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cause to be satished. The love, the admiration, The spectacle ; sensation, soul, and form

And on the top of either pinnacle, the indifference, the slight, the aversion, and even All melted into him; they swallowed up

More keenly than elsewere in night's blue vault, the contempt, with which these Poems have been His animal being; in them did he live,

Sparkle the Stars as of their station proud. received, knowing, as I do, the source within my And by them did he live; they were his life. Thoughts are not busier in the mind of man own mind, from which they have proceeded, and In such access of mind, in such high hour

Than the mute Agents stirring there:-alone the labour and pains, which, when labour and pains Of visitation froni the living God,

Here do I sit and watch.-' pp. 83-85. appeared needful, have been bestowed upon them, Thought was not in enjoyment it expired. -must all, if I think consistently, be received as No thanks he breathed, he proffered no request; -Him might we liken to the setting Sun pledges and tokens, bearing the same general im- Rapt into still cominunion that transcends

As I have seen it, on some gusty day, pression though widely different in value :-they The imperfect offices of prayer and praise, Struggling and hold, and shining from the west are all proofs that for the present time I have not His mind was a thanksgiving to the power

With an inconstant and unmellowed light. laboured in vain; and afford assurances, more or That made him; it was blessedness and love! She was a soft attendant Cloud, that hung less authentic, that the products of my industry

p. 13. As if with wish to veil the restless orb; will endure.

We cannot believe that the critic was

From which it did itself imbibe a ray

Of pleasing lustre. p. 319. The early prejudices against this author sincere in his remark upon this splendid are not wholly removed in this country ; passage; if he were, we do not envy him

Already had the sun, and we should expect to be charged with that occupation of mind which had blinded

Sinking with less thao-ordinary state, having praised him extravagantly, if we him to the exquisite beauty of the poetry, Attained his westero bound; but rays of lightdid not support, by adequate quotations, the or had deadened his ear to the majesty of Now suddenly diverging from the orb

Retired behind the mountain tops or veiled opinions we have expressed. This would its versification. of itself be a sufficient apology for copious The following extracts are from a tale

By the dense air-shot upwards to the crown

of the blue firmament-aloft-and wide : extracts; but we trust we shall not need narrated by the Pedlar, much too long to

And multitudes of little floating clouds, to be excused for giving to our readers be quoted entire. It is of a man, who, re- Pierced through their thin etherial niould, ere we, beautiful poetry, with which many of them duced from comparative plenty to want, at Who saw, of change were conscious, had become must be unacquainted. Our quotations will length enlisted for a soldier, and whose wife Vivid as fire-clouds separately poized,

Innumerable inultitude of Forms be confined to the Excursion, not only be- pined away and died with the “hope de

Scattered through half the circle of the sky; cause it is yet less known in this country, ferred that maketh the heart sick."

And giving back, and shedding each on each, than the best of his smaller poems, but be- A sad reverse it was for Him who long

With prodigal communion, the bright hues cause it affords the most perfect examples Had filled with plenty, and possessed in peace, Which from the unapparent Fount of glory of what we consider the true peculiarities

This lonely Cottage. At his door he stood, They had imbibed, and ceased not to receive.

And whistled many a snatch of merry tunes That which the heavens displayed, the liquid deep of our author's poetry.

That had no mirth in them ; or with his knife Repeated ; but with unity sublime! p. 413. The author informs us in his title-page,

Carved uncouth figures on the heads of sticksand again in his preface, that this poem is

With the following beautiful illustration,

Then, not less idly, sought, through every nook but a portion of a longer work, to consist of In house or garden, any casual work

we shall conclude this class of our extracts, three parts, of which this is the second. Of use or ornament; and with a strange,

wishing that we had room for many more We have not time nor space for an analy

Amusing, yet uneasy novelty,

such which are scattered through the book.

He blended, where he might, the various tasks sis, --suffice it to say, that it is an account

Within the soul a Faculty abides,
Of summer, autumn, winter, and of spring.

That with interpositions, which would hide of an Excursion of a day or two, which the But this endured not ; his good humour soon

And darken, so can deal, that they become author made in company with a friend, Became a weight in which no pleasure was :

Contingencies of pomp; and serve to exalt among the hills of Cumberland, and in the And poverty brought on a petted mood

Her native brightness. As the ample Moon,

And a sore temper: day by day he drooped, course of which they met with two other

In the deep stillness of a summer even

And he would leave his work-and to the Town, individuals, who joined their walks. The

Rising behind a thick and lofty Grove,
Without an errand, would direct his steps,

Burns like an unconsuming fire of light, speakers are the poet himself, his friend,

Or wander here and there among the fields.

In the green trees; and, kindling on all sides a Scottish pedlar retired from business, a One while he would speak lightly of his Babes, Their leafy umbrage, turns the dusky veil country clergyman, and a singular charac- And with a cruel tongue; at other times

Into a substance glorious as her own,

He tossed them with a false unnatural joy : ter, who, disgusted with the world and op.

