Imágenes de páginas

the first tine since I had lost her. My tears seemed been opened. No man can now elevate great men found it expedient to vary from to freshen the feelings of my grief; every little himself by the most elaborate imitations, their predecessors. Indeed we do not recolcircumstance which had been half-obscured, half. and Mr Campbell unhappily belongs to the lect a single great poet who has not a verforgotten, in the late dull and stupified state of my class of imitators. We do not know but sification peculiarly bis own. mind, now came forth in vivid colouring. I con

Byron, in tinued to weep, and to press the light dress which we may shock the prejudices of some of our his dedication of the “Corsair," talks about my Gertrude had last worn, to stop my ears. While readers by this assertion, nor do we mean his having attempted “the good, old, and now sitting there, I discovered a small volume lying be to make it without some qualification. His neglected heroic couplet ;" but the couplected that I had often seen it in the hands of my red, and noble; but his

longer works—those couplets of Dryden, or of Pope, or of Goldneath one of the cushions of the sofa, and I recol- lyric poetry is his own, pure and unming- lets of the “Corsair” are no more like the wife. The book was lying open, as if it had been just laid down. I was struck by the peculiar rich to which his odes are but appendages—all smith, than they are like the couplets of ness of the binding: the sides and back were cov- discover mannerism and imitation strongly Chaucer, or than the blank verse of Thomered with green velvel thickly bossed with pearls marked. This will not do now, and cannot son is like the blank verse of Milton or and rubies, and its clasps, of pale virgin gold, were do hereafter. The master poets of the age Young. It is curious to see that in the also studded with valuable gems. I expected to find have broken down the barriers of preju- lyric poetry of Campbell,—that part of his some rare and richly ornamented manuscript, some painted missal: I was disappointed, for the volume dice; they have moulded anew the public works on which his fame must ultimately was a small plainly printed English Bible. I hastily taste, and stamped it with an original im- rest,--he has invented new measures of turned over the leaves: on the title page my wife press.

No revival of an obsolete school of verse. had written with an unsteady hand these words poetry, no direct imitation of a new one, As to this recent publication, we do not • My last prayer will be that my husband may regard this book as his best treasure—it has been can now win the applause of the public, think it will increase the fame of Campever mine. From the grave, from another world, though it may exact the approval of critics. bell; neither do we think it will shake his I beseech him to search

this message of God him- Campbell was happy in the time at which well established reputation. It comes too self. O let him not dispute over this sacred volume, “The Pleasures of Hope” was published; late to effect this; but had it appeared imbut pray in a childlike and teachable spirit for the a few years later, and it would been prais- mediately after “ The Pleasures of Hope,” knowledge of himself

, of the truth, of eternal happi; ed by critics and neglected by readers, if it would have needed something better ness!' .For your sake, my blessed love,'Iexclaimed fervently, I will read this little volume! It shall indeed his good sense would not then have than “Gertrude of Wyoming,” highly pollie next to my heart, which your image shall never entirely suppressed it. Brown's “ Paradise ished as that is, to bave placed him on his leave. Ai that moment the phantom stood before of Coquettes” and “ Bower of Spring" former level in public estimation. me, and the book dropped from my hand.

were praised in the Edinburgh Review; Theodric is a short tale, and, as it seems All about me seemed to undergo a gradual change, but we may retort on the critics their own to us, carelessly told. It opens with a deand the presence of the plantoni is no longer dreadful to me. He still appeareth often, bul not to ter words, “Who reads them?” They slumber scription of Alpine scenery, conveyed from rify, not to wither my heart within me. I have with Hayley's “ Triumphs of Temper.” Wordsworth, and sadly marred in the translearned to bless his appearance, for he now cometh Truly the Scottish critics have been very version. The poet imagines himself standrather as a friendly monitor. In the hour of danger, unhappy in their remarks on poetry, in the ing by the tomb of a Swiss maiden, whose of temptation, of trial, I see his look of agonized subjects which they have selected either story is told him by his companion: that entreaty, I hear his solemn voice of warning, deploring my past guilt, and pointing to those mercies for praise or blame. They seemed to have she fell in love with a colonel in the Auswhich have blotted out the sentence of condemna- put down Wordsworth for a time; they trian army from the enthusiastic description pronounced against all sinners. His form I ridiculed Byron and Coleridge; they be- tions of her brother, who was a cornet in can still recognise, but it seemeth like one that is stowed mingled praise and censure on his troop; and learning that he was about transfigured, and the garments that he wears are Southey ;-look at the result! Those pas. to marry another woman, she died of love; white and glistening.

