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wouldn't go into their ugly dirty coach; and you thereupon Andrew Waddell, in a night-cap, riding little toes,' &c. &c. &c., were as usual whispered shall have - Here something of a consolatory on a stick, drew near., Being the Major's name over it. nature was whispered, William was comforted, and sake, Miss Bell, in the ardour of her attachment,
We cordially recommend this work to even prevailed upon to relinquish his drum for his thought proper to coax Andrew Waddell on her = mamma's ivory work-box, the contents of which knee, and even to open her watch for his enter- our readers, assuring them of our belief, were soon scattered on the floor. tainment.
that they must be dull indeed, who will not * These boys are gone without their hats,' cried *Ah! I see who spoils Andrew Waddell,' cried rise from its perusal wiser, perhaps betMrs Fairbairn, in a tone of distress. • Eliza, my the delighted mother.
ter,—without running the least risk of 1 dear, pull the bell for Sally to get the boys' hats.'
Bell , and Sally being despatched with the hats, something for the time Andrew Waddell became the hero of being made sadder. like a calm ensued, in the absence of the whip and the piece; the blains of the measles were carefully the trumpet ; but, as it will be of short duration, it pointed out
, and all his sufferings and sayings dalyThe Manuscript of Diedrich Knickerbockis necessary to take advantage of it in improving recapitulated. At length Miss Charlotte, indignant
the introduction into an acquaintance with the at finding herself eclipsed, began to scream and cry er jun. New York. 1824. * Fairbairn family.
with all her strength. Mrs Fairbairn was one of those ladies, who, * It's her teeth, darling little thing,' said her moth- to point, in his title-page, at the object of
It is the height of impolicy for an author from the time she became a mother, ceased to be er, caressing her. all any thing else. All the duties, pleasures, charities, I'm sure it's her tecth, sweet little dear," said his imitation. It takes from his credit if and decencies of life, were henceforth concentrat- Miss Bell.
he excels his prototype, draws upon him the ced in that one grand characteristic; every object “It undoubtedly must be her teeth, poor little damnation of faint praise if he equals, and * in life was henceforth viewed through that single girl,' said the Major.
holds a candle to his shame if he falls bemedinm. Her own mother was no longer her "If you will feel her gum,' said Mrs Fairbair, low it. It obliges every reader, whether mother; she was the grandma rma of her dear in- putting her own finger into the child's mouth, 'you critical or not, to institute a process proverfants, her brothers and sisters were mere uncles will feel how hot it is.' and aunts, and even her husband ceased to be This was addressed in a sort of general way to bially odious, and effectually prevents one thought of as her husband, from the time he became the company, none of whom seemed eager to avail from being pleased," he knows not why a father. He was no longer the being who had themselves of the privilege, till the Major stepped and cares not wherefore.” Why any one
claims on ber time, her thoughts, her talents, her forward, and havng with his fore-finger made the should desire thus to predispose his readers sa affections ; he was simply Mr Fairbairn, the noun circuit of Miss Charlotte's mouth, gave it as his
masculine of Mrs Fairbaim, and the father of her decided opinion, that there was a moth actually against him, is not easy to imagine, but the a children. Happily for Mr Fairbairn, he was not a cutting the skin. Miss Bell followed the same writer of the work before us has been 3 person of very nice feelings, or refined taste; and course, and confirmed the interesting fact-adding, pleased so to do, and must therefore abide
although, at first, he did feel a little unpleasant that it appeared to her to be “an uncommon large the consequence. The work, as our readwhen he saw how much his children were preferred tooth.' to himself, yet, in time, he became accustomed to it, At that moment Mr Fairbairn entered, bearing in merous class that always follows the ascent
ers are already aware, is one of that nuthen came to look upon Mrs Fairb:in as the most his arms another of the family, a fat, sour, newexemplary o- mothers, and finally resolved him- waked-looking creature, sucking its finger. Scarcely of fine writers ;-who, like rockets, draw self into the father of a very fine family, of which was the introduction over-There's a pair of legs!' after them a long train, partly sparks and Mrs Fairbairn was the mother. * * *
exclaimed he, holding out a pair of thick purple partly smoke. We shall be civil enough, and Alas! if there be “ not a gem so precious as the stumps with red worsted shoes at the end of them. just enough, to class the Manuscript of Diehu..af. soul,” how often do these gems seem as
"I don't suppose Miss St Clair ever saw legs like drich Knickerbocker jun. among the sparks. pearls cast before swine ; for how seldom is it that these in France; these are porridge and milk legs, The pamphlet contains two stories, the first a parent's greatest care is for the immortal happi- are they not, Bobby? ness of that being whose precarious, and at best But Bobby continued to chew the cud of his being intended to inform us, after the mantransient, existence engrosses their every thought own thumb in solemn silence.