Yea with her own incorporated, by power

And 'twas a rueful thing to see the looks pressed with disappointment, had been left

Capacious and serene. Like power abides Of the poor innocent children. • Every smile,'

In Man's celestial Spirit; Virtue thus to doubt the truths of religion. Upon this Said Margaret to me, here beneath these trees, Sets forth and maynifies herself; thus feeds slender foundation is erected a mass of what • Made my heart bleed.' p. 30.

A calm, a beautiful, and silent fire, seems to us almost unrivalled poetry. We

We presume that our readers will recog

From the incumbrances of mortal life, remember several years ago reading the nise the truth of this description. The follow

From error, disappointment,--nay from guilt ; criticism of the Edinburgh Review on this

And somctimes, so relenting Justice wills,

From palpable oppressions of Despair. p. 188. poem. That criticism began with “ This ing is equally true, and still more touching. will never do ;" but the extracts which

Her Infant Babe

Dr Johnson died before the Excursion were made convinced us that it ought to do,

Had from its Mother caught the trick of grief, was published, or he might not have said

And sighed among its playthings. p. 43. and inevitably must do—in despite of the

that religion was an unsuitable subject for criticism. We procured the book from We must quote some of the descriptions poetry ; though, as it now occurs to us, that England; it is of the London edition of of external nature, which, whether intro- great critic must have happened to forget 1820, and from that we must make our ex- duced as pure description, or, as is most the Psalms of David and the Prophecies of tracts-our volume of the American edition generally the case, made to illustrate some Isaiał, when he made this assertion. We not being at this moment within our reach. operation in the human mind, or some rela- think, that the loftiest and most affecting The first quotation, which we make, was, if tion between human beings, are alike cap- passages of Wordsworth's poetry, are those we remember arigbt, cited by the Edinburgh tivating to our fancy, our memory, and our in which he has embodied bis religious reviewer as a specimen of unintelligible imagination.

musings. The first extract which we bave rant.

I could not ever and anon forbear

made is of this class, and we shall now O then what soul was his, when, on the tops To glance an upward look on two huge Peaks, give our readers more. Of the high mountains, he beheld the sun That from some other Vale peered into this.

- How beautiful this dome of sky, Rise up, and bathe the world in light! He

And the vast hills, in fluctuation fixed looked

the clouds,

At thy command, how awful! Shall the Soul, Ocean and earth, the solid frame of earth

The mist, the shadows, light of golden suns, Human and rational, report of Thee And ocean's liquid mass, beneath him lay

Motions of moonlight, all come chither--touch Even less than these ?-Be mute, who will, whe In gladness and deep joy. The clouds were And have an answer--thither come, and shape

can, touch'd, A language not unwelcome to sick hearts

Yet I will praise thee with impassioped voice: And in their silent faces did he read And idle spirits :-there the sun vimself

My lips, that may forget thee in the crowd, Unutterable love. Sound needed none, At the calm close of summer's longest day

Cannot forget thee here ; where Thou hast buil Nor any voice of joy; his spirit drank

Rests bis substantial Orb;-between those heights- For thy own glory in the wilderness!

p. 159.

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Me didst thou constitute a Priest of thine, And Intuitions moral and divine)

Small Creature as she is, from earth's bright
In such a Temple as we now behold
Fell Human-kind—to banishinent condemned

flowers
Reared for thy presence: therefore, am I bound That flowing years repealed not: and distress Into the dewy clouds.-
To worship, here, and everywhere-as One And grief spread wide ; but Man escaped the
Not doomed to ignorance, though forced to tread,

doom

The primal duties shine aloft-like stars ; From childhood up,

the
ways
of poverty;
Of destitution ;-Solitude was not.

The charities that soothe, and heal, and bless, From unreflecting ignorance preserved,

- Jehovah-shapeless Power above all Powers,

Are scattered at the feet of Man-like flowers. And from debasement rescued.-By thy grace Single and one, the omnipresent God, The particle divine remained unquenched; By vocal utterance or blaze of light, And, 'mid the wild weeds of a rugged soil,

Or cloud of darkness, localized in heaven; Many, very many passages equal to any Thy bounty caused to flourish deathless flowers, On earth, enshrined within the wandering ark; we have extracted, we have passed over From Paradise transplanted. Wintry age Or, out of Sion, thundering from his throne Impends; the frost will gather round my heart ; Between the Cherubim--on the chosen Race

with regret that we could not quote them; And, if they wither, I am worse than dead! Showered miracles, and ceased not to dispense

but we must bring this article to a close. -Come Labour, when the worn-out frame re- Judgments, that filled the land from age to age

We have not endeavoured to give our readquires

With hope, and love, and gratitude, and fear; ers a full and adequate representation of Perpetual sabbath ; come disease and want: And with amazement smote ;-thereby to assert Wordsworth's mind. An attempt so preAnd sad exclusion through decay of sense ;

His scorned or imacknowledged Sovereignty. But leave me unabated trust in Thee

And when the One, ineffable of name,

sumptuous could not have succeeded; not And let thy favour, to the end of life,

In nature indivisible, withdrew

only because the limits, within which we Inspire me with ability to seek

From mortal adoration or regard,

must confine ourselves, are far too narrow Repose and hope among eternal things

Not then was Deity engulphed, nor Man, for this purpose; but because such a task Father of heaven and earth! and I am rich The rational Creature, left, to feel the weight could only be accomplished by a genius And will possess my portion in content !

