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first Planting and Progress of Settlements in New mit only such articles as shall have some ment, for Sabbath Exercises in Schools and England, New York, and Canada. By E. Hoyt, claim to a place in the collection, either on Academies, with four Maps of the countries Esq. anthor of several Military Works. 1 volume, account of their own intrinsic merit, or of through which our Saviour and his Apos

the rank which their authors have hereto- tles travelled. By J. W. Copeland Middlebury, Vt. fore held in the public estimation.

Pronouncing Spelling Book. By J. A. The little volume lately published in Cummings. Third Edition. This Spelling Reports of Cases argued and determined London, under the title of " Specimens of Book contains every word of common use in the Supreme Court of the State of Vermont. the American Poets,” was (to say nothing of in our language, that is difficult either to Prepared and published in pursuance of a statute law of the State. By Daniel Chipman. Vol. I.

the merit of some of the articles selected) spell or pronounce. The pronunciation is

too limited to meet the wishes of those strictly conformed to that of Walker's By B. & T. Kite-Philadelphia. readers who take an interest in this subject; Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, and is so The Influence of Tropical Climates on to answer the purposes of such a work.

and the specimens were too few in number exactly and peculiarly denoted, that no one, European Constitutions, being a Treatise on the

who knows the powers of the letters, can principal Diseases incidental to Europeans in the

From the marks of genius which are dis- mistake the true pronunciation. East and West Indies, Mediterranean, and coast of played by some of our native poets, the The New Testament, with References, Africa. By James Johnson, M. D.

editor has been led to believe (perhaps not and a Key Sheet of Questions, historical, Observations on the Religious Peculiari upinfluenced by partiality for his native doctrinal, and practical, designed to facilities of the Society of Friends. By John Joseph country) that there are quite as strong and tate the acquisition of Scriptural knowlGurney.

decisive indications of a national taste for edge in Bible-Classes and Sunday Schools,

poetical composition, as is acknowledged in Common Schools, and private Families. By By H. C. Carey & I. Lea--Philadelphia. the sister art of painting; in which our Hervey Wilbur, A. M. Second edition, Chitty's Pleadings. New Edition. A Treatise on the Law of Corporations. could not have been expected at this early country has already attained a rank that stereotype.

The Bible Class-Book ; or Biblical CateBy T. J. Wharton, Esq. epoch.

chism, containing Questions historical, docBy E. Littell-Philadelphia.

It is the intention of the Editor that the trinal, practical, and experimental, design

work shall be accompanied with a General ed to promote an intimate acquaintance The Museum of Foreign Literature and Introduction, partly of a critical, and partly with the Inspired. Volume. By Hervey Science. No. XXIX.

The Journal of Foreign Medical Litera- of an historical nature. The plan has been Wilbur, A. M. Thirteenth edition. Stereoture and Science. No. XVI. Edited by John D. communicated to several authors, who have, type. Godman, M. D. without exception, expressed their consent

C. H. & Co. have a great variety of Bi. and approbation in the most flattering bles, Testaments, Spelling Books, DictionBy R. W. Pomeroy-Philadelphia. terms; and the Editor now feels no haz- aries, &c. Also, Inkstands, Quills, DrawThe whole of the Works of Lord Byron. ard in anticipating the same liberality in ing Paper, Writing Paper, Ink, Penknives,

those from whom he has not yet

had oppor- Scissors, Globes, and all the articles usually tunity to obtain an answer.

The Editor wanted in Schools.

considers it unnecessary to be more particADVERTISEMENTS.

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information as may be requisite, will be EVENINGS IN NEW ENGLAND. POETICAL WORKS OF WILLIAM given in a Prospectus of the work at a WORDSWORTH. future day.

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BY

THE UNITED STATES LITERARY GAZETTE.

Published on the first and fifteenth day of every month, by Cummings,Hilliard, & Co. No. 1 Cornhill, Boston.—Terms, $5 per annum, payable is July.
Vol. I.
BOSTON, FEBRUARY 1, 1825.

No. 20.

