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MARQUE AND EEPRISAL, Congress has Power to grant Letters of,

No State shall grant any Letters of,
MILITIA, when to be called out,

To be Offio red by the States,
To be Comkaunded by the President,

Their right to keep and bear Arms Secured (Amendments),
MONEY, Congress shall have Power to Borrow,

Congress to Coin and Regulate Value of,
Shall be Drawn from the Treasury only by Appropriate Laws,
Stateg Cannst Coin,

N

Art. Sec. Cl. Page. 1 8

11

381 1 10 1 333 1 8 15 832 1 8 16 332 2 2 1 334 2

338 1 8 2 331 1 8

831 1 9 7 832 1 10 1 833

NATURALIZATION, Uniform Rules of,
NAVY, Congress to Provide and Govern,
NOBILITY, Titles of, shall not be Granted by the United States,
No State sha1 Grant any Title of,

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OATH of the President,

2 Of the Public Officers, The Senators when Sitting to try Impeachment shall be on,

1 OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS. No state shall pass any Law Impairing the, 1 OFFICE, wbo Prohibited from Holding (Amendments),

14 OFFICERS of the House of Representatives shall be chosen by the House,

1 of the Senate shall be chosen by the Senate,

1 Civil, may be Removed by Impeachment,

2 ORDERS of one House Requiring the Concurrence of the Other to undergo the Formalities of Bills,

1

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PARDONS, President may Grant, Except in cases of Impeachment,

2 L'ATENTS to be Granted to Inventors,

1 P’ENSIONS and Bounties shall not be Questioned. The Validity of the Public Debt Incurred for the l'ayment of (Amendments),

14 PEOPLE, Reserved Rights of (Amendments),

9 PERSONS HELD to Service or Labor, their Importation or Immigration into the Upited States may be Prohibited after 1806,

1 Escaping from one State to Another shall be Delivered up to those Entitled to Service,

4 T'ETITION, Right of, (Amendments),

1 L'IRACY, Congress to Prescribe Punishment for,

1 PORTS of one State over those of Another, no Preference shall be given the, 1 POST OFFICES AND POST ROADS, Congress shall Es ablish,

1 TOWERS Dot Delegated to Congress nor Prohibited to the States are Reserved to the States or to the People (Amendinents),

10
Legislative (see Congress).
Executive (see President).

Judicial-(see Judicial).
PREAMBLE,
PRESENTS from Foreign Powers to Public Officers Prohibited,

1 PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, Vested with the Executive Power, Shall be Chosen for Four Years,

2
How Elected,
Duties of Electors of, and Manner of Counting Votes for (Amendments),
Qualifications for,
Who Shall Act in case of Vacancy,
Compensation of,
Shall take an Oath of Office,
May be Removed by Impeachment,
Is Commander of Army, Nary, and Militia,
May Require the Written Opinions of the Heads of Departments,
May Reprieve and Pardon,
Day Make Treaties with Consent of the Senate,
May Appoint to Office with Consent of the Senate,
Shall Fill Vacancies Happening during the Recess,
Shall Give Infornation to Congress and Recommend Measures,
May Convene both Houses, or Either House,

2
May Adjourn them in Case of Disagreement,
Shall Receive Ambassadors and Public Ministers,

2 Shall Take Care that the Laws be Faithfully Executed,

2 Shail coinmission all Officers,

2 PRESS, Eradom of (Amendments),

1 PRIVILEGES and Immunities of Members of Congriss,

1
Of Citizens-(See Citizens; also Rights).
FROHIBITION-(See Liquor.)
PROPERTY, Congress to l'rovide for Care of Public,

4 Shalí not be Taken for Public Use without Just Compensation (Ainendments).

5 PUNISHMENTS, Cruel and Unusual, Prohibited (Amendments).

8

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QUALIFICATION FOR OFFICE, no Religious Test Shail ever be Required

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Art. Sec. CI. Page.
QUALIFICATIONS of Members of the House, .

1 2 2 329
Of Senators,

1 3 3
Or the President,

2 1 6 334
Of the Vice-President, same as President (Amenilments).

12
of United States Senator Electors (Amendments),

342
QUORUM for Business, what shall be of either House,

5 1

330
of the House of Representatives, when Choosing a l’resident (Amend-
ments).

