeing, hearing, and handling, with the aid of instruments, simple if possible, but if not complex, can the mind be led in the right way.

Science replaces the desk by the laboratory, in which the scholar labours and wrestles at first hand with the secrets of nature; and the labour need be none the less fruitful because the laboratory happen to be a simple one, not a gorgeous palace imitating an exhibition, but a mere tray or a table bearing the most common tools.

Science so taught may claim the further good that the teaching rears not one faculty, but the whole being. In struggling with the actual problems of nature, that invalid distinction between body and mind, on which I touched a little while back, vanishes quite away. A quick eye, a sharp ear, a fine touch are as needful for the appreciation of things as nimbleness in logic or a retentive memory; and a right learning of scientific truths involves a due training of what we call the body no less than of what we call the mind. It involves, too, a moral training. The royal road to scientific instruction is to step faithfully in the path of the inquirers who have wrested truths out of darkness; and if the story of their labours be read, it will always be found that their success was due to such qualities as accuracy, dread of swerving one jot or tittle from the exact truth, patient endurance through long continued trials, and a humility which keeps boldness on this side of rashness, no less than by piercing insight or sweeping grasp. By such qualities are the truths of science won, and only with them can science be truly taught. And are not these qualities the very ones whose possession marks the true citizen ?

But here the very features of science, its far reaching and all pervading characters, while they bring the need of its being taught, bring also difficulties, great difficulties, in the way of teaching it. The story of man himself and his little works, the tale of his doings, his wrongs and rights, his woes and joys, his hopes and fears, his wars and his customs, is after all a compact story easily told. Moreover men have been busy telling it lifetime after lifetime; they have learnt how to tell it, how to unfold the story step by step before the growing mind, putting the simple things before the complex ones. The story has been made into a discipline.

The story of science on the other hand is not only a manifold and intricate, but also a growing and changing one. While the methods of teaching letters are very much alike, one tongue being taught in much the same way as another, and the story of one people like that of other peoples, each branch of science must be taught in its own way. And while the subject matter of the letters which our children learn to-day is much the same as that which we learnt in our time, and our fathers before us, with the continued march of science the way in which we ourselves look at even familiar things is shifting so frequently that some change, at times small, at times great, is repeatedly needed in the way in which we bring the young to look at them.

Moreover, save for one branch of it, that of mathematics, which, however important, is only a branch, science is on the whole a new tool in the schools, one to which the hand of the schoolmaster is as yet for the most part unaccustomed. The teacher of science is still in great measure a learner in the art of teaching. So long as this is so, it is the part of wisdom not to press too hurriedly the entrance of science into the school. It is better to teach letters well than science badly.

My theme to-day, however, is not the general education which rears the citizen, but that special preparation for a particular career which we call technical education. It seems to be repeating a mere truism to state that when a man's life is about to be given up to carrying out the industrial application of any science, that science should be made in some way a part of the rearing of his youth.

Let me here venture to make a distinction between that which may be called mere training and that which may be called real education. In the progress of civilisation the work done by man is increasingly replaced by work done by a machine. The lowest state of man is that of the mere labourer. Such a one is of use, like the horse, for the brute force of his muscles ; he is a mere machine of flesh and blood, and his place is soon taken by a machine of wood or iron. In his next stage he becomes a skilled workman. He has to perform a special task in the performance of which mere force is wholly subordinate to skill. Such skill has to be acquired by practice. What is needed may be some particular twist of the wrist, some special fineness of touch, some sharp appreciation of differences of colour, or the like; this has to be gained by repeated exercise. The man is still a machine; he has to do the same thing or the same things, and doing it or them again and again is taught to do it or them well. But such a teaching is training, not education. In most cases of this kind the quickest and most effective training is that which is begun and finished by help of the actual things which have to be done, by real tasks in the factory and workshop. It may perhaps in some cases save time and material if the early stages of the training are carried out on dummies and not on actual things ; and such a collection of dummies has sometimes been called a technical school. But the mere preparation of qualities and powers, which, however finely developed, never constitute more than a machine, is training, not education; and it is the spoiling of a good word to use the name school’ in such a way.

The next step in the nature of man's work is a great one. A machine is constructed to do a particular thing; and the more complex and delicate a machine the more limited is the use to which it can be put. A simple chopper may be used to cut at one time straw, at another wood ; but if you put logs into a chaff-cutter you do not cut your wood, you only damage your machine. It is relatively easy to construct a machine which shall perform even a very complicated task, provided that be always the same; difficult to construct a machine which, according to the circumstances it meets with, has to do now one thing, now another; and if the uncertainty of circumstances be great, the construction of a machine fitted to meet all the changes which may be met with becomes downright impossible.