ner of the Utopians, in what way he beand desire! But, perhaps, Mrs Fairbairn, like • Will you speak to me, Bobby?" said Miss Bell, came possessed of the latter. The author, si many a foolish ignorant mother, did her best, and bent upon being amiable and agreeable—but still sitting upon one of the benches of the
had she been satisfied with spoiling her children Bobby was mute. hersell, for her own private amusement, and not • We think this little fellow rather long of speak. Battery, and making sundry reflections updrawn in her visiters and acquaintances to share ing,' said Mr Fairbairn; we allege that his legs on the beauties of nature thereabout, which in it, the evil might have passed uncensured. have ran away with his tongue.'
he takes this opportunity to communicate to But Mrs Fairbairn, instead of shutting herself up How old is he?' asked the Major. in her nursery, chose to bring her nursery down to • He is only nineteen months and ten days,' an. is thus described.
the public, is accosted by a gentleman, who her drawing room, and instead of modestly deny- swered his mother, 'so he has not lost much time; ing her friends an entrance into her purgatory, she but I would rather see a child fat and thriving, than His person was lively, and about the middle size, had a foolish pride in showing herself in the midst have it very forward.'
and as if descended from the good-humoured race her angels. In short, as the best things, when cor- No comparison !' was here uttered in a breath of the Hollanders, his shoulders were broad and rupted, always become the worst, so the purest and by the Major and Miss Bell.
heavy; and what his frame wanted in height was tenderest of human affections, when thus debased • There's a great difference in children in their compensated by its bordering on the corpulent. by selfishness and egotism, turn to the most tire time of speaking,' said the mamma. Alexander His dress, consisting of a blue frock coat, which some and ridiculous of human weaknesses,-a truth didn't speak till he was two and a quarter; and reached to his knees, with the pantaloons of a travbut too well exemplified by Mrs Fairbairn. Henry, again, had a great many little words before eller buttoned up their sides, exhibited beneath
• I have been much to blame,' said she, address. he was seventeen months; and Eliza and Charlotte them a pair of dusty boots; while a broad-brimmed ing Miss Bell, in a soft, whining, sick-child sort of both said mamma as plain as I do at a year—but beaver shaded the thick raven locks of a highly exvoice, for not having been at Bellevue long ago; girls always speak sooner than boys---as for Wil- pressive forehead. His sınalliwinkling eyes spark. but dear little Charlotte has been so plagued with liam Pitt and Andrew Waddell, the twins, they both led with intelligence and humour; and io a cheek her teeth, I could not think of leaving her - for she suffered so much from their teething, that they were dimpled by the broad playful furrows of about is so fond of me, she will go to nobody else--she longer of speaking than they would otherwise have thirty-five years, were added a mouth and chiu that screams when her maid offers to take her—and she been--indeed, I never saw an infant suffer so much bespoke inward benevolence and contentment. won't even go to her papa.'
as Andrew Waddell did--be had greatly the heels A conversation of course very fit to be * Is that possible.' said the Major.
of William Pitt at one time, till the measles pulled printed took place between these worthies, I assure you it's very true-she's a very naugh- him down.' ty girl sometimes,' bestowing a long and rapturous A movement was here made by the visiters to and terminated with the gift of the abovehiss on the child. Who was it that beat poor papa depart.
mentioned manuscript to the author, by the for taking her from mamma last night ?- Well, :0! you mustn't go without seeing the baby,' good-natured stranger, whom our readers don't cry--no, no, it wasn't my Charlotte-She cried Mrs Fairbaim--Mr Fairbaim, will you pull need no ghost to tell them was Diedrich knows every word that's said to her, and did from the bell twice for baby?' the time she was only a year old.'
The bell was twice rung, but no baby answered contained more stories than the one which
Knickerbocker jun. It in all probability • That is wonderful!' said Miss Bell; but how the suinmons. is my little favourite Andrew?''
She must be asleep,' said Mrs Fairbairn; but is here given to the public. Whether we " He is not very stout yet, poor little fellow, and I will take you up to the nursery, and you will see shall ever hear any more of them, depends we must be very careful of him. Then turning to her in her cradle.' And Mrs Fairbairn led the upon circumstances, which every one may Miss Sc Clair," "Our little Andrew has had the way to the nursery, and opened the shutter, and un imagine for himself. measles, and you know the dregs of the measles covered the cradle, and displayed the baby.
Leaving that matter are a serious thing-much worse than the measles themselves. Andrew-Andrew Waddell, my image of Mr Fairbairn--fat little thing---neat Title ceed to make the most of that which is al
Just fine months--unconimon fine child-the however to its natura course, we shall proJove, come here and speak to the ladies.' And hands--sweet little mouth--pretty little posem-nice' ready in our power.
