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also in the British Museum. The most important evidence for establishing Harrington's influence in Pennsylvania is supplied by the preliminary drafts of the first constitution of Pennsylvania, which exist in manuscript in the possession of the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Of secondary authorities little more need be said. There have not been many recent notices of Harrington's work. The article in the English Historical Review (April 1891), and the chapter on Harrington in Franck's Reformateurs et Publicistes de l'Europe are nothing but summaries of Oceana. The article by Theodore Dwight in the Political Science Quarterly (March 1887) is more valuable, being written partly from the American point of view. The best accounts are to be found in Masson's Life of Milton, Prof. C. H. Firth's Last Years of the Protectorate, and in Mr G. P. Gooch's History of Democratic Ideas in the Seventeenth Century, to all of which I am much indebted. I had concluded that there must have been some connection between Penn and Harrington before I discovered that the same idea had occurred to Dr W. R. Shepherd, the author of Pennsylvania as a Proprietary Colony. I had studied the influence of Harrington on Sieyès before the appearance of Mr J. H. Clapham's recent book, The Abbé Sieyès, from which I have, however, borrowed one valuable reference. The fact that these connections have been seen by writers who can be said to have no prejudices in the matter seems to me to lend additional support to a contention which might appear to be due to bias, when made in an essay written for the purpose of tracing Harrington's influence.
Of the editions of Harrington's works something
is said in the text. For the present work I have made use of Toland's edition of Harrington's Works, 1747 (the 3rd edition), giving the name of the particular writing to which I have referred and the page on which my reference is to be found in the collected Works.
It is my pleasant duty to acknowledge the courtesy and kindness which were shown me while I was carrying on my investigations in America by scholars too numerous to mention; and to thank Professor Firth for valuable suggestions in regard to the first four chapters, and Mr E. A. Benians of my own college for reading this essay both in manuscript and proof, and assisting me throughout by his sympathetic criticism.
H. F. R. S.
ST JOHN'S COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE, March 1914
Utopian form of Oceana-Influence of Howell—Other contemporary
** Utopias” compared with Oceana — The classical belief in
HARRINGTON'S LAST YEARS. HIS SUBSEQUENT
INFLUENCE IN ENGLAND
Harrington's retirement-His arrest-His imprisonment-His last
years and madness-His death-Harrington's influence on subse-
HARRINGTON'S INFLUENCE IN AMERICA DURING
THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
Similarity between Harrington's ideas and American ideas–Due partly
to coincidence : partly to the common training of Harrington and