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REVIEWS

return of the Expedition, compiled, from two millions of dollars, ($1,995,000), which has at

the notes taken by himself and the gentle-tended its construction, can be accounted for but by Narrative of an Expedition to the Source The district of country which it was in- sufficiently explored, to ascertain the lowest levels men with him, the work now under notice. a reference to the difficulty of inaking a road across

high and steep ridges, which perhaps had not been of St Peter's River, Lake Winnepeek, Lake tended that the Expedition should investi- and the most accessible points ; and, as we think, of the Woods, &c. &c. Performed in the

gate, of a triangular form, including to the injudicious manner in which the original year 1823, by order of the Hon. J. C. about three hundred miles of longitude and contracts were given out. We were credibly inCalhoun, Secretary of War, under the seven hundred of latitude, and lies between formed, that in most cases the original undertakers command of Stephen H. Long, Major U. the Missouri

, the Mississippi, and the north- tracts to a second set of contractors, and in some

did nothing themselves, but portion out their conS. T. E. Compiled from the Notes of

ern boundary of the United States. The cases it happened that the third or fourth set alone Major Long, Messrs Say, Keating, and

following extract will show the instructions performed the work, the other contractors sweeping Colhoun, by William H. Keating, A. M. which Major Long received from the gov- away immense sums without any labour.* Had &c. Professor of Mineralogy and Chemis. ernment.

the route been properly divided into small lots, and try as applied to the Arts, in the Universi

these only given to such as were really qualified to ty of Pennsylvania ; Geologist and Histo- 1823, by the executive, that an expedition be im- siderable saving would have been obtained. The

Accordingly, it was determined in the spring of execute the work, no doubt can exist that a conriographer to the Expedition. Philadel-mediately fitted out for exploring the river St Peter's letting it out into large sections had the disadvanphia. 1824. 2 vols. 8vo.

and the country situated on the northern boundary tage of making it an object of speculation, and of THERE are many, both of the representa- Hudson's Bay and Lake Superior.' of the United States between the Red River of alarming many who would otherwise have offered

themselves as contractors. tives and the represented in Congress, who

The cominand of the expedition was intrusted to think that a little of our national money Major S. H. Long, and he received orders from the At Fort Wayne the Expedition arrived would be as economically laid out in pur- War Department, dated April 25, 1823, of which on the 20th of May, and remained at this chasing useful information respecting our the following is an extract :

post three days. This village is maintain

* The route of the expedition will be as follows: ed by the fur trade, and will probably flourown country, as in paying members of the

commencing at Philadelphia, thence proceeding to legislature for making long speeches to get Wheeling in Virginia, thence to Chicago via fort ish, or rather continue to exist, as long as themselves reelected, -to say nothing of Wayne, thence to Fort Armstrong or Dubuque's Indians remain in the vicinity. It is one many more unreasonable ways and means by Lead Mines, thence up the Mississippi to Fort Şt of many similar trading establishments in which our happy land is preserved from the Anthony, thence to the source of the St Peter's our northern and northwestern territory, © embarras des richesses." But it happens river, thence to the point of intersection between and, judging from Mr Keating's account,

. not to be the fashion to think so generally ; tude, thence along the northern boundary of the may be fairly taken as a sample. -and therefore our authors must continue United States to Lake Superior, and thence home- To a person visiting the Indian country for the for a season to quote European books as the ward by the Lakes.

first time, this place offered many characteristic and best authorities respecting America, and • l'he object of the expedition is to make a gen. singular features. The town or village is small; our members of Congress must again and eral survey of the country on the route pointed out, it has grown under the shelter of the fort, and conagain defer the discussion of the expedien- together with a topographical description of the tains a mixed and apparently very worthless popu

same, to ascertain the latitude and longitude of all lation. The inhabitants are chiefly of Canada oricy of taking possession of our Oregon, be the remarkable points, to examine and describe its gin, all more or less imbued with Indian blood. Not cause most credible Englishmen or Span- productions, animal, vegetable, and mineral; and being previously aware of the diversity in the chariards state conflicting or incredible facts, to inquire into the character, customs, &c. of the acter of the inhabitants, the sudden change from an touching this debateable land and water;| Indian tribes inhabiting the same.