It is entitled “Rat.
tlesnake Hill,” which, as it appears, is a | Schiller as an effect of a wind not absolute. It is the grand object of Mr Russell, to “high and shaggy coil of mountain” in ly ill, but war, in the shape of a new doctor. arrange every part of Grammar in analyt. New Jersey--in the neighbourhood of A new sign soon blazed in his van, and a ical order, and to make so full an explanawhich lived Dr Vander Schiller, the physi- new mortar beat the alarm of opposition. tion of every new term, and every new cian of the village-which in those days, Our limits will not permit us to detail the principle which he introduces, that the of Peter Stuyvesant to wit, was very beau- events of the contest. Suffice it that though scholar shall be able to understand the tiful, very dull, and very healthy. The the brisk attacks of the invader obtained meaning and use of it, when he first learns it. Doctor was advanced in years, and, as most some advantages over the outworks of his Every one knows, that, according to the writers are pleased to represent elderly predecessor, the main intrenchments of the common mode of teaching both Latin and country gentlemen of the faculty, a very place were found too strong to be ca. ried. English Grammar, it is expected of the ridiculous object; as was also his horse; In this state of affairs, Francis Winter- young learner to commit to memory a consaid horse, or rather mare for so it is set bottom--we love to be particular,—trusted siderable portion of every chapter in the forth, according to the form made and pro- his cause to a stratagem, which we shall book, at least once, and in most cases, ser. vided-being lean and long-bodied. Why give the reader with all brevity. He de- eral times, before he begins to understand queer and quizzical old fellows should al- coyed his rival, --who, besides being a teller, its true meaning and application. If this ways ride animals of this description we was something of a believer in ghost sto- painful and discouraging drudgery can be know not; but the evidence of the fact is ries-on a stormy night, to a place on the avoided, and the whole time of the scholar overwhelming, at least as far as numbers banks of the Hackensack, haunted by the can be imployed in advancing, instead of are concerned. Moreover, the Doctor Indian of the Mountain," and then and merely preparing to advance, it is obvious usually killed his patients-although, as we there appeared to him in the guise of that that a very important object will be attainlearn in the sequel, he never prescribed visionary being, chased his mare into the riv- ed. The attention of a large proportion of any thing but vinegar, cold or hot as the er, and demanded as the price of his rescue the intellectual part of our community is case might be, brimstone, peppermint, and his immediate retreat from the scene of his now directed to the attainment of this adcertain well known and innocent matters toils and triumphs. The man of simples vantage in the mode of teaching every art from the vegetable kingdom, which come had not looked death in the face long and science. All the improvements in our under the general designation of simples enough to bid hiin defiance-besides, he system of education have a primary referin other words, the Doctor was, bating the was unarmed, for the waters of the Passaic ence to this object,-to remove from the brimstone, a Galenist. This is another dif- had closed over his saddlebags. What learner the necessity of taking any thing ficulty with us, namely, why foolish old phy- could he do? He yielded to fate, the In- upon authority, and to enable him to unsicians will be so absurd as to kill their dian of the Mountain, and Dr Winterbot- derstand definitely all that he is required patients with such simple articles, when tom, relinquished the field, and was known to believe. This belongs to the spirit of they might effect their villanous purposes no more to the precincts of Rattlesnake the age; and history describes no period, with equal ease and dignity by means of Hill. The triumphant gig effaced the foot to which this remark could apply with equal poisons of a far more efficient and satis- steps of the mare, and the mortar of Vander truth. It is in vain now to urge any other factory character. Though the catalogue Schiller was hushed forever.
mode of instruction; and those show most of medicines, which are “digged from the We find no fault with the style of this wisdom who do most to promote it. bowels of the harmless earth,” was unfortu- production—the story is of course made to Mr Russell remarks in his
valuable nately not quite so extensive in Dr Vander bang descriptions upon, and many of these Preface, p. 4, that “It would perhaps be Schiller's days, as it is in our own, he are well executed; but occasionally, while better to defer the study of the languages, might doubtless have found enough to have reading it through--for we are too conscien- till the scholar's progress could be facilidepopulated New Jersey in less time than tious reviewers to skip,—we mentally ex- tated by maturer years, and a maturer he could slay a single generation in his claimed with Sly, “ 'Tis an excellent piece mind." We regret that he did not express own village with essences of wormwood, of work; would it were done.”
this opinion more absolutely. Even his hoarhound, and such like distilments. But
own Grammar cannot be understood by the therein probably lies the explanation of
infants, who are every day commencing the this operose mode of destruction.