Of his own reason, without sense or thought kindred to his own. We certainly hope
Of higher reason and a purer will,
To benefit and bless, through mightier power.

that our feeble efforts will help to bring Thou-Who didst wrap the cloud

his poems into notice; and this is all we Of Infancy around us, that Thyself,

can desire. For we trust there are few

We must premise, that the first of the Therein, with our simplicity awhile Might'st bold, on earth, communion undisturbed ground, and the second to the feelings profit; --without recognising in them all the

following extracts relates to a burying- who can read them without pleasure and Who from the Or from its death-like void, with punctual care, which lead men to set apart and preserve grandeur, eloquence, and beauty of poetry, And touch as gentle as the morning light, such places.

and paying willingly the tribute of admiraRestor'st us, daily, to the powers of sense,

tion to And reason's steadfast rule-Thou, Thou alone

-To a mysteriously-consorted Pair
Art everlasting, and the blessed Spirits,
This place is consecrate; to Death and Life,

“ The highest, holiest raptures of the lyre, And to the best Affections that proceed

And wisdom, married to immortal verse." Which thou includest, as the Sea her Waves : For adoration thou endurest; endure

From their conjunction. Consecrate to faith
For consciousness the motions of thy will;

In Him who bled for man upon the Cross ;
Hallowed to Revelation; and no less

MISCELLANY.
For apprehension those transcendant truths

To Reason's mandates; and the bopes divine
Of the pare Intellect, that stand as laws,

Of pure Imagination ;-above all,
(Submission constituting strength and power)
Even to thy Being's infinite majesty!
To Charity, and Love, that have provided,

ON THE COMMON SYSTEMS OF ENGLISH
This Universe shall pass away-a frame
Within these precincts, a capacious bed

GRAMMAR.
Glorious! because the shadow of thy might,

And receptacle, open to the good
And evil, to the just and the unjust;

No. II.
A step, or link, for intercourse with 'Thee.
Ah! if the time must come, in which my feet

In which they find an equal resting-place:
Even as the multitude of kindred brooks

It is difficult to assigo any competent
No more shall stray where Meditation leads,
By flowing stream, through wood, or craggy

And streams, whose murmur fills this hollow vale, reason for a distinction between Noups and

Whether their course be turbulent or smooth, Pronouns. The custom of distinguishing wild, Loved haunts like these, the unimprisoned Mind

Their waters clear or sullied, all are lost

them probably arose from the erroneous

Within the bosom of yon chrystal Lake,
May yet bave scope to range among her own,
Her thoughts, her images, her high desires.

And end their journey in the same repose !

opinion that pronouns have no absolute sig

nification, but derive all their meaning from If the dear faculty of sight should fail,

the particular nouns to which they are, at Still, it may be allowed me to remember What visionary powers of eye and soul

- And whence that tribute? wherefore these re- any time, made to refer. But if they have In youth were mine ; when, stationed on the top

gards?

not in themselves a radical meaning, or, Of some huge hill-expectant, I beheld

Not from the naked Heart alone of Man what serves the same purpose, an absolute The Sun rise up, from distant climes returned

(Though framed to high distinction upon earth Darkness to chase, and sleep, and bring the day

As the sole spring and fountain-head of tears,

signification established by custom, then it

could make no difference at any time what His bounteous gift! or saw him, tow'rds the Deep

His own peculiar utterance for distress Sink--with a retinue of flaming Clouds

Or gladness) No,' the philosophic Priest pronoun is used. They would be so many Attended; then, my Spirit was entranced

Continued, 'tis not in the vital seat

cyphers, which might be used indiscrimiWith joy exalted to beatitude;

Or feeling to produce them, without aid nately. But if each pronoun has a deterThe measure of my soul was filled with bliss,

From the pure Soul, the Soul sublime and pure ; mninate meaning, it is important that this And holiest love; as earth, sea, air, with light,

With her two faculties of Eye and Ear, With pomp, with glory, with magnificence!

The one by which a Creature, whom his sins

should be accurately defined ; and such deHave rendered prone, can upward look to heaven; finitions would properly constitute the whole

The other that empowers him to perceive grammar of pronouns. Nothing more would Upon the breast of new-created Earth

The voice of Deity, on height and plain be necessary to their being used correctly.