American to a French population, has a surprising, and the collected wisdom of the nation can From Philadelphia to Fort Wayne, the and, to say the least, an unpleasant effect; for devise po better way of learning something Expedition passed through a country, almost the first twenty-four hours, the traveller fancies more about this immense river, than to sit the whole of which is well known; and al- himself in a real Babel. The confusion of lan

guages, owing to the diversity of Indian tribes still, until some Leather-stocking or other though all of Mr Keating's work is inter- which generally collect near a fort, is not removed comes home from his beaver-hunt, and con- esting, our limits will not permit us to stop by an intercourse with their half-savage interpredescends to enlighten their ignorance. The long with him at his different stages. We ters. The business of a town of this kind differs so fact that the few expeditions which our would remark, in passing, that his observa- materially from that carried on in our cities, that it

is almost impossible to fancy ourselves still within government has sent into the interior, have tions upon the great Cumberland road tend the same territorial limits; but the disgust which been eminently successful and useful, in- to illustrate the nature of our public econ- we entertain at the degraded condition in which the stead of making our rulers think, that omy.

white man, the descendant of the European, appears, enough is done, should, and, if they had Art has done little to add to the charms of the is perhaps the strongest sensation which we expe learned that true economy is the same natural scenery, except in the construction of a rience; it absorbs all others. To see a being in thing with wise expenditure, would teach road. The question of the propriety of opening, whom, from his complexion and features, we should them the propriety of sending more. But

at the national expense, a communication between expect to find the same feelings which swell in the

the Ohio and Potomac, had been so much the sub- bosom of every refined man, throwing off his civilthe period for this degree of illumination ject of discussion, as to make us desirous of obsery. ized habits to assume the garb of a savage, has may be yet far off ;--and in the mean time ing the mode in which it had been executed, and something which partakes of the ridiculous, as we must tell our readers something of Ma- the too favourable idea, which we are, perhaps, al- well as the disgusting. The awkward and conjor Long's Second Expedition.

ways led to form, of what carries with it a national strained appearance of those Frenchmen who had

character, together with an account of the immense exchanged their usual dress for the breech-cloth The party

consisted of Major S. H. Long of expenditure incurred in the making of this road, and blanket, was as risible as that of the Indian the U.S. corps of Topographical Engineers, had prepared us for a magnificent work. We were who assumes the tight-bodied coat of white men. who commanded the Expedition ; Thomas therefore somewhat disappointed at the state in The feelings which we experienced while beholdSay, zoologist and antiquary; Samuel Sey- which we found it, as it is very inferior in execu- ing a little Canadian stooping down to pack up and mour, landscape painter and designer; and there is in the whole of the national road but little

tion to the Maryland road, which connects with it. William H. Keating, mineralogist and ge. to justify the high eulogiums which have been passed manner a fortune of one hundred and twenty thou

*One of these is said to have accumulated in this ologist. This last gentleman has, since the upon it. The immense expense, amounting to nearly sand dollars.

39

weigh the hides which an Indian had brought for fact, that it was iinpossible for a garrison de poom over its brigitte t !catures. Cotri aud sale, while the latter stood in an erect and com- of seventy to ninety men to raise grain

I callou must be ihr Haut of the voyager who was manding posture, were of a mixed and certainly enough for their own consumption, althongh clifts Giat enclose this lake, for 'wild as the accetto

contemplate ur moved and uninterested ttr tu not of a favourable nature. At each unusual motion of the white man's, his dress, which he had much of their time and labour was devoted of lovers' farewell are the hearts woich they feat. not properly secured, was disturbed; and while en- to agricultural pursuits. The little grain and the tales which they tell.' gaged in restoring it to its proper place, he was the they could raise, was so fiercely attacked • There was a time,' 04, guide said, as we passer butt of the jokes and gibes of a number of squaws by the birds, that a party of soldiers was near the base of the rock, when this spot, which and Indian boys, who seemed already to be aware kept constantly engaged in shooting at you now admire for its untenanted beauties, was which crows and blackbirds! From Chicago, on tions that has ever occurred among the Indians.

the of one and the Canadian fur-dealer.