Adam's Latin Grammar Abridged; and study of this language. It may be com
The profit of the nefarious work is doubtless
Arranged in a Course of Practical Les- prehensible to children of from twelve to commensurate with the time of action.
sons, Adapted to the Capacity of Young fourteen years of age; and a few may unOne would suppose it would have been still
Learners.' By William Russell
. New derstand it at the age of ten. We shall be more lucrative as well as politic to have
Haven. 1824. 12mo. pp. 283.
told that many boys learn to read Latin stopped short of murder, and allowed their NOTHING can be more grateful to a review- pretty well before that period. This is patients to live, a life of disease indeed, but er than to be occasionally relieved from the true; but they waste much time in learning still a life;—but “quem Deus vult perdere, necessity of expressing disapprobation and it, which might be very profitably deroted prius dementat”--the doctors of tale-tel- censure, and allowed fair scope for his to other important subjects. Our princi. lers from time immemorial have killed their disposition to applaud a competent and ple is this ;— that the studies of a scholar patients, and doubtless will continue so to do faithful author. We are so much obliged should always be limited to what he can at the risk of present loss and everlast- to Mr Russell for furnishing us a repast of understand. He will then lose no time, ing ridicule. Dr Vander Schiller at least this kind, that, before reviewing his book, but be constantly advancing in true knowls did so.
Other popular qualities he had we are much disposed to greet him as a edge. His studies will thus be made interadapted to his situation. He smoked a friend.
esting to him, and a true love of learning good pipe and told a good story ; something We must tell our readers at once what will be constantly cultivated. of the longest to be sure, but then time has put us into so comfortable a mood. It is It cannot be necessary to give a minute was not a very marketable article in the this: Mr Russell has composed a Latin description of this work, unless it were for village of Second River. In one particu- Grammar in such a manner as to make it those, who, as teachers, might require more lar the Doctor differed tolo cælo from most intelligible to those who study it! With practical information respecting its fornis of his country brethren, inasmuch as he the most profound seriousness we mark this and arrangement. But we could not make had neither wise nor children. But fate had as a wonder. Before we saw his book we a notice which would be satisfactory to decreed that he should have bis crosses, were quite familiar with the principles, by them, without infringing upon the rights of though in another form. On a summer's which he was guided in composing it; but other readers. afternoon a new gig swept into the village we feared it would be long before we should The author will permit us to advise him like a new besom of destruction--and shook find an author of sufficient assiduity and to prepare for a second edition by a very from its seat, pot pestilence indeed, which skill, to apply them to the study of the careful revision of the present. Mars might have been considered by Vander| Latin language.
things may be rendered plainer. For ti
ample; two syllables coming together, and deal of learning, and an admirable talent can find in it some new, undiscovered propboth marked with the accent, as " Habé-ré- at imparting it, and yet be very poorly fit-erty, which shall help carry on the great ris," p. 116. In many forms of the verb, ted for a schoolmaster after all. One with course of human improvement. These conthe accent is omitted where it is important, out any of these noble qualities, who could stitute the only true worth of learning, Those who follow the direction, p. 9, for simply awaken curiosity and ambition, the materials it furnishes for invention, and reading their lessons to their instructer would be infinitely more certain of success. the play it gives to the highest powers of before committing them, may suffer no in- This is indeed the great art of early in our nature. convenience from these omissions ; but those struction. The immediate accumulation of Early acquisition, we have said, is not who have not the advantage of an instruct- knowledge ought to form no part of the the object of education. It is, in fact, we er, will need more directions than the book first object of him who superintends it. Let think, rather to be shunned. It is not furnishes.
the child feel an interest in the work him- merely useless and nugatory to the young The “Signs, or English characteristic self; let him be led into the field, and in- inquirer, but may prove injurious to him, words,” for the several tenses, are not al. spired with ardour for the pursuit, and it because it is at first exceedingly imperfect ways given intelligibly. See Perfect tense, is of little consequence whether he gets and mingled with errors, and these early p. 132. The frequent use of “ &c." is hard- learning or not; the chase is always worth associations and impressions are indelible, ly consistent with the plan of this work. more than the game. He is sure of vigour to say nothing of the fact, that it makes its
We make these slight criticisms merely and firmness and resolution, and a keen, possessor a pedant, ostentatious of another's to put the author upon his guard. It may growing appetite for action; and these are wealth, conceited, and secure. Yet this also be proper to suggest that there is no the powers which are capable of command- mistake prevails every where, and seems to very good reason for calling this an Abridg- ing all the resources within the reach of be gaining ground every day. It is this ment of Adam's Grammar. The work is the human intellect.