Here I conclude You say that you must return sages of Southey, which they condemned that the colonel having one day scolded á to England. My true friend, I would go thither are admired, and the judges are condemned little, because his wife stayed too long on a also. I would no longer defer my departure from for those which they absolved. Coleridge visit, she died of grief thereupon just about Naples : for whither thou goest I will go; and is now confessedly " a singularly wild and the same time. What became of the colonel where thou lodgest I will lodge : Thy people shall beautiful” poet, the most original perhaps and cornet afterwards, our author says not. be my people, and thy God my God.

that ever wrote.* The superior excellence Now any man who is conversant with the

of some of Byron's later performances are Lake poets, must know, that a fine superTheodric; a Domestic Tale; and Other thought by good judges to be due to his structure of poetry might have been built Poems. By Thomas Campbell. New

having been" dosed with Wordsworth.” on such a plan as this. We ourselves, ad

And, in Wordsworth's own language, who mirers as we are of another school than his, York. 1825. 18mo. pp. 116.

does not observe to what a degree the did believe that Mr Campbell could have MR CAMPBELL’s fortune as a poet has been poetry of the Island has been coloured by worked up this simpie tale powerfully; but singular. The fame of other poets fluctu- his works?

he has failed. The style is a strange medated during their whole lives, and their

For one who loves literature well enough ley--some passages are of the versification niches in the Temple were assigned to to trace its history in its minuter points, it is of Mr Campbell's earlier works, some of them by posterity; but he seems many interesting to notice the changes in the that of Lord Byron's, and now and then a years ago to have attained a station, from versification of our language since the days dash of Crabbe's; and we could not feel which no subsequent performances have of Queen Elizabeth, from the ruggedness affected by the incidents, however much we removed him; and he is now arrived at an of Donne and Cowley, through the affect tried. We quote the opening lines. age which renders it improbable that he ed airiness of Waller, the stateliness of will produce any work to alter the judg. Dryden, and the flippancy of Pope, to the And lights were o'er th' Helvetian mountains fung,

'Twas sunset, and the Ranz des Vaches was sung, ment of the public. He has always been, smooth flow of Goldsmith and his followers; That gave the glacier tops their richest glow, and from the nature of things always must and then to turn to the rich and varied har- And tinged the lakes like molten gold below. be, a popular poet, but, as it has been de- mony that wells forth from the pages of Warmth flushed the wonted regions of the storm, cided, a poet of the second class. There Walter Scott and of Byron, and the poets That high in Heaven's vermilion wheeled and soared.

Where, Phenix-like, you saw the eagle s form, are passages in all his works which appeal of the Lake school. We have not adverted | Woods nearer frowned, and cataracts dashed and directly to feelings inherent in human na- to the less marked differences which may roared, ture,-passages which will awaken respon be found in some of the intermediate poets; From beights brouzed by the bounding bouquetin; ses in the breast of every reader. His first work, « The Pleasures of Hope,” even in the trivial point of form, these and hamlets glittered white, and gardens flourished but we have cited enough to show, that, Herds tinkling roamed the long-drawn vales be

tween was, according to the notions of the leaders of the public taste in its day, a work of

green. bigb promise. But better and more exalt- in this country? We have but few of them, and

Why are not Coleridge's Poems republished

Some of our readers may not have had an ed views of poetical excellence have since I those not the best.

opportunity of seeing the original of these 314

lines; and to such of them as have seen it, I love of ordinary mortals, than that which is What though beneath thee man put forth we presume no apology is necessary for re- expressed in Byron’s. “The Ritter Bann”

His pomp, his pride, his skill; calling to their recollection such finished has been sufficiently ridiculed, so we will not

And aris that made fire, flood, and earth,

The vassals of his will;poetry of so bigb an order.

join in the chorus. “Reullura” is as tame as Yei mourn not I thy parted sway, "Tis storm, and hid in mist from hour to hour, the Ritter. The Song-—“Men of England” Thou dim discrowned king of day: All day the toods a deepening murmur pour; is more in the style of Campbell's best For all those 'rophied arts 'The sky is veiled, and every cheerful sight; efforts than any thing else in the volume,

And triumphs that beneath thee sprang, Dark is the region as rith coming night;.

Healed not a passion or a pang
and is worthy of a place not far below “The
But what a sudden burst of overpowering light!

Evtailed on human hearis.
Battle of the Baltic."
Triumphant on the bosum of the storm,

Go, let oblivion's curtain fall
Glances the fire-clad eagle's whecling form ;


Upon the stage of men, Eastward, in long perspective glittering, chine

Nor with thy rising beanis recall

Men of England! who inherit The wood-crowned cliff's that o'er the lake re line;

Life's tragedy again.