Whispering those truths in stillness, which the But our Grammar-makers are very Man walked ; and when and wheresoe'er he

careful Word, moved,

to avoid this and whatever else relates to

To the four quarters of the winds, proclaims.' Alone or mated, Solitude was not.

the philosophy of language. Hence we He heard, upon the wind, the articulate Voice Of God; and Angels to his sight appeared,

There are a multitude of exquisite pasively to several of their artificial classes,

find the same pronoun belonging successCrowning the glorious hills of Paradise ; sages scattered over all of this poem. We Or through the groves gliding like morning mist have left ourselves small space for these

and frequently becoming some other part Enkindled by the sun. He sate-and talked With winged Messengers; who daily brought gems; but there are many like the following for children and for men to parse that, as,

of speech. It is almost equally impossible To bis small Island in the etherial deep

Our thoughts

what, mine, both, and several others, acTidings of joy and love. From these pure

Pleasant as roses in the thickets blown,
Heights
And pure as dew bathing their crimson leaves.

cording to any rules extant. This part of (Whether of actual vision, sensible

grammar is in complete confusion, and it To sight and feeling, or that in this sort

must remain so until we substitute absolute Have condescendingly been shadowed forth

Before your sight

definitions for accidental relations. How Communications spiritually maintained,

Mounts on the breeze the Butterfly-and soars,

can these accidental relations be well un

p. 242,

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derstood, where the meaning of the word the mind. They do not of themselves ex-gible manner, nor is it grammatically coris not first determined ? Men of indepen- press definitely all Modes of being, action, rect. Take for an example, " Penelope is dent minds continue to get along by adopt- and passion, and all Times of being, action, loved by me." If we admit the common ing their own notions where the grammar and passion ; and, hence, they do not an- definition, that “a Passive verb implies an seems incorrect or incompetent; but with swer their object. A whole sentence, and object acted upon, and an agent by which children the case is hopeless.

often a whole volume, is necessary to de- it is acted upon,” and the common ruleIn declining the personal pronouns, the fine the mode and time of an action; and that “ Participles govern the same cases as example of Mr Murray has been followed if we allow the use of auxiliaries to ex- the verbs do, from which they are derived;" by all onr other writers. The second per- press them definitely, nearly all the words in what case shall we call “ Penelope?". It son singular must be thou, thy or thine, thee. in the language must be recognised as of is certainly the objective of the transitive Thus we teach our children, while nine this class.

participle, " loved," and hence is in the obtenths of the books they read, and all of the It may be said, that an important object jective case. The pronoun, “me,” is obviconversation they hear contradict it, and of grammar is, to show what words may ously the agent; and hence, according to give you, your or yours, you, both in the sin come together, and how they should be ar- every Grammar, is in the nominative case. gular and plural. So far is this carried in ranged in the construction of sentences; Transpose the sentence, and change the most of our common schools, that even and that this object is promoted by the agent and object, the one for the other, when the antecedent of the pronoun you usual composition of modes and tenses. and say “ I am loved by Penelope.In this is singular, the pronoun and its verb are we admit this object to be important, but example, the pronoun is the objective of called plural; and our grammarians would we think it would be attained with much loved ;" and, if there be any sense in be greatly shocked, were they told that are greater facility by defining with precision English cases, it must be in the objective. and were should be called singular, when the use of every word in a sentence, than If by cases we are to understand the differthey agree with you, having a singular an- by giving the common vague definitions and ent relations of nouns and pronouns, then tecedent. Our Quaker brethren must pro- rules to such squads or parties of words, as it is obvious that every noun or pronoun, duce abler grammarians than Mr Murray, are generally allowed to be sirnamed, to which is the nominative case to what is before they can prove that their solemn save analyzing them.

called a passive verb, is also in the objecstyle is more correct than our common fa- We have heard of a few instructers, tive, and governed by the participle of the miliar style. We shall have occasion to who have adopted, with great advantage, same verb; for it has this double relation, allude to this subject again when we come the method which we would recommend, of being nominative to the verb to be, and obto the conjugation of verbs.

parsing every word by itself,—defining jective to the participle. It is somewhat remarkable that none of it as well as possible, showing its connex- In our next number we shall treat of our grammarians should have stated that ion with other words, and naming its Modes and Tenses. Our readers will no. the word mine is a compound term and variations. This is what parsing should be, tice that we are not criticising the work of has generally two cases. It signifies my and what every teacher should endeavour any author; but that our remarks apply to own, that is my property; own being an to make it. It is, however, impossible to the Grammars in common use. All with abstract term, used at present only pro- adopt this method with complete success, which we are acquainted are nearly usenominally for whatever is emphatically the while our elementary books are so deficient less in the study of the English language. property of any person or thing. Accord as they are at present

