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also in the British Museum. The most important evidence for establishing Harrington's influence in Pennsylvania is supplied by the preliminary drafts of the first constitution of Pennsylvania, which exist in manuscript in the possession of the Pennsylvania Historical Society.

Of secondary authorities little more need be said. There have not been many recent notices of Harrington's work. The article in the English Historical Review (April 1891), and the chapter on Harrington in Franck's Reformateurs et Publicistes de l'Europe are nothing but summaries of Oceana. The article by Theodore Dwight in the Political Science Quarterly (March 1887) is more valuable, being written partly from the American point of view. The best accounts are to be found in Masson's Life of Milton, Prof. C. H. Firth's Last Years of the Protectorate, and in Mr G. P. Gooch's History of Democratic Ideas in the Seventeenth Century, to all of which I am much indebted. I had concluded that there must have been some connection between Penn and Harrington before I discovered that the same idea had occurred to Dr W. R. Shepherd, the author of Pennsylvania as a Proprietary Colony. I had studied the influence of Harrington on Sieyès before the appearance of Mr J. H. Clapham's recent book, The Abbé Sieyès, from which I have, however, borrowed one valuable reference. The fact that these connections have been seen by writers who can be said to have no prejudices in the matter seems to me to lend additional support to a contention which might appear to be due to bias, when made in an essay written for the purpose of tracing Harrington's influence.

Of the editions of Harrington's works something

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is said in the text. For the present work I have made use of Toland's edition of Harrington's Works, 1747 (the 3rd edition), giving the name of the particular writing to which I have referred and the page on which my reference is to be found in the collected Works.

It is my pleasant duty to acknowledge the courtesy and kindness which were shown me while I was carrying on my investigations in America by scholars too numerous to mention; and to thank Professor Firth for valuable suggestions in regard to the first four chapters, and Mr E. A. Benians of my own college for reading this essay both in manuscript and proof, and assisting me throughout by his sympathetic criticism.

H. F. R. S.

ST JOHN'S COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE, March 1914

CHAPTER VI

HARRINGTON'S LAST YEARS. HIS SUBSEQUENT

INFLUENCE IN ENGLAND

Harrington's retirement-His arrest-His imprisonment-His last

years and madness-His death-Harrington's influence on subse-
quent writings—Sir W. Petty-Sir W. Temple—Sidney–Nevile-
Shaftesbury-Penn-Locke--Revival of Harringtonian theories at
the Revolution-Attempts to introduce the ballot-Editions of
republican works-Acceptance of Harrington's historical views
-Memorial lo the Princess Sophia-Cato's Letters—Hume-
Utilitarians and Radicals—The ballot-Grote--His study of
Oceana-Conclusion

I 22

CHAPTER VII

HARRINGTON'S INFLUENCE IN AMERICA DURING

THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

Similarity between Harrington's ideas and American ideas–Due partly

to coincidence : partly to the common training of Harrington and
the early settlers : partly to the actual study of Oceana-Which
is on a priori grounds likely, and proved by other evidence
-Constitution of Carolina : its authorship: its connection with

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