Rigins that cost your sires their blood! Wide o'er the Alps a hundred streams uutold,

Men whose unvegenerate spirit

Its piteous pageants bring not back, At once to pillars turned that flame with gold;

Nor waken flesh upon the rack

Has been proved on land and flood !Behind his sail the peasant strives to shun

Of pain anew to writhe ; The west, that burns like one dilated sun,

By the foes ye 've fought uncounted,

Stretched in disease's shapes abhorred, Where in a mighty crucible expire

By the glorious deeds ye 've done,

Or mown in battle by the sword,
The mountains, glowing hot, like coals of fire.
Trophies captured-breaches mounted,

Like grass beneath the scythe.
Wordsworth's Descriptive Sketches.

Navies conquered-kingtionis won!
There is another passage of English

Even I am weary in yon skies
Yet, remember, England gathers

To watch thy fading fire ; poetry which we doubt not owes its origin

Hence but fruitless wreaths of fame,

Test of all sumless agonies, to this. We mean the opening of the third If the patriotism of your fathers

Behold not me expire. canto of the Corsair; but no trace of imita- Glow not in your hearts the same.

My lips that speak thy dirge of death tion is to be found there. By ron was a mas- What are monuments of bravery,

Their rounded gasp and gurgling breath ter of his art; he did not borrow another

To see thou shalt not boast.

Where no public virtues bloom? man's lamp and pour out the oil; but when What avail in, lands of slavery,

The eclipse of Nature spreads my pall,

The majesty of Darkness shall

Trophied temples, arch, and tomb ? he had caught light from it, the flame which

Receive my parting ghost ! he kindled was his own, and supplied from Pageants !- Let the world revere us an inexhaustible fountain. We have not For our people's rights and laws,

This spirit shall return to Him found in Theodric any other passage of such

And the breasts of civic heroes

That gave its heavenly spark ;

Yet think not, Sun, it shall be dim

Bared in Freedom's holy cause. palpable imitation as that which we have

When thou thyself art dark ! quoted; but we think that the whole poem Yours are Hampden's, Russell's glory,

No! it shall live again, and shine evinces, that it is the work of one who

Sydney's matchless shade is yours

In bliss unknown to beams of thine, draws sometimes from one and sometimes

Martyrs in heroic story,

By Him recalled to breath,

Worth a hundred Agincourts ! from another, without relying upon his own

Who captive led captivity,

Who robbed the grave of Victory,

We 're the sons of sires that baffled collected and concocted resources. Like

And took the sting from Death!

Crowned and mitred tyranny: all the works of its author, it has passages of tranquil beauty. The following descrip

They defied the field and scaffold

Go, Sun, while Mercy holds me up
For their birthrights—so will we !

On Nature's awful waste
tion is of this kind :
Perhaps the following ode-if ode it be-

To drink this last and bitter cup and to know her well

Or grief that man shall tasteexhibits as much power and originality as Prolonged, exalted, bound, enchantment's spell;

Go, tell that night that hides thy face,
For with affections warm, intense, refined, any thing in the volume ; but it is difficult

Thou saw'st the last of Adam's race,
She mixed such calm and holy strength of mind, to forget, while reading it, some poems of On Earth's sepulchral clod,
Thai, like Heaven's image in the smiling brook, modern ,date, which we cannot but think The dark’ning universe defy
Celestial peace was pictured in her look.
that Mr Campbell remembered while writ- To quench bis Immortality,

Or shake his trust in God!
That cheered the sad, and tranquillized the vexed; ing it.
She studied not the meanest to eclipse,

And yet the wisest listened to her lips;

A Comparative View of the Systems of Pes

All worldly shapes shall melt in glooin, She sang not, knew not Music's magic skill,

The Sun himself must die,

talozzi and Lancaster: in an Address But yet her voice had tones that swayed the will.

Before this mortal shall assume

delivered before the Society of Teachers There are lines in which the author's wish Its immortality!

of the City of New York. By Solyman

I saw a vision in my sleep, to snatch, like some of his cotemporaries,

Brown, A. M. New York. 1825. 8vos

That gave my spirit strength to sweep “a grace beyond the reach of art," has be

Adown the gulf of Time! trayed him into a meanness of expression

I saw the last of hunan mould, that sorts but oddly with the others around

The title of this pamphlet excited our in

That shall Creation's death behold, them. Such, for instance, as these:

As Adam saw her prime!

terest to a high degree, but we were not a

little disappointed on being obliged to read ‘His ecstacy, it may be guessed, was much.'

The Sun's eye had a sickly glare,

to the seventeenth page before we found * But how our fatos from unmomentous things

The earth with age was wan,

the subject again alluded to. The preced

The skeletons of nations were May rise, like rivers, out of little springs.'.