They are totally destitute of analytical ing to common rules of parsing, it should It may now be asked, how many modes method, and embarrass the minds of scholbe considered as governing the pronoun be- and tenses there are in the English language. ars with an unexplained and inexplicable fore it in the possessive case. Give me We are not quite ready for this part of our technical phraseology. We shall endeavyour book and

you shall have mine." In subject, but would ask' grammarians if the our to offer occasionally some proofs of this example, mine is both possessive and following be not the true principle. The their incorrectness, which we hope will, by objective. “ Your book was saved, mine number that should be recognised in any degrees, lead those who are competent, to was lost.”. Here it is possessive and nomi- grammar, is so many as are expressed by examine the subject more attentively, and native. These remarks apply equally to the the regular and established variations of give this science an intelligible and practipronoun thine. The pronouns ours, yours, verbs, without reference to what are com- cal form. and theirs are likewise compound, and should monly called auxiliaries. If you depart be parsed like mine. We sometimes use own from this rule, you may have millions. before a noun; as my own house, mine The division of verbs into active, pas

(We do not wish to make our Gazette obnoxious house, his own house. In such cases, it be- sive, and neuter, is objectionable, because to the charge of too great attention to any one procomes an adjective noun.

the terms active and neuter do not convey fession; but the remarks contained in the followIt cannot be said that in the example to the mind any idea of the uses of these ing Essay, which we have just now received, are given above, mine may be governed by two classes of verbs in construction with at once so true in themselves, and so important to book, expressed or understood, because it is other words. Transitive and intransitive some of our readers, that we trust we shall be obvious that it cannot be placed with that are more definite, because they distinguish thanked by them, and stand excused of all, for afterm without implying repetition. The between those which govern, and those fording it the space it will occupy in our pages. sense is complete as it stands, and the force wbich do not govern other words. The

EDITOR.) of the verb falls immediately on the com- passive verb is not a species distinct from pound pronoun. There is no more difficulty the others, but formed by combining the in calling these pronouns compound, than verb to be with the perfect participle of a The complaint uttered by Cicero, in his in calling what compound, and there is an transitive verb. In those languages in Treatise de Legibus, concerning the meaequal necessity for it.

which it is a distinct form of the verb, there greness of a jurist's reward, may be justly Before remarking on the errors in the is no objection to styling it the passive adopted by the compilers and editors of common method of parsing Verbs, we must voice; but we totally destroy the simplici- law books in the United States. Quid tam make a few general observations.

ty of English syntax by endeavouring to exiguum quam munus eorum ? Only one anThe custom of taking several words to- make it agree with that of other languages. cient reporter has been republished in this gether to form one part of speech, is totally We shall have occasion to say so much up-country with annotations, and the editor in inconsistent with the analytical mode of on this subject, when we coine to treat of that instance, we have the means of knowteaching. The compound modes and tenses Modes and Tenses in a future number, that ing, did not ultimately receive day wages of verbs, formed in this way, instead of defin- we are not willing to add more in this for his labour in that behalf

. Mr Day has ing the meaning of a sentence more clear place.

rendered valuable services to his brethren, ly, and determining the precise influence or The common mode of parsing passive by adding notes to about twenty-five vol. urse of every member, tend only to confuse) verbs does not explain them in an intelli-lumes of modern reports; but he has been

LAW BOOKS.

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EDINBURGH REVIEW.

251 by no means adequately compensated. He purposes of eliciting truth, preventing chi- manufacture of the United States, may lefirst undertook Espinasse's Reports of Cases canery, and securing an orderly investiga- gally be carried from place to place, and at Nisi Prius, which has been, perhaps, the tion. A defendant knows not whether the exposed for sale; yet, a fine of not less than most popular book of reports ever publish- plaintiff's evidence is closed, until the jury ten, nor more than one hundred dollars, is ed in the United States. The success of is sent from the bar. He may, thereupon, to be inflicted on the offender, who shall be this work induced a bookseller in New pretty safely conclude that no further tes so hardy as thus to carry abroad and sell, York to republish the two first volumes of timony will be admitted, even though it or expose for sale, those pernicious artiMr Campbell's Reports, in 1810 and 1811, may be offered. Such loose practice surely cles, ycleped indigo, feathers, books, tracts, without additional notes. The two last vol- deserves no toleration where the rules of prints, maps, playing cards, lottery tickets, umes, with notes by Mr Howe, were pub- the common law are the professed guide of jewelry, and essences. Now, as the lowest lished in 1821. The notes are evidently courts.

price of any article of trade must include from the pen of a learned and discriminat- Notwithstanding the want of pecuniary the value of the risk incurred in that trade, ing lawyer, and greatly enhance the value encouragement, there have been many it is evident that a repeal of the aforesaid of the edition. The cases reported are American editions of English law books, statute would enable the travelling seller worthy of attention,* and are recommended which are greatly increased in value by the of law books to offer them, on safe mercanby the circumstance that they are among addition of notes and references. The ex- tile principles, at a yet lower rate; and the last decisions of that most eminent nisi tent of the market induces booksellers to thus we gain a still further insight of the prius judge, Lord Ellenborough. If we ex. republish, and a commendable desire of im- great regular profits. cept his too strong inclination, in some proving the jurisprudence of the country,