which has made the study of Latin and not complete in its department, and may Why then should not the profession call- Greek unpopular among us, probably it be called an Introduction ; but it is too sin- ed schoolmasters give some little time to a procured a repeal of the law which held gular and independent in its character, to direct preparation for the interesting busi- out some little encouragement to the study be called an abridgment of any thing. ness they have undertaken? It is a branch of those, by making a knowledge of them
totally separate and distinct from every one of the indispensable qualifications for
other. It employs a very numerous class the keeper of a free school. Considered Letters to the Hon. William Prescott, LL. D. of men; neither of the learned professions as an acquirement, they are wholly unim
on the Free Schools of New England, probably is so large, The demand for portant; they are no return for the time with Remarks upon the Principles of In- them is constant and invariable. Their and labour bestowed upon them. But construction. By James G. Carter. Boston. situation must introduce them into the high- sidered as a discipline for the mind, the 1824. 12mo. pp. 123.
est ranks of society and among the most only important thing in intellectual educaSCHOOLMASTERS are almost the only class enlightened and influential men. Lastly tion, they are invaluable. The study of of men in the community who are not reg- and principally, their business is one of the them, if properly pursued, is exactly and ularly educated with some view to their deepest interest and of the utmost impor- perfectly suited to this purpose. It calls profession. Apprenticeship for the meanest tance to us. The pliant, flexible disposi- forth more of the high faculties of our naof the mechanic arts, the counter for the tions of youth, the opening germs of mind, ture, more powers of deep reflection and tradesman, the desk and the files of the the formation and stamp of the character, thought, more useful efforts of memory, counting-room for the young merchant,- moral and intellectual, all indeed that we more talent at research, inquiry, and investime and labour and previous preparation hold most dear and valuable through life, tigation; and what is better still, it calls for all, are considered indispensable. But are originally put into their hands for their them forth in more proper order, at the with the business of school-keeping, the direction; and yet they have scarcely right season, when they are ripe and ready most important of any single branch, it is thought for a moment,-it had never occur- for action, than any other study which otherwise. Those, who are liberally edu- red to them in the form of an inquiry,– comes into the elements of education. If cated, and they alone are qualified for it, what they have to do, much less how the our limits will permit us, we shall offer always aim higher; they never think of it great work is to be accomplished. The some further remarks in support of this as their employment, till driven by neces- consequence is, that the true object is position in the course of this article. sity, unless they fly to it as a temporary overlooked or mistaken altogether, par- But it is high time to turn to the little refuge from idleness, and then they prom-ticularly in the free schools of our coun- volume, which has given rise to these reise themselves to give it up and make their try. The pupil goes to his lessons, the flections. It is evidently written by one escape as soon as they possibly can. So preceptor iells him, for intelligence, to who thinks for himself, who has examined universal is this, indeed, that an exception get learning, to store his memory with thoroughly the common systems of educawould seem to us very extraordinary. "We thoughts and information. But nothing tion; and it exhibits great good sense and never heard of a young man, who went to can be more fallacious than this. The im- ability, and is filled with sound, judicious, college for the purpose of qualifying him- mediate acquisition of knowledge forms no practical remarks throughout. We are self to be a schoolmaster.
part of the original purpose. Education is to obliged to pass over the first three or four It is no answer to these remarks to say, prepare him for the duties of life,--for ac- Letters, nearly half the volume, though that the knowledge a student may acquire tivity and exertion,- for new situations and they contain a very interesting theme for and the discipline he must undergo in the new demands, where his books can furnish our pages ; a sketch of the history of the escourse of a liberal education, are sufficient him with no guide nor direction. The tablishment of our free schools ; the prin
The possession of wis- grateful, unforced discipline of mind ought ciples on which they were originally founddom is a different thing from the faculty of to be indeed its single aim. His native ed; and the changes and modifications that communicating it; and a man may know powers are to be developed and invigorat- have from time to time been made in them very well how to learn himself, without be- ed, and sharpened for action. Even if the by our legislature. These institutions are ing able to teach the art to others. Be- scholar's life is to be a life of letters, and justly called the pride and glory of New sides, the communication of knowledge is he must
gather together in the course of it England. With all their defects, they a very small part of even intellectual edu- mighty masses of erudition, still this is not bave elevated our character as a people. cation. The pupil is not to be limited to the first object to be sought for. The pos- To our form of government indeed they the capital stock of his preceptor. It is the session of learning is an indifferent thing seem indispensable
, and if properly conlove and the power of acquiring,-it is alone. It wants the active, well-trained ducted, they must contribute more to the warmth, and enterprise, and energy in the mind, that can turn it to some new ac- energy and durability
of our political instipursuit, that he principally
, to the wisdom and efficacy of our a man may have a fine genius, and a great ty upon it and mark it for its own; that laws, to our whole national advancement
for the purpose.