Around that lonely man!

ing part consists of judicious remarks upon *The boy was half beside himself.'

Some had expired in fight,—the brands the importance of education, and the value Of the smaller poems contained in this

Still rusted in their bony hands;

of good instructers. The most important volume, none are equal to some which

In plague and famine some!

observations occur on pages 21, 22.

Earth's cities had no sound nor tread, Campbell has heretofore written; several

And ships were drifting with the dead

The difference between these two systems of of them were first published in the New To shores where all was dumb!

Pestalozzi and Lancaster, I bave said, is greatMonthly Magazine. Some of the contribu

greater, perhaps, than we have been accustomed to tors to that Magazine are, however, better

Yet, prophet-like, that lone one stood, imagine. In the one, (that of Lancaster) where a
With dauntless words and high,

multitude of words are read, and perhaps commitpoets than its editor, if we may suppose That shook the sere leaves from the wood

ted to memory by the papil, a great quantity of the that the poetry there published, and not re- As if a storm passed by,

signs of ideas is acquired; while the ideas thempublished here, was the work of others. Saying, We are twins in death, proud Sun, selves, and the things of which they are the images, The love songs are about as good as love

Thy face is cold, thy race is run;

are totally unknown. If words were the natural songs commonly are. They are more true

"Tis Mercy bids thee go;

signs of things, or even the natural signs of ideas,

For thou ten thousand thousand years to nature than Moore's, and the feeling

the case would be reversed; but so long as language Hast seen the tide of human tears,

consists of conventional and artificial signs, having which they express is much more like the That shall no longer now..

no analogy with thoughts or things, a mere reliance

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upon books in elementary instruction, will be little | a degree of disgust which proves a great im- the developement of the mental powers. In the other system, on the contrary, where books pediment to the acquisition of knowledge in Hected, thar in those ancient days,

the art of print

of knowledge by books was impossible. He read ence, and where able teachers are employed to learn, is caught in casual moments, when of Aristotle and Plato, of Socrates and Pythagoras, are introduced only to embody the elements of sci- any way. The best part of all that children ing was yet unknown, and hence, that the diffusion illustrate, to amplify, to infer; to elicit thought and facts happen to be illustrated in a familiar among the Greeks; some of whom removed to Italy. excite reflection; to encourage inquiry and engage and interesting manner, and especially when in order to disseminate among the Roman youth, curiosity; to teach practice, and explode theory, they chance to see a simple truth explained the knowledge they had gained in Egypt and the either things themselves are presented directly to

East. the senses, or their appropriate ideas are excited in by being applied to its proper use. the mind, by the aid of analogous images already be said, that this is all the knowledge that pher, after comparing all the data derived from there, and the mere words which signify the one scholars can obtain, which is legitimate history, resulted in the conclusion, that the great and the other, follow of necessity. In this case we Whatever is not so acquired, is unaccom- diversity of elementary books employed in the secure the reality, instead of the transient shadow panied by love of knowledge for its own sehools of modern times, is destructive of the best which flits across the mind only to leave it in sake, or the proper use which it is designed interests of early education; especially when those greater darkness and more deplorable sterility. In short: the one system imparts IDEAS, and the other to effect. It is altogether factitious; and books are voluminous and prolio-calculated to

burden, perplex, and stupify, rather than exhilarate, WORDS.

when the spurious motive which excited the enlighten, and expand the mind.

mind to the exertion by which it was ob The character of those elementary treatises which In the statement of the difference between tained,

ceases to operate, then all interest were employed by ancient instructers, he was ena: the two methods of teaching, the author is in the knowledge ceases, and it is generally bled to infer from a single splendid example which perfectly correct; but we regret that he did forgotten.

had survived the conflagration of the library of not exclude less important matter, and give

The acquisition of knowledge is not in Alexandria, and all the ravages of the Gothic bar

barians in the Western Empire. This was the a more full exposition of the Pestalozzian itself unpleasant to any mind. A love of Geometry of Euclid, the preceptor of the Ptolesystem. We know of no other subject so knowing, a pleasure in receiving informa- mies :-a book which has been found so complete important to all who bave any concern tion, is proper to the nature of all children; in itself; so free from redundancy and defect; so with the business of instruction from the and there is always something which is pre- perfectly inclusive and exclusive, that no geometrimother who sows the seed, to the instructer cisely

adapted to the capacity of every child, cian in any age, has been able to add or diminish; of ripening youth, who aids in the expansion and in which he will feel a strong interest only are the books which Pestalozzi and his follow.

