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of year.

conflict between Pompey and Julius our window, but did not see any one Cæsar. Its former name was Cirta, rushing to the mosque; his voice but in 313 was changed to its present sounded like a trumpet through the name, Constantine, and for a number old town, and he looked weird enough of years governed itself as a republic, as he walked around the minaret, and It was taken by the French in 1837. then I heard his feet clatter as he ran We walk about the old Roman ruins down the long stairs, and we soon and under the rocks to view them as heard him calling out in another part best we can. Flocks of birds are fly- of the city. ing among them, and the Arabs are We learn that we came through the washing their clothes in the old Ro- edge of Sahara Desert yesterday; as man cisterns, treading out the dirt we had tickets for part of the way, with their feet, instead of washing we resolved to go to Biskera, an oasis them with their hands. We enter the in the desert, but we met the sirocco old Roman mill where they are grind- blowing and were glad to return ing grain. We walk through the without venturing further at this time Arab quarter, where we see them in

I thought of a dear one at all their native habits of laziness ; home who had some claims on me if lounging about, smoking and chat- no one else had—and it was useless to ting, while the poor women are doing go far into the desert-a sight of the the drudgery, and one occasionally desert waste was enough. We leave passes us with her face covered with at 4 A. M. for Tunis; the appearance a white cloth, hardly an eye visible. of the country is much the same as

There are a great many objects of from Algiers to Constantine-mountinterest here to the archæologist, but ains, valleys, plains, hot springs, we have not time to examine and re- Arabs in their brush huts and caraport on its palace, citadel and mu- vans moving. The Arabs seem to be seum. Some one has given a list of a migratory race, always on the fifteen tombstones at Constantine re- move. We were interested in passing cording ages from one hundred to through Souk-ahras, the birthplace of one hundred and thirty-one years, Saint Augustine, and where his father showing that it is a remarkable place was converted to Christianity by his for longevity. We are allowed to saintly wife, Monica.

Almost every visit the mosques, but there is noth- place has some historical interest ing of special interest about them. connected with it, either at a very We know that we were greatly dis- early date or during the French war. turbed at midnight by the old Moor It is a beautiful moonlight night, and calling from the minaret for the faith- I enjoy, looking out upon the counful to worship, and then again at 2 try; as we approach Tunis, the old A. M.; we got up and looked out of Roman ruins of aqueducts, with the

great Roman arches, look weird by the paintings on the walls of French moonlight. We get to our splendid battles, portraits of Louis XIV., Na“Hotel de Paris,” and realize from poleon III, and of the Bey of Tunis, our own experience what the natives but especially in a large, full length tell us, that we have had the hottest portrait of George Washington, whose day of the season. When we left Al- face looked as benignant and noble as giers on Sunday night it was so cool ever, and we took off our hats to him that I had to change my summer un- in reverence, and could not but comder garments for the heavy ones that pare him with the other magnates. I wore on the steamer in crossing the whose portraits hung on the walls. Atlantic; our situation at the hotel What a grand product of Western was on the bay, and that accounted civilization he is! We visited some for it. Since we entered the country of the old rooms which are being reafter leaving Algiers, the temperature stored and fitted up for a museum of has been from 100 to 125 degrees antiquities from ancient Carthage, Fahreheit.

Utica, and other old, extinct cities. We take a good long rest in the The mosaic floor was taken almost morning, and now we are ready to intact from Utica; the Moorish decosee Tunis, a city of 70,000 Jews, 60,- rations of the ceiling, the marble 000 Mahammedans, 6,000 Maltese, and sculpture of figures and the various 6,000 French, Italians, Greeks, etc. It devices of antiquity were extremely stands on an isthmus separating two interesting, as well as the inscriptions salt lakes, one of which is dry at this upon them in Roman and Arabic. time of year, and the salt at the bot- The new palace, not far distant, was tom looks like a desert of white sand. not especially interesting, except to We ride over the city and visit the show how the mighty have fallen. Bar el Bey, or Palace of the Bey, This, as well as the former palace, which is an immense structure of not was built for the Beys of Tunis; but very imposing architectural propor- they are both kept as a memento of tions; some of the rooms built a hun- their past greatness, as all these tawdred years ago, are profusely deco- dry rooms smell of mould and decay, rated, and seem to rival the Alhambra and their halls and bath-rooms and in Moorish decorations. The modern harems are desertd; the present Bey part of the building is tawdry and has taken up his quarters at Marsa, French enough; it is furnished with since the French occupation of Tunis, gilt furniture of the time of Louis about nine years ago.

Tunis is now XVI., and there is a sad want of taste held by a French protectorate, and is in comparison with the rich and elab- really governed by the French comorate decorations of the old part of mandant or resident general, and the the palace. We were interested in Bey is merely a figure-head; he re



ceives a salary of 100,000 francs a lounge about the front yards at their
month, or $240,500 a year, to keep homes by the sea shore, they present
him and the Arabs quiet. Other a very attractive appearance-more so
chief men among the Arabs, it is said, than any other people we have seen
receive large salaries 'as a good in- in all our travels.
vestment to keep them from mutiny. In Tunis the people all seem to be
The Arabs are very restless under the men, as the Moorish women cannot
yoke, but they are powerless. We appear on the streets except with
visited the Bey's palace at Marsa, covered faces; a black veil is used in-
and went about the village, which stead of white, as in other Moorish
is composed of his harem of three places we have visited, and the Jew-
hundred servants and numerous sold- ish women do not go out except at
iers to keep up an appearance of the promenades in the evening, when
power for him. It is delightfully sit- they appear as guady as a lot of bal-
uated a hill, overlooking the let girls. We took a carriage one
beautiful blue waters of the Mediter- afternoon for old, ancient Carthage,
ranean Sea, where are bath-rooms and founded B. C. 852, which is an
beautiful residences of the wealthy ceedingly interesting point to the
Jews and others from Tunis. We