and prosperity, than their warmest admir- has done a great deal; new and better but with little or no reference to the young minds, ers have imagined. They form the engine methods are introduced, and improvements which are to encounter them. that government makes use of to enlighten continually going on, though they are still Very great evils, we think, arise from and invigorate itself,for this is identifi- too much encumbered with the old system these defects. The soil in which the seed is ed with the people, and the greater part of discipline, for they cannot shake off at to be sown, the infant faculties which are of those who compose it, receive their ear. once all the fetters of early prejudice. But to give it culture and expansion, are not liest education, their most efficacious edu- there is a radical defect in the qualifications consulted at all. A great weight of knowlcation, the education which does the most required of the master of a free school, edge is put into the feeblest hands, and to form their characters, and make them which must always check improvement, they are forced to bear it; no wonder that weak or energetic, intelligent or dull, in and keep things as they are. No young it becomes oppressive and hateful to them, the free schools of their native towns. It man of talents, unless very much driven, It is as if a child were led to scale a mounis then of the very highest consequence, will think of them even as a temporary em- tain, when it had just learned to walk. that they should be well conducted. Our ployment, much less as a permanent one. There should be exercise, and gradual, paauthor's principal object is to point out Those qualifications ought to be raised and tient preparation for the work. The racer some great defects in this particular. enlarged by law; some previous prepara- cannot fit himself for the course in a day.
Two principal causes have operated from the tion ought to be made indispensable; an Nerve and vigor and energy, and every first establishment of the free schools, to impair examination in some of the treatises on the great intellectual faculty, and indeed every aud pervert their influence. 1st. Incompetent in subject instituted; higher powers, and thing great, must come to muturity and structers; 2d. Bad school books. It is not a little more attainments should be required of gain strength slowly, and will never be surprising, that a public so deeply impressed with them, and greater compensation establish- taught to shoot up to their full growth at the importance of the system of schools, and so re-ed; and then we might look for something once.
Yet all this is very apt to be oversolved to carry it into full operation beli beradap: like improvements in their systems of in- looked in our common systems of education.
stop of their purpose, and stop precisely at that point, where the greatest struction. How our legislature could dis- The power of abstracting and generalizattention and vigilance were essential, to give effi- pense with any of those requisites, which ing, the last faculty which the infant cacy to the whole. I do not mean that much good even our forefathers thought essential to an mind puts forth, is here considered as the bas not been realized ; on the contrary, as has been repeatedly remarked, the success of the free instructer, we are, with our author, wholly first, and in the very outset, the pupil is school system is just cause of congratulation ; but at a loss to imagine. They are now how- called on by his books to reach forth I mean, that their influence has not been the great- ever at their lowest state of depression. a grasp as comprehensive as the phiest nor the best, which the same means, under better Perhaps this circumstance may draw the losopher who drew them up. The study management, might produce.
public attention to the subject, and we of particulars or individuals, the only natu1. The employment of incompetent and inexpe- hope the reform will then be thorough and ral method for beginners, is scarcely thought rienced instructers has probably arisen more from the peculiar situation of the country, than from complete.
of in any department of early education. negligence or indifference on the subject. So niany The elementary books, which are put This is what our author calls the inductive opportunities are open for industrious enterprise, into the hands of pupils, our author thinks method. that it has always been dificult to induce men to very poorly adapted to the purpose of ear
The above remarks and principles are become permanent teachers. This evil, although a serious one, is one, which cannot at present be re
ly education. The great defect in them is, applied to the study of the learned lanmoved; but its bad effects may be more qualified, that they are too abstract, too general, re- guages, of geography, and of arithmetic, by raising the character and acquirements of in- mote from the capacities which are called on as these subjects are generally taught in structers to a higher standard. The whole business to comprehend them, and not at all suited our free schools. The first, be says, ought of instruction, with very few exceptions, has hith- to develope or to give them strength. The never to be commenced with the grammar. erto been performed by those who have felt little following extract contains a full view of Some interesting story, with a literal transinterest in the subject, beyond the immediate pecu. the objections against them, and forms the lation to it, and other facilities, of which And even that has been too inconsiderable, to ren basis of all his remarks on the subject. there are innumerable, to make it intellider a want of success in the employment a subject of much regret. This remark applies to almost all should be as rigorously followed in education, as in much better way. Let the grammar come
The principles of the inductive philosophy gible and easy to the pupil, would be a instructers, from the primary schools up to the any other department of human knowledge. The in afterwards, not as a direct study, but inhigher schools; and it has no very remote bear- school books, and we may add the text books of the cidentally, and then it will be understood ing even upon some of the instructers in our col- colleges, are certainly not written upon the induc- and its importance felt. Our school geogo leges.