without creating an evident imperfection. Such of the branches

, the leaves, and the flowers, when it is presented to his mind. To obtain ers believe to be suited to the minds of youth. and prepares the tree to bring forth fruit. what is now suited to the state and powers But this philosopher ventured even farther, and We do not ascribe to Pestalozzi the sole of the intellect, will infallibly prepare the suffered himself to conjecture what was the characmerit of reviving the system of analytical way for the truth next in order; and the ter of those instructors to whom the Egyptians,

Greeks, and Romans, intrusted the education of instruction. It is a striking characteristic mind may advance by this regular gradation their children. He was able to demonstrate, beof the present age, that men are unwilling towards the illimitable measures of eternity. yond contradiction, that many of the first names to believe any thing on authority; it must We know that this theory, when pre which history has transmitted were teachers of the be explained and illustrated so that it can sented definitely, still appears to most per- youth of their country, and he found no triffing be understood. The mind revolts from a sons wild and extravagant. The truth is, we number of examples of a fact still more to his purdogmatical mode of teaching. We love to can form no idea of this orderly, analytical pose in that young men were sent from remote

countries to be taught by these great masters. feel that we are free and rational agents, arrangement of the facts or truths in sci- Hence he very logically inferred, that the most as well while acquiring, as while using, ence, because we were not thus instructed. approved instructors were MEN of learning, expe. knowledge.

All our knowledge consists of truths obrience, and character. All the causes which have combined to tained with little regard to method, and By this process of investigation, corroborated by produce this character in the present age, stored in the mind with almost no reference tradition among the descendants of these two nahave tended equally to introduce that method to orderly arrangement.

tions, resident in the mountains of his country, of instruction which Pestalozzi has done so

Pestalozzi gathered all the assistance which an

The greatest difficulty which this system ciquity could supply, and reduced to practice in his much to illustrate and recommend. The presents, is that of determining the proper native Switzerland, the result of his inquiries. His Reformation, the works of Bacon, of New- arrangement of the several sciences. Prob-plan has been successfully pursued in Europe and ton, of Franklin, and many others, and all ably it should be different with different America; and the institution of Fellemburgh in that has been done to encourage and culti- scholars. In any single science, there is Switzerland, and the Polytechnic school of France, vate experimental science, have contributed no great difficulty in arranging the truths

have given celebrity to his principles.

These principles are at once natural and simple, to the same end. The tendency of the analytically.

We mention, as examples, and in perfect harmony with the philosophy of whole, is to abolish the system of dogmati- Euclid's Elements in Geometry and Col- Franklin, — to practise much, and trust little to cal teaching, and to substitute for it a sys- burn's First Lessons in Arithmetic. Upon theory. The simple elements of science are pretem of learning-a system by which the some other occasion, we may endeavour to sented to the learner

, and he is led to all the minute scholar shall, at all times, have that pre- show, that the same system of arrangement ner the pupil is induced to confide little in a mere

particulars, as if by actual discovery. In this mansented to his mind which he is capable of can easily be applied to the other sciences; tenacity of memory, but to repose with all its powers comprehending, and of applying to some and shall conclude this notice with an ex- on the decisions of an active understanding. use. This is the way in wbich all real tract from the Address of Mr Brown, which Lancaster, on the other hand, was desirous of knowledge is obtained, and it is because contains some just observations respecting hazarding a mere experiment, without the least auour elementary books, and our coinmon the systems he is comparing.

thority from the practice of any age or nation. modes of instruction are so imperfect, that

A philanthropist, no doubt, he desired a more so very little is done at school to improve the

best inethod of inculcation, those of Pestalozzi of the poorer classes of the community, in every

Among the variety of suggestions in relation to general diffusion of knowlerige than the condition any other faculty of the mind than the anc. Lancaster, have secured the greatest share of country, had hitherto admitted. By a sole reliance memory. The memory is continually stuffed public consideration. But while each has found its on books, with the bare rehearsal of lessons to those with natural images, while the affections are advocates, no two systems are more diametrically who were ignorant of their meaning, he hoped that uninterested in them, and the understanding opposed.

such children as were deprived of higher advantakes no cognizance of their application or

Pestalozzi seems to have reverted his eye upon tages, might receive, at least, tolerable instruc Foreign motives--as fear of punish- and, after admiring the perfection of the respective the brightest pages of Grecian and Roman history, tion.