Lake Michigan, Major Long wished to go There was, in the village of Keoxa, in the tribe of The principal tribe of Indians in this re

directly to Prairie du Chien, being per- Wapasha, during the time that his father lived and gion is that of the Pottawotamies, of whom suaded that the route was practicable, al-ruled over them, a young Indian female, whose our author gives rather a minute account. though no one had been known to pass She had conceived an attachment for a young hun

name was Winona, which signifies “the first born." Perhaps no part of it is so interesting as through it; but an old Frenchman thought ter, who reciprocated it; they had frequently met, that which relates to their notions and be could find his way across, and under his and agreed to an union in which all their hopes practices with respect to education.

direction they set forward, and reached centred; but on applying to her family, the hunter They appear to be very attentive to the proper their destination—which is on the Missis- was surprised to find himself denied; and his education to be given to children, in order

to impart sippi, in latitude 43°3'—in safety, and with claims superseded by those of a warrior of distincto them those qualities both of the mind and body

; out encountering especial inconvenience. son, who had sued for her. The warrior was a and

general favourite with the he privation, and to obtain an influence, either in the Here the Expedition was reinforced by an

a name, by the services which he had rendered to counsels of the nation, or during their military oper- escort of ten men under command of Lieut

. his village when attacked by the Chippewas ; yet ations. When questioned on this subject, Metea Scott of the 5th Reg. U. S. Army. The notwithstanding all the ardour with which he pressed replied, that while he was yet very young, his party then

divided, some going up the river his suit. and the countenance which he received from father began to instruct him, and incessantly, day to the Falls of St Anthony, and the rest ferring the hunter. To the usual commendations

her parents and brothers, Winona persisted in preafter day, and night after nighi, taught him the

It is difficult for of her friends in favour of the warrior, she replied, traditions, the laws, and ceremonies of his nation. pursuing the land route. * This he did," said Metea, that I might one day us to do full justice to Mr Keating's inter- that she had made choice of a man who, being a benefit my country with my counsel.' ”The educa esting description of the scenery through professed hunter, would spend his life with her, and tion of boys generally commences at ten or twelve which he passed. Our readers may take secure to her comfort and subsistence, while the years of age, they accustom them early to the en- the following extract as a specimen of the warrior wouli

, be constantly absent

, intent upon durance of cold, by making them bathe every morn

martial exploits. Winona's expostulations were, ing in winter. They likewise encourage them to literary character of these volumes. The however

, of no avail; and her parents, having suc: habituate themselves to the privation of food. In lake which is spoken of is something more ceeded in driving away her lover, began to use this manner, children are observed to acquire, more than half way from the Falls of St Antho- harsh measures in order to compel her to unite readily, the qualifications which it is desirable for ny to the head waters of the streams which with the man of their choice. To all her entreaties, an Indian to possess. Parents use no compulsory flow into Winnepeek Lake.

that she should not be forced into an union so remeans to reduce their children to obedience, but

pugnant to her feelings, but rather be allowed to they generally succeed in obtaining a powerful in, of the valley between the contiguous bluffs. In two had at all times enjoyed a greater share in the afiec.

Lake Pepin, in most places, fills nearly the whole live a single life, they turned a deaf ear. Winona fluence over them, by acting upon their fears; they tell them that if they do not behave themselves as spots, however, a handsome piece of meadow land tions of her family, and she bad been indulged more, they are bid, that they will irritate the Great Spirit

, is observed, which will offer great inducements for than is usual with females among Indians. Being who will deprive them of all luck as hunters, and the establishment

of farms. The general direction a tavourite with her brothers, they expressed a wish as warriors." This, together with the constant and of the lake is from west-north-west to east-south- that her consent to this union should be obtained never ceasing importance, which the children

ob- east. The scenery along its shores contrasts strongly by persuasive means, rather than that she should serve, that their parents attribute to luck in all their wit that of the river. Insteac: of the rapid current of be compelled to it against her inclination. With pursuits, is found to have the desired effect upon the Mississippi winding around numberless islands, a view to remove some of her objections, they took the minds of young persons, fired with the ambition some of which present well-wooded surfaces, while means to provide for her future maintenance, and of becoming distinguished, at some future day, by others are mere sandbars, the lake presents a smooth presented to the warrior all that in their simple their skill and success. Their fasts are marked by and slugglish expanse of water, uncheckered by a mode of living an Indian might covet. About that the ceremony of smearing their faces

, hands, &c. single island, and whose surface at the time we first time a party was formed to ascend from the village with charcoal. To effect this, they take a piece of observed it