Now in many occupations the task of the workman is not the mere repetition of the same act under all circumstances, but involves a change of action to meet a change of circumstance. If the changes which may occur are few, and such as it is possible to foresee, the workman may be prepared to meet them. As the engine-driver has his signals according to which he goes slow, or stops, or goes on ahead, so in each trade and art a code of signals may be prepared by obeying which the workman may successfully meet the changes in his task. But this can be done only for the changes which can be foreseen; and the leading of the workman to a right use of the signals is mere training, not education. So long as he does not know what the signal means, and what is its hidden connection with the change of tasks, he continues to work as a mere

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machine ; and indeed, so long as the code of signals remains a limited one, the machine of flesh and blood is in danger at every moment of being replaced by a machine of wood and iron.

But in all lines of life there comes in the possibility-nay, the likelihood-of the unexpected happening. In every occupation, even in the simple ones, the workman may meet with some unforeseen change in his task; he may be brought face to face with something not in his code of signals. If he be merely trained, not really educated, he does not know what to do; he does something by chance, and so doing may do the right thing, but is more likely to do the wrong thing, and, so blundering, to ruin his task, or he does nothing at all, which may mean equal ruin.

There is only one way to fit the workman to meet the unforeseen, and that is lifting him above the stage of a mere machine, to provide him with the power of judging what he ought to do and what he ought not to do. From a practical point of view the latter is perhaps the more important; much more harm is done in this world by men hastily rushing to the wrong course than by their shrinking from the right one. In all times the distinguishing mark of the instructed and wise has been a cautiousness contrasting with the rashness of the ignorant and foolish ; and indeed the first use, perhaps the greater use, of true knowledge is the recognition, and so the avoidance, of the specious but often popular falsehoods which continually hover round man's path.

Now there is only one way in which through external influences a man can be fitted for forming a judgment amid unforeseen circumstances so that he may take the right course, or at least avoid hurrying into careless mistakes, and that is the education through which he is made to grasp the principles according to which in each occupation the action is suited to the circumstances. But in any occupation which is an application of science, the principles which underlie all the acts constituting the daily occupation, which are appealed to in every new departure, and which supply the guide in every doubt, form what we call the science itself. So that we come back to this, that the only true technical education of the workman whose work lies in the application of science—that is, education as distinguished from the mere training of a machine-is a rearing in the science which has provided him with his daily task. But if this be so the distinction between general and technical education seems in large measure to vanish.

Not wholly, however, for we may see a difference between the demands for the general furnishing of the citizen and those for the special equipment of the workman in a particular trade; and we may use the same science to meet the different demands in different ways.

For instance, the great science of chemistry, while it enters largely into all philosophic conceptions of the nature of things, is at the same time the foundation of many crafts, and those the most diverse. On the one hand, it is not too much to say that he who is wholly ignorant of chemical science can have but an imperfect conception of the problems of the universe; on the other hand, the truths of chemistry lie at the bottom, not only of the special chemical industries, but also of many other occupations so diverse as those of the brewer, the sugar refiner, the dyer, the doctor, the artist, and yet others. Yet chemistry is one and undivided; the same fundamental principles guide at once the philosophic inquirer and each one of the several crafts. There are

pot several chemistries to be distributed in teaching according to the several needs; the same elementary truths must be taught to all. This does not, however, mean that these are to be taught to each in the same way. The brewer, the painter, and the doctor ought each of them to know chemistry ; but to teach each in the same fashion and on the same lines is neither

necessary nor desirable. The house of chemistry has many doors, and into it one may enter in many ways. In every craft which is based on chemistry, and in which the daily acts are applications of the science, each application is in its very nature an illustration ; and the real teacher can out of the daily familiar task pluck the lesson which tells of pure science; he can make the trade itself the school. This is in the narrower sense technical as contrasted with general scientific education. It is not that technical science is different from general science, it is not that technical science is a bit cut out of general science, a bit which can be used by itself; for the general principles of a science--and with these alone not with signals and “tips,' as we have seen, has real education to do-run as continuous threads through the whole science, and to cut them would be to undo it. Technical differs from general scientific education not in what is taught, but in the way of teaching. We may perhaps go a little further. The teaching of science consists largely in so bringing particular facts before the learner as to lead him through them up to general truths. The general teacher has a large choice of facts with which to begin; the technical teacher begins with the facts which lay immediately before him, as offered by the trade in which his pupils are engaged. Beyond that the truths which they work out are the same, and the methods which they employ are at bottom the same; the two kinds of teaching differ in their starting points, but are otherwise alike.

Here let me remind you of what I said a little while back of the difficulties of teaching science. If that be true of general science it is still more true of technical science. If it be a hard task to teach science rightly when the teacher has the whole realm of his science from which to choose bis lesson, how much harder must be the task of him who is narrowed, at first at least, to a few ordinary things and has to lead up from them to broad general truths! If technical

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