We archæologist. The location is high, have seen here in Tunis some of the overlooking the Mediterranean Sea handsome Jewish belles, dressed in and the surrounding country, but now their peculiar style, which would have hardly a vestage of its ancient glory been very pretty if their forms had remains. A large cathedral has just not been so short and thick and their been erected by the French in a comlower limbs almost as big round as manding position overlooking the sea their waists. They are very corpu- and the country round about. We lent, which is said to be an additional drove out about eight miles from Tuattraction; they wear skin-tight trou- nis to the northeast; we could see sers made of white muslin or silk, and nothing but a few ancient ruins of short jackets made loose and of some the once proud city of Carthage. bright color-green or scarlet—they This is not the place, nor have I the look like ballet dancers, but in their time to go into its most interesting dress only. They are very handsome, history. It created for itself a great with large, almond-shaped black eyes, name, and many incidents of interest black hair and dark complexions,

present themselves

to my mind. with heavy, dark eyebrows; in the When I read Virgil in my boyhood, bright colored jackets, with the white and Gibbon and other historians, I or fancy colored trousers, with their little thought that I should ever have short, thick, corpulent bodies, as they the pleasure of looking upon the parade up and down the esplanade or ruins of old Carthage. We walked

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about and were surprised that so lit- about of villages and villas of the tle remains of the once rich, proud rich residents of Tunis. The setting city. Some old aqueducts and ruins sun cast a vivid glow upon the scene were occupied by gypsies, and away as it disappeared behind the western under ground was an old Roman mill hills—the glorious sunset, the beautigoing, with a horse turning the crank; ful view spread out before us, the it was dark underneath, and it seemed crumbling ruins of this once great as if the scene was gotten up especi- city—it is a scene long to be rememally for out visit.

bered. There is a wall built of stones, On our way to Tunis the moon about 2,000 feet long and ten feet came up over the mountains across high, enclosing the chapel built by the the bay, casting its reflection upon French, to conmemorate the death its blue waters. The air from the of Louis IX., erected on the spot sea was cool and refreshing, quite in where he died. A new cathedral has contrast with our experience coming just been finished by the French; it through Algeria the past week under is on a high eminence overlooking the a scorching sun. As we approach sea, Tunis and the distant mountains Tunis we meet the carriage of the across the bay. We did not care to Bey closely covered from view, and go in, as we were looking for ancient are told that it contains one of the not modern works. The wall refer- two wives of the Bey or some imporred to around the enclosure is covered tant women personages. When they with devices, sculpture and inscrip- get out or into a carriage a silk protions dug from the ruins of old Car- tector is drawn from the carriage to thage and not the wall with the entrance of the palace so that no cement. There is a large museum in one can look at them. What terrible a hall which contains many objects bondage for the poor women, to have of interest to those who like the study no man to look upon their charms, of archæology, but we could only

we could only but are obliged to make recluses of glance at them. I am sure I shall themselves, not being allowed to look take up the study of Carthage this upon the male sex or any one but winter with new interest. We visited their own “lords” and the ladies of the foundations of the old amphi- the households. As we approach the theatre, Basilica, etc., but all is abso- city we see rockets and fireworks lute ruin, and we can only get relief going off, and we are reminded by our by reading all about it at another Moorish interpreter that “it is the time. The location was most delight. French fete day to-morrow." France ful; it was on hills overlooking the has her annual celebration of the beautiful bay, the mountains across

foundation of the republic on the the bay and the whole region round 14th of July. Like our 4th of July, it

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is the great day of the year for fetes white, flowing costume. This is a and various celebrations of all kinds gay day, and a long programme of in all parts of France and her domin- the day's performances was handed ions. Great preparations have been to us, which reminded us of Indepengoing on in Tunis in the way of dec- dence Day. I do not think the orations in the streets and upon Moors and Arabs enjoyed the sight; houses with flags, Chinese lanterns, they looked sullen and mad, as etc.

though angry that their freedom was Sunday morning early the Bey was taken from them and their favorite to arrive amidst the military and the ruler, the Bey, virtually an outcast, firing of cannon. We were up early, and a stick so far as any power is and at 6:30 A. M. he came in on the concerned. The Moors never tire of train from his palace at Marsa, and following him as he comes into the was taken to his city palace in a gay city once a week, on Saturday, to coach drawn by six horses and es- hold a reception at his city palacecorted by the military, where he re- just to keep him before them and ceived the 6,000 soldiers here, cavalry, prevent an outbreak. zouaves

and various companies, We enquired for English church amidst music and firing of cannon. services to-day, but the chaplain told The houses were covered with flags us that the little iron church was and the streets looked like ours closed on account of the hot weather. the 4th of July. The majority of peo

F. C. SESSIONS. ple on the crowded streets

Tunis, Africa, July 14, 1889. Moors, dressed in their peculiar, ,



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