Sic vos non vobis cases, to rely on what may be called a and affording facilities of investigation to moral estoppel, we can hardly find a fault the profession, has incited its members to in bis judgments. Indeed, Sir James Mans- a gratuitous contribution of their labours. field, near the close of his long judicial life. We hope every future edition of foreign

NUMBER LXXX of this journal contains expressed his most unqualified admiration publications on legal subjects may contain

an amusing article upon America; from of the correctness and ability of the Lord references to our own decisions. Chief Justice of the King's Bench, as dis

There are said to be in the United States for the good of those of our readers who

which we propose to make some extracts piayed in the reports of Mr Campbell. more than six thousand practising lawyers. happen not to take the Review. It is evi

From the character of almost every re- Mr Griffith, the compiler of the United dently an honest article, and moreover, concent English treatise on legal subjects, we States Law Register, bas announced, by tains a good deal of truth, which it should are disposed to believe that reports may be way of recommendation, no doubt, of his be gratifying to us to find English writers more profitably consulted than elementary volumes, that he has the names and places willing to allow, and which it ought to do works. These last contain, of late, no prop- of residence of the gentlemen of the bar in the English public some good to learn. The er scientific arrangement of the decisions, fifteen states, amounting, in 1821, to four writer sets out thus : and are too often grossly deficient in matter thousand eight hundred and forty-one. He as well as arrangement. Learners will not estimates the number of judicial officers, in who are dreadfully afraid of America and every

There is a set of miserable persons in England, be well instructed by them; and those who the several States and Territories, at twen- thing American—whose great delight is to see that have already learned much, will derive very ty thousand. We think he must include country ridiculed and vilified—and who appear to little profit from them. In this day of mak- the worshipful host of Justices of the Peace imagine that all the abuses which exist in this ing many law books, the profession will in this last class, in order to obtain such a country acquire additional vigour and chance of probably obtain more advantage, at a given formidable aggregate. Assuming, however, forth its venom and falsehood on the United States.

duration from every book of Travels which pours expense, from a thorough perusal of reports, that there are but six thousand men in our We shall, from time to time, call the attention of than from any other means. There is much country, who would ever incline to open a the public to this subject, not from any party spirit, in them, it is true, which is apochryphal; law book, it is manifest that almost every but because we love truth, and praise excellence but not less in the recent treatises, the au- work that issues from the over-teeming wherever we find it; and because we think the ex. thors of which boast of having intruded presses of the “ law printer to the king's ample of America will, in many instances, tend to no impertinent comments of their own upon most excellent majesty," and of others in open the eyes of Englishmen to their true interests.

The Economy of America is a great and importthe wild conceits which they embody and Great Britain, might be reprinted here ant object for our imitation. The salary of Mr disseminate. We can except from this with tolerable safety to the pockets of the Bagot, our late Ambassador, was, we believe,

rathcensure a very few treatises that have late- publishers. One in twenty of those who er higher than that of the President of the United ly come under our notice from England; rank among professional men, may well be States. The Vice-President receives rather less and with great satisfaction we assure our hoped and expected to become a purchaser than the second Clerk of the House of Commons ;

and all salaries, civil and military, are upon the readers that a native Essay on Insurance, of any legal publication of passable merit. same scale ; and yet no country is better served which has recently issued from the press in This would secure a sale for three hundred than America! Mr Hume has at last persuaded the this city, is liable to none of these objec- copies, which, at the price generally de- English people to look a little into their accounts,

and to see how sadly they are plundered. But we tions, but is every way worthy of the sub- manded for books in law binding, would enject, and does honor to the talents, learning, sure the printer and bookseller, quicquid consider whether we have not a very momentous

ought to suspend our contempt for America, and and acumen of the author.

honorarium more valuable than the pur- lesson to leam from this wise and cautious people One benefit may be hoped from an ex- chasers often receive for any single profes- on the subject of economy. tensive circulation of the English reports of sional service. Indeed, since we have seen A lesson upon the importance of Religious Tolcases at nisi prius : we mean a correction new law books, fresh from the press, hawk- eration, we are determined, it would seem, not to of the very loose and slovenly practice in ed about our villages like tin ware, and of- learn, - either from America, or from any other some of the American courts, of presenting fered at prices so very far below the book quarter of the globe. The High Sheriff of New

