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He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States: for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners: refusing , ass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of 1.ew Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent tu bois for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their oflic.'s, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass cur People, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Arinies without the Consert of our legislature.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation :
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: For protectin: them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States :
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies.
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring is out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign merecnaries to compleet the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy tive Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to briog on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free People.
Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our coinmon kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the recti. tude of cur intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firas reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.
Note.- This document as published above was copied from "Charters and Constitutions of the Cnited States' Compiled undins n orrer of the United States Senate by Ben l'erley Poore and isted in 1877. In said publication the proof was compared with the fac-simile of the original hy Mr, Ferdinand Jefferson, the Keeper of the Rolls at the Department of State, at Washington, He says: "In the fac-simile, as in the original, the whole instrument runs on without a break, bot raches are mostly inserted. I have, in this copy, followed the arrangement of paragr.phis adopted in the publication of the Declaration in the newspaper of John Dunlap, and as printed hy him for the Congress, which printed copy is inserted in the original Journal of the old Congress. The same paragraphs are also made by the author, in the original draught preserved in the De. partment of State.
ANALYTICAL INDEX TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE
Art. Sec. CI. Page.
1 8 12
1 8 12 332
1 8 8 331
1 9 3 332
1 10 1 333
3 3 2 335
1 8 8 331
BAIL, Excessive, not Required (Amendments),
Before they Become Laws shall be passed by both hvuses' and Approved
by the President; vr if Disapproveri, shall be passed by Two-Tunds of
CAPITATION TAX, Apportionment of,
vious Condition of Servitude (Amendmaits),
by any Construction of the Constitution,
shall have Power to
Regulations Respecting, to be equal and Uniform,
May alter the Regulations of State Legislatures Concerning Elections of
Senators and Representatives, except as to the places of Choosing
nation or inability to Discharge Duties, of President aud Vice-l'resi.
the Courts of Law, or the Heads of Departments,
Art. Sec. Cl. Page. CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES--Concluded. To Lay and Collect Taxes on Incomes (Amendments),
342 To Borrow Money,
1 8 2
331 To Regulate Commerce,
331 To Establish Uniform Laws of Bankruptcy and Rule of Naturalization, 1 8
331 To Coin Money, to Regulate the value of Coin, and fix a Standard of Weights and Measures,
331 To Punish Counterfeiting,
1 8 6 331 To Establish Post-offices and Post-Roads,
331 To Authorize Patents to Authors and Inventors,
8 To Constitute Tribunals Inferior to the Supreme Court,
331 To Define and Punish Piracies, Felonies on the High Seas, and offenses against the Laws of Nations,
1 S 10 331 To Declare War, Grant Letters of Marque, and Make Rules Concerning Captures,
331 To Raise and Support Armies,
332 Ta Provide and Maintain & Navy,
1 8 13
332 To Make Rules for the Government of the Army and Navy,
1 8 14 332 To Call out the Militia in Certain Cases,
1 8 15 332 To Organize, Arm and Discipline Militia,
1 8 16 332 To Exercise Exclusive Legislation over Seat of Government,
1 8 17 332 To Pass Laws Necessary to carry the Enumerated Powers into Effect, 1 8 18 332 To Dispose of, and make Rules Concerning the Territory of Other Property of the United States,
3 2 336 The President may, in Certain Cases, Convene and Adjourn either House of,
334 May Enforce Prohibition of Slavery by Appropriate Legislation (Ainendments),
340 Persons Engaged in Insurrection or Rebellion Disqualified for Senators or Representatives in (Amendments),.
341 May, by a Two-Thirds Vote, Remove Disability of Persons who Engaged in Rebellion (Amendments),
341 Shall Have Power, by Appropriate Legislation to Enforce the Provisions of_Article XIV, Relating to Citizenship (Amendments),
341 Shall Have Power, by Appropriate Legislation to Enforce the Provisions
of Article XV, Establishing Right of Certain Citizens to Vote
341 Shall Have Concurrent Powers, with the Several States, by Appropriate
Jegislation, to Enforce the Provisions of Article XVIII, Prohibiting
342 Representation in, how Apportioned (Amendments),
341 CONSTITUTION, Amendments to, may be Proposed and Ratified,
336 And the Laws made in Pursuance thereof, and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, shall be made the Supreme Law of the land,
2 336 Rendered Operative by the Ratification of Nine States,
337 CONTRACTS, No State shall pass Law Impairing the Obligations of,
10 1 333 CONVENTIONS for Proposing Amendments to the Constitution,
336 COPYPJGHTS TO AUTHORS, Congress Power to Provide for,
331 COUNTERFEITING, Congress to provide for Punishment of,
1 8 6 331 COURT, SUPREME, its Original and Appellate Jurisdiction,
3 2 2 335 COURTS, Inferior to the Supreme Court may be Ordained by Congress,
9 331 As Congress may Establish. The Judicial Power of the United States shall be Vested in one Supreme Court and such Inferior,
S 1 CIJE, no Perron shall be held to answer, for capital or otherwise infamous, unless on a Presentment of a Grand Jury (Amendments),
338 CRIMES, Persons Accused of, Fleeing from Justice, may be Demanded,
2 2 336 How to be tried,
2 3 335 CRIMINAL PROSECUTION, Proceedings in Cases of (Amendments),
DEBT, Public, Authorized by Law, shall not be Questioned (Amendments),
Incurred in aid of Rebellion, not to be Assumed or Paid (Amendments),
Of Persons who Engaged in Rebellion (Amendments),
Cases over the,
Shall not be Laid on Exports,
be Obliged to pay,
the Treasury of the United States,
ELECTION Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, each House shall
be the Judge of the, .......
01 United States Senators, to be by the People (Amendments), ELECTIONS for Senators and Representatives, the Time, Place and Manner
of Holding, how Prescribed.
Shall be the same Throughout the United States, the Day of the,
And Vice-President, their Duties, as Al pred (Amendments).
United States, or of any State and Afterwards Engaged in Insurrection
330 333 333 339
Art Sec. CL Page.
2 1 1 333
1 9 5 332
1 10 2 333
1 9 3 332
1 10 1 333
FELONIES Committed on the High Seas, Congress shall have Power to Punish,
From Service may be Reclaimed,
GENERAL WELFARE, Congress shall have Power to provide for the,
wise Infamous Crime, on the Presentment of a (Amendments),
HABEAS CORPUS, Writ of, can only be Suspended in Cåses of Rebellion or
. . . . .
IMPEACHMENT, the House of Representatives shall have the sole Power of,
All Cuses of, to be Tried by the Senate,
The President Cannot Grant Pardons in Cases of,
Tuamous Crime, unless on (Amendments),
Officer of the Umited States or of any State, and Afterwards Engaged
JOURNAL of its Proceedings, each House shall keep a,
In every Suate shall be bound by the Constitution,
Tribunals Interior to Supreme Court may be Created,
In all Criminal Prosecutionis the Accused shall have a Speedy and
Public Trial by (Ameniments),
be tried by (Amendments),
LAW OF THE LAND, the Constitution, the Laws made in Pursuance thereof,
and Treaties shall be the Supreme,
ment, Congress shall make all,
President to see them Faithfully Executed,
Purposes, Prohibited (Amendients),
Enforce Article Prohibiting Sale of (Amendments),
When Article Prohibiting Sale of, to Become Operative (Amendments),