In England, where this system received at first ment and hope of reward_must be contin: languages of these two august nations, to have in considerable patronage, it has sunk into general ually urged in order to encourage the mind quired into the causes of their literary and intel- neglect; and in these States, wbere Lancaster to this almost useless mode of acquiring lectual greatness. By a natural mode of argument, travelled Jong, and laboured with indefatigable inknowledge. We call this species of knowl. from effect to cause, lie was led to suspect, that the dustry to impress the public mird with the sense of

eminent historians and poets, orators and statesmen, the importance of bis new discovery, the schools edge almost useless, because it proves of military chieftains and scientific artists of those established on this plan have gradually dwindled, comparatively little practical advantage, states, must have acquired the first rudiments of the and must eventually

share the fate of their predeand the acquirement of it is accompanied by sciences under circumstances peculiarly adapted to cessors across the Atlantic. I have witnessed the




living pranks of very few of these monsters; but I of its nearest approximations. Theirs has they have detected motive, where other have attended during the funeral obsequies of sev been a study of human experience in its men bave only been taken with the coneral, in different states, and have seen their remains, varieties and causes. The distinctions they duct. They thus take us in their works to unattended by a solitary mourner, committed to everlasting forgetfulness.

have made, have proceeded out of the ac- the deep springs of human action, and show tual differences of things. What such men to us all its sources, whether pure or in

were or thought years ago, or yesterday, in pure, however wickedly selfish, or bonourMISCELLANY.

regard to the great questions of human con-ably disinterested. These men are authors, cern, they would be, or think to-day. They for they are eminently producers; for when have taught us what, and how they are; they have written, the world has got some

and if they have seemed different beings to thing which it had not before. These are AUTHORS never die. The good and the us at any time, the change has most proba- rare men. Ages have passed away without evil they do, alike live after them. The bly belonged to our own minds, not to them. When they have appeared, it has body may be dead, but the mind lives; on theirs.

been sometimes accidentally, and the world earth too; and will live. Men's minds, as Such men are inestimably valuable at all has not known its own; and they have had others know them, are known by what they times, and in all ages. They are especially so no other reward but the incommunicable say, do, and write. We have had men to our own. We are in a stirring world, and one, which a fine mind always has, and alamongst us who never wrote any thing, but are for turning it upside down. The change, ways must have, in the noble company of who, nevertheless, acted widely upon others even for the worse, is not altogether the its own thoughts. The works of such men by conversation alone. They thought as matter of doubtful choice it was once thought have been a legacy to all posterity. And deeply, and as accurately, and talked with to be ; or we are willing to change what is how sacred has been the entail; how carethe same precision and order, as if they were well, for the chances of the better. Some ful have we been of the patrimony, and how thinking for writing, or were actually writ- of our most gifted talkers have taken the jealous lest its fame should become the ing. Their opinions were sought for, where word of the time, or put it into the time's property of another. they might be useful, and were as accessible mouth, and little now is, but what is not. The authors of whom we write never as if they were on the bookseller's counter, or In the men of whom we write, there was a repeat themselves. Let characters or inin the library. These were strictly authors. saying leaven of human prudence. They cidents be as numerous as they may, a real They are, however, necessarily short-lived. had learned caution in the experience of individuality is preserved every where. You Their records are not permanent. They every hour. They had learned it as well in constantly perceive that the various beings are not the property of the whole, and the slow and wise progress of nature, as in created are conscious of their own identity, which the whole will find a common pride their profound observance of human con- and act in consequence of it; and that the and interest to preserve, and to preserve duct. They talked deliberately, as if in distinctions between them belong as natuunadulterated. They are the property of a harmony with this progress. I have known rally to this consciousness as they do to the few, which the few will appropriate, and instances of peculiar melody of voice among same thing in actual life. Shakspeare was may alter and deform without mercy, and these men, as if moral beauty, and a fine in-pre-eminent in this character of original without fear. It is melancholy to see the tellect, gave character to their expression. authorship. His dead, and equally his living, mind thus dying to its own age, and to the If these were in any degree taught caution never appear again when he has done with future. If we have felt safer while such a and wisdom from nature, by the operation them, either to push us from our stools, or mind was with us and near us, when danger of its ordinary progress upon their minds, jostle us in our way. The ghost of Banquo was abroad, or anticipated, we have lost they were especially taught the self-same appears indeed to the disturbed imagination much when we have lost it. We have ac- by its occasional deviations. They had seen of his own Macbeth ; but it had no form or quired a habit of dependence, and have felt ruin in the track of the storm, and in the being to Shakspeare's mind any more than it to be the direct and useful product of the flood of intolerable light from the clouds of it had to the vision of the royal guests. greater and better power of another. It heaven. They had seen the fair face of When Hostess Quickly tell us that Sir John has been a useful dependence, for its quality earth smiling in the calm sunshine, and its is dead, and how be died, the association of has been to make our own minds stronger best fruits in the safe shower.