, towards the close of the day, was un to Lake Pepin, in order to lay in a store of the blue wood of the length of the finger, and suspend it to rufiled; nothing limited the view

but the extent of clay which is found upon its banks, and which is their necks, they char one end of it, and rub them- the lake itself ; the majestic bluffs, which enclose used by the Indians as a pigment. Winona and her selves with the coal every morning, keeping it on it, extend in a more regular manner, and with a frienris were of the company. It was on the very until after sunset. No person, whose face is black- more uniform

elevation than those along the river. day that they visited

the lake that her brothers of ened, dares eat or drink any thing during that time; the country is found very different from that in the these he again addressed her, but with the same ir

When seen from the top of one of these eminences, tered their presents to the warrior.' Encouraged by whatever may be the cravings of his appetite, he must restrict them until the evening arrives, when vicinity of the mountain island, passed on the 28th success.

Vexed at what they deemed an unjustihe may wash off his black paini

, and indulge, of June

, for it is rather rolling than bily, and the table obstinacy on her part, her parents remonmoderately, in the use of food. The next morning quantity of timber upon it is comparatively small, strateci in strong language, and even

used threats to he repeats the ceremony of blackening his face, and especially to the west, where it assumes the general compel her to obedience. Well," said Winona, continues it from day to day, until the whole of his characters of an elevated prairie land. About half

you will drive me to despair; I said I loved him piece of wood be consumed, which generally takes way up the lake, its eastern bank rises to a beight not, I could not live with him;'I v ished to remain place in the course of from ten to twelve days.

of near four hundred and fifty feet, of which the first a maiden ; but you would not. You say you love

one hundred and fifty are formed by a perpendicu- me; that you are my father, my brothers, my relaFrom Fort Wayne the Expedition de- lar bluff, and the lower three hundred constitute a tions, yet you have driven from me the only man parted to penetrate the wilderness of about very abrupt and precipitous, slope, which extends with whom I wished to be united; you have comtwo hundred miles, which separated them from the base of the bluff to the edge of the water: pelled him to withdraw from the village ; alone, he from Chicago ;-—and so completely was it bounded by two small basins, each of which is the nim, none to spread his blanket, none to build his

This forms a point, projecting into the lake, and now ranges through the forest, with no one to assist a wilderness, that their horses could scarce- estuary or a brook that falls into the lake at this lodge, none to wait on him; yet was he the man of ly get through the swamps, or find food place. The wildness of the scenery is such, that my choice. Is this your love? But even it appears enough to keep them alive. But get even the voyager, who has gazed with delight upon that this is not erough; you would have me do through they did, and in eight days reach the high bluffs of the Mississippi, is struck with un- more; you would have me rejoice in his absence; ed Fort Dearborn in Chicago. This place in it what we meet with on no other point of the far. whom I do not love, with whom I never can be

common interest on beholding this spot. There is you wish me to unite with another man, with one is in the state of Illinois, and at the south stretching valley of the Mississippi, a high project- happy. Since this is your love, let it be so; but west corner of Lake Michigan. The soiling poini, a precipitous crag resting upon a sleep soon you will have neither daughter, nor sister, nor and climate of this region, and the many bank whose base is washed by a wide expanse of relation, to torment with your false professions of facilities it offers for cultivation have been water, the calmness of which contrasts with the affection.” As she uttered these words, she withpraised rather extravagantly, if we may ceives an additional interest from the melancholy decreed, that that very day Winona should be

savage features of the landscape ; but this spot re- drew, and her parents, heedless of her complaints, helieve, upon Mr Keating's authority, the tale which is connected with it, and which casts a united to the warrior. "While all were engaged in

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busy preparations for the festival, she wound her rise to no river, while the sources of the must con- then low in the horizon, and added that we had no way slowly to the top of the hill; when she had siderable rivers are distant from the high chains of time to proceed further, and that we had better enreached the summit, she called out with a loud mountains.'*

camp with them that night. *** Major Long devoice to her friends below; she upbraided them for