12

339

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RACE, Color or Previous Condition of Servitude. The Right of any Citizen to

Vote shall not be Denied or Abridged on Account of (Amendments),..
RATIO OF REPRESENTATION, how Apportioned (Amendments),
REBELLION, Debt Incurred in aid of, not to be assumed or Paid (Amend.

ments),

Disability of Persons who have Engaged in (Amendments),
RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES, Accounts of, to be Published,
RECORDS of other States, how to be Authenticated,
RELIGION, or Prohibiting the Free Exercise Thereof, Congress shall make no

Law Respecting the Establishment of (Amendments),
RELIGIOUS TEST shall not be required as a Qualification for any Office,
REPRIEVES Granted by the President,
REPRESENTATIVES, Qualifications of Electors of,

Qualifications of,
Apportionment of,
Apportionment of, as Amended (Amendments),
Compensation of, to be Ascertained by law,
Privileged from Arrest, Except in certain Cases,
Shall not be Questioned for Speech or Debate in the House,
Shall not be Appointed to Office,
Shall not Serve as Electors of President,
Who Prohibited from Being (Amendments),
House of, Composed of Members Chosen Every Second Year,
House of, Vacancies in, how Supplied,
House of, shall Choose their officers,
House of, shall have the Power of Impeachinent,
House of, shall be the Judge of the Election and Qualifications of its

Members,
House of, what shall be a Quorum of the,
House of any number of the, may adjourn and Compel the Attendance

of Absentees,
House of, may Determine the Rules of Proceeding,
House of, may Punish or Expel a Member,
House of, shall keep a Journal and Publish the Same,
House of, shall not Adjourn for more than Three Days nor to any Other

Place without the consent of the Senate,
House of, one-fifth of the, may Require the Yeas and Nays,

House of, shall Originate Bills for Raising Revenue,
REPRESENTATION of a State, Vacancies in, Supplied until a new Election

by Executive Authority,
RESOLUTTON, Order, or Vote Requiring the Concurrence of both Houses, to

Undergo the Formalities of Bills,
REVENUE BILLS to Originate in the House of Representatives,
RIGHT of the People to Keep and Bear Arms shall riot be lufringed (Amend.

ments),
RIGHTS of People Reserved (Amendments),

Of Petition, Congress shall make no Law Abridging (Amendments),
Not Delegated to the United States nor Prohibited to the States are Re-

served to the States or People (Amendments),
RULES, Each House shall Determine its own,

S

CHORAIN ROMANI

329
329
341
330
330
330
330
333
341
328
329
329
329

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SCIENCE and the Useful Arts to be Encouraged,
SEARCHES AND SEIZURES, Security Against (Amendments),
SUAT OF GOVERNMENT, Congress shall Exercise Exclusive Legislation over
SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, the Congress of the United

States shall consist of a,
SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Composed of Two Senators from each

State.
Vice-President to be President of the,
Shall Choose its Officers,
Shall be the Judge of the Election and Qualifications of its Members,
of the United States, what Number shall be a Quorum of the,
Any number may adjourn, and Compel Attendance of Absentees,
May Determine its Rules.
May Punish or Expel a Member,
Shall Keep a Journal, and Publish the Same, Except Parts Requiring

Secrecy,
Shall not Adjourn for more than Three Days, nor to any other place,

without the Consent of the House.
One-fifth of the, may Require the Yeas and Nays,
Mar Propose Amendments to Bills for Raising Revenue, but such Bill

shall originate in the House,
Shall try Impeachments,

Limit of Judgment of. in Cases of Impeachment,
SENATORS, Compensation of, to be Ascertained by Law,

How Chosen, (lassed and Terms of Service (Amendments).
Qualifications of
Privileged from Arrest,
Shall not be Questioned for any Speech or Debate,
Shall not be. Appointed to any Civil Office,
Shall not Serve as Elertors,
Who Prohibited from being (Amendments),
And Representatives, Elections of how Prescribed,

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Art, Sec. Ci. Page. SLAVES, their Importation may be Prohibited after 1808, .