the winding-sheet, the coffin, the pall, and and better. There has been an advantage But these men have not written. They the grave, is inevitable, and we no more to us, perhaps, that these men have not gave their minds to perishing records, the look for his return on earth again, than we written. Their honest and sound views inemories of men. A few years, and it will should for an acquaintance, or accustomed have not been submitted either to vulgar be difficult to remember their faces. If we neighbour, after he is buried. impertinence, or party malevolence. The remember their thoughts, it may not be to Some writers who have been once origisharp, and sometimes effective, criticism of better our own, or to act by them. nal, seem to have fallen in love with their lesser minds, or the encounter of as strong, Men, in the third place, are known by first fine conception, and ever after hanker differently, and, it may be, less prudently what they write. This remark wants large for it as for a first love. Let now the variety directed, has not hurt our faith, or dimin- qualification. Writers are authors by em- be intended to be never so great, and names, ished our confidence. We bave reposed phasis, in common speaking. But all who ages, and temperaments differ as they may, delightedly and usefully beneath the pro- write are not so. Few men give us what we always detect some limb, some feature, or tection of a fine mind, and, it may be, for others have not given us before. Other some peculiarity of the first, given or transthe time, have not been disquieted, that we men's thoughts have passed through their fused into all its successors. Their minds have had so few with us. The influence that minds, it is true, but they have come out as are like the philosopher's stone, whatever has been so limited and personal, however, as they went in. It is rare that they get is touched becomes gold. might have been felt every where. In its even a new costume, and if they do, how Great authors have, finally, a property in degree perhaps less vividly, but in its amount frequently are they only deformed by it. their own minds, which other men have not. far greater. . Above all, if these men had These are writers. "An author is one whose Other men, and their thoughts and doings, written, they would have survived the mind has not been the highway of other and all external nature, it is true, have their grave.

men's thoughts, but a soil into which they effects upon them. But they have minds Men are known, it was said, by what they have been cast, like seed into the good too, and in virtue of the very superiority of do. The men abont whom we have written, ground, and where they have died in the these over others, bring more to pass of a were known in this way, and a wide and upspringings and full harvest of higher strictly original character, than the comuseful influence was exerted by their ac- and brighter thoughts. The observation of bined suggestions, and other operations, of tions. It is a property of such minds to be men and of nature has done the same thing all the matters of mere observation. consistent with themselves. They have An affinity, if the term be allowed, has, in

Writers have been divided into various been cautious in their decisions, and what these men, subsisted between their own classes. We have spoken of two;—those is truth with them, is not unfrequently one minds and the minds of other men. And who are authors and those who are not. There is another class we mean to glance | one original character, developed and varied in this, and while the future continues in at. This embraces writers who are honest, by the operation of a very few agencies. It futurity, we would class ourselves among and writers who are not. We have no con- is a mind, however, of vast capacity, and the faithful. cern with the purposes or motives of men the causes which are brought to operate Sometimes, however, this vast and remote when they write or print, for a bad book upon it are of great power. We are not fut re seems to approach nearer than it may not have proceeded from a bad motive, surprised to find this character at times a should upon the borders of the present, and or a useful one from the best. Honest au- wandering misanthrope, feeling deeply the sometimes our writers and talkers seem to thors are not so to themselves only, but to power of nature, and of man as he now is, think, and to feel, that it has actually their age, and to their country. There is a and man as he has been, in the remote and reached us, and that we are now what a real weakness in a written hypocrisy. A strange times of antiquity. It is not strange few centuries may make us. In this there man may walk before us, and talk before us to us that he should now appear deep in the may be great evil. If our legislators get it, too, and be nothing he seems. But the mind toils of love; now recklessly cruel, and now they may legislate for what is not; changand the heart of the whole community stir ardently attached. We do not wonder to ing and overturning what belongs to us, to at the false bistories of the writing author. find him grossly licentious and ingenious make way for what belongs to nobody. Our And this they do, whether the falsehood be in his ribaldry ; now discoursing about financiers may get it, and we may be taxed found in the glozing of sin, in excessive moral distinctions, and now losing or de- in advance, and be called wealthy, because panegyric, or in caricature vice.

spising the whole of them. At one moment every body may be hereafter. It would The purely imaginative, and the satirists he spurns our sympathy, and in the next we sometimes seem that the inspiration of our too, have not unfrequently been the faith- should be ashamed of his company. This writers was getting transfused into the mass, fulest authors, and the truest historians. character has been pronounced to be his and that we are living in the future, whether Who reads Hume, Gibbon, or Robertson own, at least in an early period of its his. we will or no. We are getting at last at for a true history? Nobody. But who does tory. This, however, he has denied. But abuses, which have been the protection and not read Shakspeare with a saving and a if it be in any measure so, bis works to that happiness of our fathers and ourselves, but safe faith. He wrote truly of all ages, for extent at least are autobiographical, and will which will never be tolerated in the times he wrote truly of his own, and knew what go down to succeeding ages for their veri- to come. A strange sort of benefaction is was in man. To be honest, was not the less similitude alone. They are not histories of thus to be substituted for present good, the unwise in his time, in the construction of a his time, for they do not give us what an incalculable good of a vast future. villain, than it is now.