The Expedition proceeded down the Red clined their invitation, whereupon they insisted their cruelty to herself and her lover. “ You," said

that our party should encamp at a neighbouring she, “ were not satisfied with opposing my union River, and ascertained the spot where it grove which they pointed out to us, as they obserywith the man whom I had chosen, you endeavoured crosses the northern boundary of the United that this would be a convenient place for their by deceitful words to make me faithless to him, but ed States. Major Long became convinced chief to come and smoke with us in the evening. when you found me resolved upon remaining single, of the impossibility of passing along this While this conversation was going on, Mr Say reyou dared to threaten me ; you know me not if you boundary to the east, agreeably to his in- marked that, either through design or accident, the

Indians so you shall soon see how well I can defeat your destructions, and finally concluded to follow our party, that every

one of our number

was placsigns.” She then commenced to sing her dirge; the the course of the Red River into Lake ed between two or more of theirs. Mr Snelling light wind which blew at the time, wafted the words Winnepeek, and to pass from that lake to overheard them talking of our horses, admiring them, towards the spot where her friends were; they im- Lake Superior, by the common route by and examining the points of each; one of their mediately rushed, some towards the summit of the the Lake of the Woods and Rainy Lake. band had even ventured so far as to ask him which to receive' her in their arms, while all , with tears in Through Mackinaw, Detroit, and Niagara, ing that all further conversation was a waste

of their eyes, entreated her to desist from her fatal they travelled to Rochester, and thence by time, and having given them as much tobacco as purpose ; her father promised that no compulsive the canal to Albany.

our small stock of Indian presents allowed us to measures should be resorted to. But she was resolved, and as she concluded the words of her song, phia, having been absent about six months, during

On the 26th of October they reached Philadel- spare, Major Long mounted his horse, and gave his

men orders to march. The Indians attempted no she threw herself from the precipice, and fell a which time they travelled over upwards of four opposition at the time; but after we had travelled lifeless corpse, near her distressed friends. Thus,

' thousand five hundred miles,

the whole party being about a quarter of a mile, they following in our added our guide, has this spot acquired, a mel. blessed with health, meeting with no accident of rear, a gun was fired at some distance on the ancholy celebrity ; it is still called the Maiden's Pock, and no Indian passes near it, without invol- any account, and undergoing hardships and priva- prairie, to the right of our line, and a number

of untarily casting his eyes towards the giddy height, had expected to undergo, and which have tried

the ing towards us. tions, far less considerable than those which they mounted Indians were seen in that direction, com

Those who had followed us, then to contemplate the place, whence this unfortunate perseverance and courage of other explorers.

made a signal to them that we were white men; and girl fell a victim to the cruelty of her relentless

ran up to us to desire that, as their chief was then parents'

A very large part of these volumes is coming up, we would stop and shake bands with of various travellers, that the head waters tribes; but an article in our last has per: Observing that their chief was not among

them, It had been supposed, from the relations occupied with accounts of various Indian him; the party halted, until the mounted Indians

had come up and greeted us in the usual manner. of the streams which feed the great lakes haps said as much about the aborigines of Major Long again set his men in motion, but beand then pass down the St Lawrence, were this country as our readers may wish to fore we had proceeded far, several of them ran up very near the sources of the Mississippi hear. Little very new or peculiarly inter- to the head of the line, fired their guns across our and its principal tributaries. This suppo- esting is to be found in this work respect- path, reloaded them immediately, and formed a sition was singularly confirmed by the dis- ing this subject. The Expedition had no crescent in front of the leader, 10 prevent him from coveries,-if they may be so called,—of “hair-breadth 'scapes” to tell of, unless it proceeding. At that time the number of Indians

must have been about seventy or eighty, while ours this Expedition. Big Stone Lake is the was the following ;-—which occurred as they amounted only to twenty-five. Their intentions head of St Peter's river, which falls into were marching along the Red River, be- could not be misunderstood. It was probable that the Mississippi. tween Lake Travers and Pambina.