York, last year, was a Jew. It was with the utevidence to a jury. Almost every thing is store mark, we have been led to infer (er- most difficulty that a bill was carried this year to admitted,- de bene esse at least,—and wit- roneously perchance) that the profits of allow the first Duke of England to carry a gold nesses are examined, cross-examined, and the regular trade must be greater than we stick before the King-because he was a Catholic! reexamined, without any regard to the rules before suspected. The pedlar of tin ware, impertinent sneers at America,—as if civilization which

we find applied in the English courts, by the way, has one advantage over the did not depend more upon making wise laws for and which are so wisely adapted to the itinerant venders of law books, which is not the promotion of human happiness, than in having

to be overlooked in an estimate of regular good inns, and post-horses, and civil waiters. The As an illustration of a government of laws, and profits. His is a lawful traffic, at least in circumstances of the Dissenters' marriage bill are the case of Beaurain vs. Sir W. Scott, Vol. III. that state, though goods, wares, and mer- them. A certain class of Dissenters beg they may not of men, we know of nothing more striking than Massachusetts. Whereas, by a statute of such as would excite the contempt of a Chictaw or

Cherokee, if he could be brought to understand chandise in general, if of the produce or not be compelled to say that they marry in the

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page 388.

anny than this?

name of the Trinity, because they do not believe ceiving his country to have been united at the Hep-1 into their constitution! No one can admire the simin the Trinity. Never mind, say the corruptionists, tarchy, goes forth from his native town to stitch ple wisdom and manly firmness of the Americans you must go on saying you marry in the name of freely within the sea-girt limits of Albion. Him inore than we do, or more despise the pitiful

propenthe Trinity, whether you believe in it or not. We the mayor, him the aldermen, him the recorder, him sity which exists among Government runners to vent know that such a protestation from you will be the quarter-sessions would worry. Him the jus- their small spite at their character ; but on the subfalse; but unless you make it, your wives shall be tices before trial would long to get into the tread- ject of slavery, the conduct of America is, and has concubines, and your children illegitimate. Is it mill; and would much lament that by a recent been, most reprehensible. It is impossible to speak possible to conceive a greater or more useless tyr- act, they could not do so, even with the intruding of it with too much indignation and contempt, but

tradesman's consent; but the moment he was tried, for it, we should look forward with unqualified In fact, it is hardly possible for any nation to they would push him in with redoubled energy, and pleasure to such a land of freedom, and such a magshow a greater superiority over another, than the leave him to tread himself into a conviction of the nificent spectacle of human happiness. Americans, in this particular, have done over this barbarous institutions of his corporation-divided

The first article in this No.-upon Britcountry. They have fairly and completely, and country. probably forever, extinguished that spirit of reli

Upon page 434, there is a capital para- terized by originality or remarkable abil.

ish India—is interesting ; it is not characgious persecution which has been the employment and the curse of mankind for four or five centuries, graph about English character.

ity, but contains much information. The -not only that persecution which imprisons and The coaches must be given up; so must the writer states distinctly the efficiency and scourges for religious opinions, but the tyranny of roads, and so must the inns.. The are, of course, the utility of the ancient Hindoo customs incapacitation, which, by disqualifying from civil what these accommodations are in all new counoffices, and cutting a man off from the lawful ob- tries; and much like what English great grandfa- and institutions, and the unfortunate conjects of ambition, endeavours to strangle religious ther talk about as existing in his country at the sequences which have proved the folly of freedom in silence, and to enjoy all the advantages, first period of their recollection. The great incon attempting to supplant them by a system of without the blood and noise and fire of persecution. venience of American inns, however, in the eyes English law. One passage in this article What passes in the mind of one mean blockhead, of an Englishman, is one which more sociable tray : illustrates very pleasantly the excellent is the general history of all persecution. This ellers must feel less acutely-we mean the impossiman pretends to know better than me--I cannot bility of being alone, of having a room separate reasons which have influenced the British subdue him by argument; but I will take care he from the rest of the company. There is nothing to extend their empire in this quarter, and shall never be mayor or alderman of the town in which an Englishınan enjoys more than the pleas- the way in which Indian affairs

are regardwhich he lives; I will never consent to the repeal ure of sulkiness, -of not being forced to hear a ed at home. In 1816 the Pindarries, cerof the Test Act, or to Catholic Emancipation; 1 word from any body which may occasion to him tain large and organized bands of robbers, will teach the fellow to differ from me in religious the necessity of replying. It is not so much that opinions !' So says the Episcopalian to the Catho- Mr Bull disdains to talk, as that Mr Bull has noth penetrated into the Company's territories, lic-and so the Catholic says to the Protestant. ing to say. His forefathers have been out of spir- remained there twelve days, killed one hun. But the wisdom of America keeps them all down its for six or seven hundred years, and, seeing dred and eighty-two persons, wounded five secures to them all their just rights-gives to each nothing but fog and vapour, he is out of spirits too; hundred and five, and tortured in various of them their separate pews and bells

and steeples and when there is no selling or buying, or no busi- ways three thousand six hundred and three. -- makes them all aldermen in their