1 9 1 332 Escaping from one State to Another may be Reclaimed,

2 3
Claims for the Loss or Emancipation of, to be held Illegal and Void
(Amendments),

14 4

341 SLAVERY, Except as a Punishment for Crime. Prchbited (Amendments), 13 1

340 SOLDIERS shall not be Quartered, in Time of Peace, in any House (Amend. ments),

3

338 SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE, how Chosen,

1

5 329 SPEECH, Freedom of (Amendments),

1

338 STATE, the United States shall Guarantee a Republican Forin of Government to every State in the Union,

336 STATE JUDGES Bound to consider Treaties, the Constitution and the Laws under it as Supreme,

6

2 336 STATES, NEW, may be Admitted into the Union,

3 1 836 May bo formed within the Jurisdiction of others, or by the Junction of

Two or More, with the Consent of Congress and the Legislatures Con-
cerned,

3 1 336 STATES PROHIBITED FROM Entering into Treaty, Alliance or Confederation.

1 10 1 333 Granting Letters of Marque,

1
10

1 833 Coining Money,

1

1 883 Emitting Bills of Credit,

1

1 333 Making anything a Tender_but Gold and Silver Coin,

1 10 1 333 Passing Bills of Attainder, Ex-Post Facto Laws, or Laws Impairing Contracts.

1 10 1

333 Granting Titles of Nobility,

1 10 1 333 Laying Duties on Imports and Exports,

10 2 333 Laying Duties on Tonnage,

1 10 3 333 Keeping Troops or Ships of War in Time of Peace,

10

333 Entering into any Agreement or Contract with Another State or Foreign Power,

1 10 3 333 Engaging in War,

1 10 3 333 Abridging Right of Citizens of United States to Vote, on Account of Race or Color (Amendments),

15 1

341 SUFFRAGE, Extending the Right of, to Women (Amendments).

19

343 SUITS AT COMMON LAW, Proceedings in (Amendments),

7

339 SUPREME COURT-(See Court and Judiciary).

T TAX, Direct, According to Representation,

1 2 3 329 Shall le Laid only in Troportion to Census,

1 9

332 Or Duty on Exports from any State Prohibited,

1

5 332 TAXES, Duties, Imposts and Excises, Congress shall have power to Lay,

1 8 1 331 TAXES ON INCOMES, Congress may lay and collect (Amendments),

16

342 TENDER, what shall be a legal.

333 TERRITORY, or Other Public Property, Congress may make Ryles Concerning,.

2 836 TEST, Religious, shall not be Required,

6

3 336 TITLE from Foreign State Prohibited,

1

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833 TITLES— (See Nobility). TONNAGE, no State shall Lay any Duty of, without the Consent of Congress, 1 10 3

833 TREASON Defined,

3 3 1 335 Bribery, or Other High Crimes and Misdemeanors. The President and

all Civil Officers shall be Removed from Office on Impeachment for
and Conviction of

4

334 Punishment of, may be prescribed by Congress,

3 3 2 835 Two Witnesses, or Confession Necessary for Conviction of,

3 3 1 335 TREASURY, Money Drawn from, only by Appropriation,

1 9 7 332 THEATIES. how made,

2 2 2 334 And the Constitution the Supreme Law,

6

336 States Cannot make,

1 10 1 333

V
VACANCIES Happening during the Recess may be Filled Temporarily by the
President,

2 2 3
In the Representation of a State. How Filled.

1 2 4

329 In the Senate, How Filled (Amendments).

17

342 VETO OF THE PRESIDENT, Effect of, and proceedings on,

1 7 2 330 VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES to be President of the Senate,

3 4 329 Shall be Chosen for Four Years,

2 1 1 333 How Elected (Amendments),

12

339 Sball in Certain Cases Discharge the Duties of President,

1 May be Removed by Impeachment,

334 VOTE of One House Requiring the Concurrence of the Other,

1

3 331 Right of Citizens 'to, not to be Abridged on Account of Race or Color (Amendments),

15 1

341 Right of (Stizens to, not to be denied or Abridged on Account of Sex (Amendments),

19

343 W WAR, Congress shall have Power to Declare,

1 8 11 831 Yo State shall Engage in, without the Consent of Congress,

1 10 3 333 WARRANTS for Searches and Seizures, When and how they shall Issue (Amendments),

4

338 WITNESS in Criminal Cases, no one Compelled to be a, Against Himself (Amendments),

338 WITNESSES Against him. In all Criminal Prosecutions the accused shall be Confronted with the (Amendments),

338 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, Standard of,

331 WOMEN, Suffrage extended to (Amendments),

19

343 Y YUAS AND NAYS, when to be Entered on Journal,

3 330

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THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF

AMERICA.*

TIGT

(This Constitution went into operation on the first Wednesday in March, 1789, 5, Wheat, 420

and is identical, as to spelling, punctuation, and capitalization, with the original document on file at Washington.

