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about the shoulders, thighes and legges, and drawing downe their handes close by his feete, holding them yet faste togeather, they runne to the doore being open, where they vnclose and shake their hands, affirming that they haue driuen away the disease, and that the patient shall shortly be perfectly restored to health. After this comming behinde him, hee conueigheth a peece of fleshe out of his owne mouth like a iuggeler, and sheweth it to the sicke man, saying "Behold, you haue eaten to much, you shall nowe bee whole, because I haue taken this from you." But if he entend yet further to deceiue the patient, hee perswadeth him that his Zeme is angry, eyther because he hath not builded him a chappell, or not honoured him religiously, or not dedicated vnto him a groue or garden. And if it so chaunce that the sicke person die, his kinsfolks, by witchcrafte, enforce the dead to confesse whether he died by naturall destiny, or by the negligence of the Boitius, in that he had not fasted as he should haue done, or not ministred a conuenient medicine for the disease: so that if this phisition be found faultie, they take reuenge of him. Of these stones or bones which these Boitii cary in their mouthes, if the women can come by them, they keepe them religiously, beleeuing them to be greatly effectuall to helpe women traueling with childe, and therefore honour them as they do their Zemes. For diuers of the inhabitantes honour Zemes of diuers fashions: some make them of wood, as they were admonished by certaine visions appearing vnto them in the woods: Other, which haue receiued aunswer of them among the rockes, make them of stone and marble. Some they make of rootes, to the similitude of such as appeare to them when they are gathering the rootes called Ages, whereof they make their bread, as we haue said before. These Zemes they beleue to send plentie & fruitfulnes of those rootes, as the antiquitie beleued such fayries or spirits as they called Dryades, Hamadryades, Satyros, Panes, and Nereides, to haue the cure & prouidence of

the sea, woods, springes, and fountaines, assigning to euery thing their peculiar goddes; Euen so doe the inhabitants of this Iland attribute a Zeme to euery thing, supposing the same to giue eare to their inuocations. Wherefore, as often as the kings aske counsell of their Zemes as concerning their warres, increase of fruites or scarcenes, or health & sickness, they enter into the house dedicate to their Zemes, where, snuffing vp into their nosthryles the pouder of the herbe called Cohobba* (wherewith the Boitii are dryuen into a furie) they say that immediately they see the houses turned topsie turuie, and men to walke with their heeles vpward, of such force is this pouder, vtterly to take away al sence. As soone as this madnesse ceasseth, he embraceth his knees with his armes, holding downe his head. And when he hath remayned thus awhile astonyshed, hee lifteth vp his head, as one that came newe out of sleepe: and thus lookin vp toward heauen, first he fumbleth certaine confounded wordes with himselfe, then certayne of the nobilitie or chiefe gentlemen that are about him (for none of the common people are admitted to these mysteries) with loude voyces giue tokens of reioicing that hee is returned to them from the speech of the Zemes, demanding of him what he hath seene. Then hee opening his mouth, doateth that the Zemes spake to him during the time of his trance, declaring that he had reuelations either concerning victorie or destruction, famine or plentie, health or sicknesse or whatsoeuer happeneth first on his tongue. Now (most noble Prince) what neede you hereafter to marueyle of the spirite of Apollo so shaking his Sibylles with extreame furie: you hadde thought that the superstitious antiquitie hadde perished. But nowe whereas I haue declared thus much of the Zemes in general, I thought it not good to let passe what is sayde of them in particular. They say therefore that a certaine king called Guamaretus, had a Zeme whose name was Coróchutus, who (they say) was oftentimes