age, especially bis own, makes of the mass If this be in any measure true, if we are Pope was no traducer of his species as he of men, with whom he was born. They are to realize prophecies, or are realizing them found it. His age made him, as the age strictly individual, for they all tell us about already, we should look to it, and very semakes every body. His harmonious, and, the same being. Give these works any riously. Human life is getting longer, it is not upfrequently, grossly indelicate satire, other character, admit for a moment that said, than it used to be, but it will hardly has its quality from his time. It was the they were intended by the author as a true carry us as far as our writers are disposed current selfishness which made its passage history, or a dramatic sketch of his times, to do. We may be losers in the bargain, and through his heart, and a fine intellect fol- and he becomes at once the veriest and what is thus lost to us, will be lost to our lowed in its tide. Pope, however, is tem. vulgarist libeller. As it is, he is the most successors, however remote, or however nuporary and local, for he is confined, and remarkable egotist, if one at all, that has merous. They were safe prophets in the hemmed in by an artificial society both of ever lived. He industriously brings to the British parliament, who foretold the liberty fashion and letters. We have dispensed surface, and keeps there, what other men and prosperity of America, for we had one with the hoop-petticoat, and pretty much more industriously have hidden in the deep- of these already, and could not long want with the heroic couplet. But he is true to est recesses of their own hearts. This sin- the other. Prophets are not safe now howwhat he saw and felt, or to his age, and is gle fact explains a thousand anomalies in ever, our prophetic writers; for we have o far no libeller.

his works; and among these, the strange both liberty and prosperity, and it is for Byron is still more local than Pope. He selfishness which could love deeply the in- these, and for these alone, we should give is almost individual. His variety is more dividual and hate the species; or regard the our minds in the fulness of their best powin name than in thing. His writings seem whole with one sweeping abhorrence, dis- ers; and if we are true to our best interests

, to be the efforts of a very few agencies upon gust, and contempt.

those which have been long proved, and his own vast mind. A review of some of We have spoken of authors who have found so, our posterity will be blessed withhis poems, which by his own title of them, been true to their own character, to their out prophesy. really belong to his infancy, was one, and age, and to the world. There are other probably the earliest of these. This review classes; we have room to speak of but one annoyed him dreadfully. He did not con- This class is peculiar to our own sider that he had strayed from his nobility country. It has in a measure been made

No. I. into the republic of letters, and was igno- by the country, its institutions, and prosrant that the constitution of this wide re- pects, and deserves to be named. It be

The Author. public, guarantees to all its citizens the longs to us; and however little we have

Me dulcis saturet quies. privilege of abusing, as well as praising been allowed to appropriate of letters,

Obscuro positus loco, each other. His nobility went in company we may safely claim this. If we should

Leni perfruar otio. with his genius, a legitimate association name it, we should call it the prophetic class

Chorus ex Thyeste. enough in his case, and they were equally of authors. This will serve to distinguish I am a wayfaring man in the literary annoyed by the reception they met. Disgust them at once from all writers within a world, and in humour and out of humour to the whole British empire soon followed, reasonable antiquity, and will surely distin- with its inhabitants, have come and gone and the Curse of Minerva appeared a few guish them from all the moderns. Our wri- from place to place, and as yet have left no years after English Bards and Scottish Re- ters, whether imaginative or historical, are memory behind me. I have always shunviewers. A still more personal annoyance prophetic. They go habitually before the ned ostentation, even in the vehicle that at length drove his lordship from England time. They live in the future of their own has carried me, and turning aside from the forever, and then we had Don Juan, or, with minds. They are with a population which busier marts of literature, have loitered in other things, English manners, and English cannot be numbered. The blessings of our its green alleys and silent avenues.

To society, under the similitude of Eastern institutions are upon all. A mass of intel- men in the higher walks of letters nature sensuality.

lectual power and physical strength occu- has made known the warm intellectual As an author, and it is in this character pies the distance, to a degree at times al- springs, whence issue those vast concepLord Byron now lives, his lordship is almost most oppressive to us, who are comparatively tions, that are too wide for the embrace of entirely exclusive. He has given us but I few and powerless. Now there is no harm inferior minds ;-and we of humbler birth



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