they did not care much to harm our persons, but The river having taken a bend to the west, we While riding quietly across the prairie, with the they were anxious to pilfer our baggage, and espe

cially to secure our horses; and as we were recontinued our route in what appeared to have been eye intent upon the beautiful prospect

of the buffa- solved not to part with them without a struggle, it an old water-course, and, within three miles of the loes that were grazing, our attention was suddenly

was evident that the first gun fired would be the Big Stone Lake, found ourselves on the banks of aroused by the discharge of a gun in the vicinity of signal for an attack, which must end in the total Lake Travers which discharges its waters by means the river, which flowed about half a mile west of destruction of our party; for the number of the Inof Swan or Sioux river into the Red river of Lake the course that we were then travelling. While diaps, and their mode of dispersing upon the praiWinnepeek, whose waters, as is well known, flow we were reckoning up our party, to know if any towarris Hudson's Bay. The space between Lakes had straggled to a distance, we saw two Indians rie, and continually changing their situation during Travers and Big Stone, is but very little elevated running across the prairie; their number increased a skirmish, would have given them a very great adabove the level of both these lakes; and the water very soon to twelve or fifteen, who hastened to vantage over us, as, in order to protect our horses

and baggage, we would have remained collected has been known, in times of flood, to rise and cover wards us, but as soon as they came near to our the intermediate ground, so as to unite the two lakes. party, stopped and examined us with minuteness; But even in such a case they

must have lost some of

in a body, and exposed to their arrows and balls. In fact, both these bodies of water are in the same after which they presented their hands to us; we

their number, and this consideration, all-powerful valley; and it is within the recollection of some gave them ours. It was immediately observed with Indians, probable induced them to defer their persons, now in the country, that a boat once floated that they were in a complete state of preparation attack until night, when their advantages would be from Lake Travers into the St Peter. Thus, there for war, being perfectly naked, with the exception still greater; and hence their anxiety that we fore, this spot offers us one of those interesting phe- of a breech-cloth. They had

even laid their blan- should encamp in their vicinity. Had Major Long nomena which we have already alluded to, but kets by: All of them

were armed with guns, appa- been perfectly free to act as he pleased, he would which are no where perhaps so apparent as they rently in very good order, or with bows and arrows, have avoided all further conversation, and have are in this place. Here we behold the waters of and some with both. Their appearance though at proceeded the whole night without stopping at all two mighty streams, one of which empties itself first friendly

soon became insulting. Their party that evening; but this he could not do as long as into Hudson's Bay at the fifty-seventh parallel of bad, in the mean while, increased to thirty or for: some of the gentlemen were

separated, for in such a north latitude, and the other into the Gulf of Mexi-ty, so that they outnumbered ours. We found that co, in latitude twenty-nine degrees, rising in the they belonged to the Wahkpakota or Leaf Indians, dians. It was with a view to give them a chance

case they would have been easily cut off by the Insame valley within three miles of each other, and whose character, even among their own country to overtake us, that he had continued the confer. even in some cases offering a direct natural naviga- men, is very bad. Mr Jeffries, who was to act as tion from one into the other. We seek in vain interpreter, being away, we availed ourselves of Mr camping at a point of wood then in sight, but fur.

ence so long, and that be finally decided upon enfor those dividing ridges which topographers and Snelling's knowledge of the language to communi- ther than that which had been proposed by the In. hydrographers are wont to represent upon their cate to them, in the course of conversation, our dians. With this view, the Major ordered the men maps in all such cases, and we find a strong con objects and intentions, as well as the friendly refirniation of that beautiful observation of a modern ception which we had met with on the part of

War to the head of the

line, stopped the horse of the

to march; when one of the Indians advanced up traveller, that it is a false application of the prin notan and the other Indians whom we had seen. leader, and cocked his gun." The soldier who was ciples of hydrography, when geographers attempt In a tone rather imperative than courteous, they there, and whose name was George Bunker, immeto determine the chains of mountains, in countries expressed their wish that we should go o their camp diately imitated this action, determined to be preof which they suppose they know the course of and speak to their old chief. This we declined rivers. They suppose that two great basins of water doing, informing them that some of our party had pared for a shot as soon as bis antagonist; at this can only be separated by great elevations, or that separated from us, and that we had a long journey line, and led off the party. There can be no doubt

moment Major Long marched up to the head of the a considerable river can only change its direction

to travel. They pointed to the sun, which was that the resolution thus manifested had a great inwhere a group of mountains opposes its course; they forget, that frequently, either on account of

fuence in preventing the Indians from making an the nature of the rocks, or on account of the in- the Kingdom of New Spain, translated by John

* Introduction to 'Humboldt's Political Essay of immediate attack. clination of the strata, the most elevated levels give Black, London, 1811,' page lxxxvi.

It was night before we reached the place where we intended to halt. The tents were not pitched.

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