turns—and qui- ness to settle, he prefers being alone and looking Whereupon, « The patience of the British etly extinguishes the faggots which each is prepar- at the fire. If any gentleman was in distress, he ing for the combustion of the other. Nor is this in- would willingly lend an helping hand; but he thinks government being exhausted by these redifference to religious subjects in the American it no part of neighbourhood to talk to a person be- peated inroads, it was resolved not only to people, but pure civilization--a thorough compre- cause he happens to be near him. In short, with attack and extirpate the Pindarries in their hension of what is best calculated to secure the many excellent qualities, it must be acknowledged remotest haunts, but to put down that syspublic happiness and peace—and a determination that the English are the most disagreeable of all tem of misrule and violence which had so that this happiness and peace shall not be violated the nations of Europe,--more surly and morose, by the insolence of any human being, in the garb, with less disposition to please, to exert themselves long desolated India.Accordingly, these and under the sanction, of religion. In this par- for the good of society, to make small sacrinces, robbers were extirpated, and, -as mere inticular, the Americans are at the head of all the and to put themselves out of their way. They are cidents to this measure of precaution,nations of the world: and at the same time they content with Magna Charta and Trial by Jury; and are, especially in the Eastern and Midland States, think they are not bound to excel the rest of the The rajah of Nagpoor was driven from his doso far from being indifferent on subjects of reli- world in small behaviour, if they are superior to minions and throne, the Peshwa, the head of the

Mahratta empire, has also been dethroned, and gion, that they may be most justly characterized as them in great institutions. a very religious people: But they are devout with

The last paragraph sums up the whole new lives as a prisoner on the bounty of the Brit

ish, who assign him 100,000l. per annum for his out being unjust (the great problem in religion); an matter. Proof is wanting of the actual and maintenance. Holkar has fallen from the rank of higher proof of civilization than painted tea-cups, extreme cruelty to slaves, with which the an independent prince; and Sindia is in reality in water-proof leather, or broadcloth at two guineas a yard.

writer charges our "high spirited nation;" the same condition. There is not, in short, any He contrasts the inconveniences occa

-otherwise the whole

unexcep

potentate in India that can now move a step with

out the express sanction of the British authorities. sioned by the privileges and processes of tionable. the many corporations of England, with the America seems, on the whole, to be a country

A part of their object is unquestionably unshackled liberty of our artisans. In this possessing vast advantages, and little inconvenien- accomplished; "the system of violence respect, we consider England as about half ces; they have a cheap government, and bad roads; which has so long desolated India” must be

they pay no tithes, and have stage coaches without relinquished, for there is nothing left to be way between China, -where every one springs. The have no poor laws and no monopo- violent with. When the system of misrule must not only stay at home, but work at his lies--but their inns are inconvenient, and travellers will end, it is rather difficult to say. father's trade with his father's tools, and are teased with questions. They have no collecourselves ;—though rather nearer China.

tions in the fine arts; but they nave no Lord Chan

cellor, and they can go to law without absolute Though America is a confederation of republics, ruin. They cannot make Latin verses, but they

HULL'S MEMOIRS.* they are in many cases much more amalgamated expend immense sums in the education of the than the various parts of Great Britain. If a citi- poor. In all this the balance is prodigiously in

We did not receive this thick pamphlet zen of the United States can make a shoe, he is at iheir favour: But then comes the great disgrace until the reviews for this No. were sent to liberty to make a shoe any where between Lake and danger of America—the existence of slavery, press ;-and were it only political and conOntario and New Orleans, - he may sole on the which, if not timously corrected, will one day en: troversial, we should not trouble ourselves Mississippi---heel on the Missouri--measure Mr tail (and ought to entail) a bloody servile war upon

or our readers with any remarks upon it. Birkbeck on the Little Wabash, or take (which our the Americans—which will separate America into best politicians do not find an easy natter) the slave states and states disclaiming slavery, and But it is historical. It must throw some length of Mr Monro's foot on the banks of the Po- which remains at present as the foulest blot in the

But wo to the cobbler, who, having made moral character of that people. An high spirited * Memoirs of the Campaign of the North WestHessian boots for the alderman of Newcastle, nation, who cannot endure the slightest act of for- ern Army of the United States, A. D. 1812. ID should venture to invest with these coriaceous in eign aggression, and who revolt at the very shadow a series of Letters addressed to the Citizens of teguments, the leg of a liege subject at York. A of domestic tyranny-beat with cart-whips, and the United States. With an Appendix, containing yellow ant in a nest of red ants-a butcher's dog in bind with chains, and murder for the merest trifles, a brief Sketch of the Revolutionary Services of the a fox-kennel--a mouse in a bee-hive,-all feel the wretched human beings who are of a more dusky Author. By William Hull, late Governor of the effects of untimely intrusion ;- but far preferable colour than themselves; and have recently admit- Territory of Michigan, and Brigadier General in their fate to that of the misguided artisan, who, ted into their Union, a new State, with the express the Service of the United States. Boston. 1894 ipisled by sixpenoy histories of England, and COR- | permission of ingrasting this attrocious wickedness | 8vo. pp. 240.

passage is

towmac.

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