PREAMBLE.

WE THE PEOPLE of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to vurselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.

ARTICLE. 1.

Legislative Powers Vested in Congress.

Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate ard House of Representatives.

Composition of the House of Representatives.

Section. 2. 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numeronis Branch of the State Legislature.

*In May, 1785. a committee of Congress made a report recommending an alteration in the Articles of Confederation, but no action was talen on it, and it was loft to the State Legislatures to proceed in the matter. In January, 1786, the Legislature of Virginia passed a resolution providing for the appointment of five commissioners, who, or any three of them, should meet such commissioners as might be appointed in other States of the Union, at a time and place to be agreed upon, to take into consideration the trade of the United States; to consider how far a uniform system in their commercial regulations may be necessary to their common interest and their permanent harmony; and to report to the several States such an act, relative to this great object, as, when ratified by them, will enable the United States in Congress effectually to provide for the same. The Virginia commissioners, after some correspondence, fixed the first Monday in September as the time, and the city of Annapolis as the place for the meeting, but only four States were represented, viz: Delaware, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania; the commissioners appointed by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North Carolina and Rhode Island failed to attenl. Under the circumstances of 80 partial & representation, the commissioners present agreed upon a report (drawn by Mr. Hamilton, of New York). expressin: their unanimous conviction that it might essentially tend to sauce the interests of the Union If the States by which they were respectively delegated would concur, and use their endeavors to procure the concurrence of the other staies, in the appointment of commissioners to me at Philadelphia on the second Monday of May following, to take into consideration the situation of the United States; to devise such further provisions as should appear to them necessary to render the Constitution of the Federal Government adequate as the exigencies of the Union, and to report such an act for that purpose to the United States in Congress assembled as, when agreed to by them and afterwards ontrued by the Legislatures of every State, would effectively provide for the same.

Congress, on the 21st of February, 1887, adopted a resolution in favor of a convention, and the Legislatures of those States which had not already done so (with the exception of Rhoir Island), promptly appointed delegates. On the 25th of May,

States having convened George Washington, of Virginia, was unanimously elected President, and the comsideration of the proposed constitution was commenced. On the 17th of September, 1787, the Constitution as engrosse and agreed upon was si by all the members present, except Mr. Gerry, of Massachusetts, and Messrs. Mason and Randolf, of Virginia. The l'resident of the convention transmitted it to Congress, with a resolution stating how the proposed Federal Government should be put in operation, and an explanatory letter. Congress, on the 28th of September, 1787, directed the Constitution so framed, with the resolutions and letter concerning the same, to "he transmitted to the several Legislatures in order to be submitter to a convention of dele gates chosen in each State by the people thereof, in conformity to the resolves of the convention."

On the 4th of March, 1789, the day which had been fixed for commencing the operations of Government under the new Constitution, it had been ratified by the convention chosen in each State, to consider it, as follows: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12. 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Connecticut, January 9, 1785; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788; Virginia, June 26, 1788; and New York. July 26, 1788. The Presi. dent informed Congress, on the 28th of January, 1790, that North Carolina had ratified the Con. stitution November 21, 1789; and he informed Congress on the 1st of June, 1790, that Rhode Island had ratified the Constitution May 29, 1789, Virmont in convention, ratified the Constitution January, 10, 1789, and was, by an act of Congress Approved February 10, 1791, "received and Admitted into this Cnion as a new and entire member of the United States.'

seven

Qualifications of Representatives.

2. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been_seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Apportionment of Representatives and Direct Taxes-Census.

3. * [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States yvhich may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not tased, three fiftlis of all other Persons.] The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Namber of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until succh enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

Filling of Vacancies in Representation.

4. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

Selection of Officers-Power of Impeachment. 5. The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Of the Senate.

Section. 3. 1. †[The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall bave one Vote.]

Classification of Senators—Filling of Vacancies. 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; (and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill sich Vacan

cies.]

Qualifications of Senators. 3. No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

Vice President to be President of Senate. 4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

Selection of Senate Officers-President pro tempore.

5. The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

Senate to Try Impeachments.

6. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirūs of the Members present.

*The clause included in trackets is amended by the fourteenth amendment, second section.

The first paragraph of Section 3, of Article I. and that part of the second paragraph of Sec. tion 3, of Article I, included in brackets have been superseded by the seventeenth amendmont. (Article XVII.)

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