wont to descend from the highest place of the house where Guamarétus kept him close bound. They affirme that the cause of this his breaking of his bandes and departure, was eyther to hide himselfe, or to goe seeke for meate, or else for the acte of generation: and that sometimes beeing offended that the King Guamarétus had bin negligent and slacke in honouring him, he was wont to lie hid for certaine dayes. They say also, that in the kinges village there are sometime children borne hauing two crownes, which they suppose to be the children of Corochótus the Zeme. They faine likewise, that Guamarétus being ouercome of his enemies in battayle, and his village with the palace consumed with fire, Corochótus brake his bandes, and was afterwarde founde a furlong of, safe and without hurte. He hath also another Zemes called Epileguanita, made of woode, in shape like a foure footed beast: who also is sayde oftentimes to haue gone from the palace where hee is honoured, into the woodes. As soone as they perceiue him to bee gone, a great multitude of them gather together to seeke him with deuout prayers: and when they haue founde him, bring him home religiously on their shoulders to the chappell dedicated vnto him. But they complaine, that since the comming of the Christian men into the Ilande, he fled for altogether, and coulde neuer since be founde, whereby they diuined the destruction of their country. They honoured another Zeme in the likenesse of a woman, on whom waited two other like men, as they were ministers to her. One of these, executed the office of a mediatour to the other Zeme, which are vnder the power and commaundement of this woman, to raise wyndes, cloudes, and rayne. The other is also at her commaundement a messenger to the other Zemes, which are ioyned with her in gouernance, to gather together the waters which fall from the high hills to the valleies, that beeing loosed, they may with force burst out into great floudes, and ouer flowe the countrey, if the people do not giue due honour to her Image. The remaineth yet one thing

worthy to be noted, wherewith we will make an end of this booke. It is a thing well knowne, and yet freshe in memorie among the inhabitants of the Iland, that there was sometime two kings (of the which one was the father of Guarionex, of whom wee made mention before) whiche were woont to absteine fiue daies together continually from meate & drinke, to know somewhat of their Zemes of thinges to come, and that for this fasting being acceptable to their Zemes, they receiued answere of them, that within few yeeres there shoulde come to the Iland a nation of men couered with apparell, which shoulde destroy all the customes and ceremonies of the Iland, and either slay all their children, or bring them into seruitude. The common sort of the people vnderstoode this oracle to be ment of the Canibales, & therefore when they had any knowledge of their comming, they euer fled, and were fully determined neuer more to aduenture the battayle with them. But when they sawe that the Spanyardes hadde entred into the Ilande, consulting among themselues of the matter, they concluded that this was the nation whiche was ment by the oracle. Wherein their opinion deceiued them not, for they are nowe all subject to the Christians, all such being slayne as stubernely resisted : Nor yet remayneth there anie memorie of their Zemes, for they are all brought into Spayne, that wee might bee certyfied of their illusions of euill spirits and Idolles, the which you your selfe (most noble Prince) haue seene and felt when I was present with you.


BY WILLIAM E. FOSTER. What is history? Is it, essentially, science; or is it, essentially, literature; or must we make a still different answer to the question?

Although the problem involved in these questions is by no means new, it has hardly ever been discussed with greater earnestness than in our own day, nor has it perhaps been discussed with greater frequency than during the last twenty-five years. During this period have appeared the various publications by the German historian, Lamprecht, relating to history, including his latest volume of lectures, which has been translated into English under the suggestively interrogative title:-"What is history?"

The literature of the subject, as a whole, is most voluminous;" and the answers to this very question, direct or implied, are bewilderingly diverse. In the Eighteenth Century Montesquieu seemed to conceive of history as based very decidedly on physiography, or the study of the earth's surface.

1 Lamprecht, Karl. Moderne Geschichtswissenschaft. Freiburg im Breisgau H. Heyfelder. 1905. This is translated into English under the following title: "What is history? Five lectures on the modern science of history. Translated from the German by E. A. Andrews." New York. The Macmillan Co., 1905.

On the literature of the subject, in general, a very useful “Bibliography of the study and teaching of history" has been prepared by James Ingersoll Wyer, Jr., and published in the "Annual report" of the American Historical Association, 1899, v. 1, p. 559-612. There should also be noted the more than one hundred citations included in the “Notes" appended to Lord Acton's inaugural lecture at Cambridge, on “The study of history," (p. 75-142), London: Macmillan & Co., 1895; also Dr. William Preston Johnston's paper on “Definitions of history," in the "Annual report" of the American Historical Association, 1895, p. 45-53. Other enumerations of writers who have defined history will be found in Dr. Robert Flint's "History of the philosophy of history," pt. 1, (1894), New York; C. Scribner's Sons, p. 8-12.

See also p. v-viij of Dr. G. Stanley Hall's "Methods of teaching history," (Ed. 1886), for brief references.

3See Books 14-18 of "L'esprit des lois," first published at Paris in 1748.

A recent volume of much interest, by H. B. George, discusses "The relations of geography and history.” Oxford University Press, 1901.

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