tive method. And these are our instructers, or the We have stated the incompetency or in- models, on which our instructers form us. The raphies he thinks on too large and comprebooks to be sure have been written over and over
hensive a plan. The child's mind canefficiency of the instructers to arise princi- again, in order to keep pace with, and incorporate pot embrace them; they ought to be pally from another cause,--the total want the improvements and discoveries in the different brought more within his reach, and as far of direct, immediate preparation for the sciences, of which they treat. This is well, and as as possible accommodated at first to his employment. Most of them blindly and it should be. But the essential principle, on which own actual observation. There is a still slavishly adopt the systems of their prede- they are written, is the same through all changes. greater fault, he says, in the old-fashioned There are very few, who have
This , be read the treatises on the subject of educa- expressing the principles of the sciences, have, no makes a mere mechanical business for the
provements in arrangement, and in the manner of method of studying arithmetic, because it tion, who know any thing of the sentiments doubt, been frequently made. Indeed, the books pupil, without exercising his ingenuity or of Locke, of Milton, of Watts, of More, have probably been carried to as great perfection, his understanding. The general rules of Hamilton, of Carpenter, nor even of the as they can be carried, without some more essenfascinating Rousseau, nor the ready, off- tial change in the principles, on which they have are only an incumbrance on his memo
been hand, practical Edgeworth. They have a very bad plan.
They are very well executed, upon ry Colburn's system is the right one,
The reason to be assigned for and calculated to produce at last an entire not in fact studied nor attended to the sub- such slow progress in the improvements of school revolution in the course of early arithmetject at all. We have often thought this books, in particular, is a mistaken notion of the ical study. We agree fully with this. The inost remarkable, and if there be any truth purpose of a school book; and the fact that there new system is getting rapidly into our in the maxims of political economists, that have seldom been brought to the task of elementathe supply will come close on the demand, at once, the principles of science, in their relation think it cannot be long before it will be
ry instruction, talents capable of comprehending, academies and private schools, and we and that competition will always produce and dependence upon each other; and still less adopted every where. excellence among the rival candidates, capable of analyzing the powers of the young But we have a much more serious objecwe have a right to expect it among the mind, to which the science is to be adapted. The tion than either of these, to the coming instructers of our youth. With our acade- books for elementary instruction, have been written mies, and our private pians of education, of the science, of which it treats, in a manner the Wo mean the manner in which English
or compiled, with a view to set forth the principles course of study pursued in our free schools. indeed, this principle is now prevailing, and most philosophicad to those who make the books, grammar is almost universally taught. The
is put into the hands of children as soon as mar is most toilsome. The child thumbs it, company of accurate speakers or writers; they can learn to read, and many valuable and cries over it, more than over any of his and it is this, and not his art, which in hours of the most interesting period of their books, and if he conquers it at last, it is structs him in it. lives for education, are bestowed upon it. merely by dint of a tenacious and a reten- The author of the Letters before us, Yet, how little suited is this to their pur- tive memory. This is, indeed, the only onght to have turned his attention to this, pose! Pass over the first division, orthogra- faculty that is called upon throughout. which we think unquestionably the greatphy, which teaches abstractly what letters Meantime, an aversion is growing up est error in the education of all our schools. and syllables are, and their various proper- against school books of all sorts. A hateful There are some apologies for the study of ties, and that, combined, they form words, association is formed in his mind between Latin and Greek beginning with the gram&c., and take that part which it is consider these and toil, and sometimes this is not mar; the various forms and oblique cases of ed of the utmost importance should be studi- broken till it is too late to prevent the un- the noun, the adjective, and the pronouned thoroughly; and what have we here? All happy consequences that follow from it. the innumerable shapes that a single word, the words of the English language are in the But the early study of English grammar the verb, is capable of assuming; besides, first place scientifically classed and arrang- is necessary, they say, to teach us to it comes comparatively late in life, when the ed ;-generic names are given to them;- speak and write correctly. If this be true, faculties are more mature and better able the powers that common use has assigned to we submit, and withdraw our objections to comprehend it. The erroneous and large each of them, are then pointed out--the dif- without a murmur. Let us examine it form of geography too, will at length make erent forms they are capable of assuming - What then may a child learn from even room for itself in the mind. The same may the thoughts, or views, which produce these the most successful study of this most indis- be said of old-fashioned arithmetic. Duil forms, in a word, the origin and qualities pensable subject? Will it teach him to as the student may be, he is gradually drillof words considered independently, or with speak intelligibly, when he would otherwise ed into the knowledge of figures, and their their smallest possible relation to others, be silent or misunderstood ? By no means. powers and principles, and then he will are all philosophically explained. This is He must learn by practice the art of mak- think and reason for himself. But nothing of commonly called etymology, The name ing his desires and feelings known, long be- this can be said for the early study of Engitself is an enigma; then comes syn- fore he can peruse a grammar. Will it lish grammar. It is merely teaching us tax, another enigma, and what does this give him a greater variety of expression ? new generic names,-rules for an art which teach? “The agreement or construction will it regulate and improve his style ? These we know how to use perfectly without them. of words in a sentence,"'--their mutual qualities can only be acquired by the cul- If objections lie against the study of that of connexion and dependence, the influence ture of the taste and imagination the last the learned languages, whose principles are that one may have over another, or their thing to be expected from the study of unknown to us, how much more strong concord or government, as it is called. In grammar. Will it have any effect in cor- must they be, where these are familiar, and fact, it is a view of the abstract principles recting the mind itself? Surely not. The in every moment's use with us, and where the by which words are connected together, in art of thinking justly or properly, can never | definitions and the laws are all the time order to convey intelligence accurately. arise from the most perfect art of gram practically applied, though we have never And what is the object of all this study, matically expressing ourselves. Thought put them into the imposing form in which and where does it terminate? In the art of may be very poble and true, and yet break grammar presents them. Our readers must parsing forsooth; which is the art of apply, all the grammarian's laws; it may be very not misunderstand us. We would not exing these hard names, and definitions, and false and mean, and yet cannot but satisfy clude this abused study from education enabstract principles, to language as it is him perfectly. What then has the pupil tirely. But let it have a proper place. Let commonly used in writing and discourse. learned ? The use of language, it is said, it be taken from the hands of children, and What profitable intelligence does the the established and approved use of it. But raised to the rank it deserves, and it will young learner think he
gaining in the he can only get this successfully from polish- derive an interest and a power, from which mean time? Examples to be sure, are ed authors, or polite conversation. Lan- its common employment has degraded it. thrown in to assist him as he goes along, guage became perfect long before grammar There is no book on the scholar's shelves and these,-the individuals, the particular was thought of; and it could never be essen- more philosophical than the large grammar instances,-he does understand and remem- tial, therefore, as a preliminary art. Usage of Murray. The abridgment, which goes ber easily. But nothing can be further is, indeed, its sole basis and support. It can into our smallest schools, is the essence and from his mind than the general principle never control this ;-it is its servant, and cream of this, and if possible, still more itself. Yet this science of language is put must watch its changes, and accommodate abstract and philosophical. Because the into his hands in his infancy. He goes itself to them entirely. The most we can child has not time to commit the whole from his spelling-book to the dull, labori- conceive of its doing, is to point out to the to memory, he is taught the hardest ous, and to him most uninteresting work. student a few errors, or, what is the same part. He is called on thus early to give names to thing, a few variations from approved prac- Still, it may be asked, does not this study the relation between thoughts and words, tice; the misuse of the objective for the afford a most apt and peculiar discipline to between the operations of mind, and the nominative, the plural for the singular, and the mind? And this is the proper question expressions in which they appear. Nay, of some adjectives and participles with ir- to be put on all the books for early educamore. If he would understand parsing com- regular terminations, are all that we can | tion. What faculties, then, does the prepletely and fully as it may be understood, enumerate or imagine. How much better, sent mode of studying English grammar he must go much further than this. He how much more easily, how much more ef- call forth? We have answered it already; must learn to give names to the relation fectually might these be acquired in another memory alone. The work of classifying and and connexion between thought and thought way! Even if he is most successful in thus arranging is already done to the pupil's hand. -between the meaning of one word as it correcting himself, and still is continually Invention, taste, fancy, imagination, reaexists in his mind, and that of another. among those who retain these variations soning -all the finer and nobler faculties There are, indeed, many young pupils who or errors, he will return to them also, not- of his nature are permitted to slumber. learn to do this mechanically, and by rote. withstanding his grammar; and it is best, Memory only is put in active exercise. Yet Some know how to do it ably, and with perhaps, that he should. The whole is, this faculty is of little value but as it furskill, and yet perceive not how subtle a bu- indeed, a matter of use and custom. The nishes materials for the others. A great and siness it really is, nor what powers they are art of parsing, the high consummation of astonishing one may be very injurious to its putting forth in its accomplishment. We of all, pupils must learn in practice long possessor; it may supersede the necessity believe we can show that their time and before they think of it as an art, and we of effort, and the exercise of his better powtaleots are wholly misspent. It is some doubt whether a whole life devoted to the ers, judgment and reason, and make him a confirmation of the remarks we have al- study of grammar will make a man an ac- vain and assuming pedant. Besides, the ready made, that the early study of gram-curate speaker or writer, unless he is in the early exclusive exercise of memory is ex