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How the men were divided from the women.

It came to pass that one man whose name was Guagugiona* said to another whose name was Giadruuaua,t that he should go to gather an herb called digo with which they cleanse the body when they go to wash themselves. He went before day, (but) the sun seized him on the way and he became a bird which sings in the morning like the nightingale and is called Giahuba Bagiael. Guagugiona seeing that he whom he had sent to gather the digo did not return resolved to go out of the cave Cacibagiagua.


That Guagugiona resolved to go away in anger, seeing that those whom he had sent to gather the digo for washing themselves did not return; and he said to the women “Leave your husbands and let us go into other lands and we will carry off enough jewels. Leave your sons and we will carry only the plants with us and then we will return for them."


Guagugiona set forth with all the women and went off in search of other lands, and came to Matininof where he left the women; and he went away into another region called Guanin and they had left the little children near a brook. Then when hunger began to trouble them, it is related, that they wailed and called upon their mothers who had gone off; and the fathers were not able to give help to the children calling in hunger for their mothers, saying "mama" as if to speak, but really asking for the breast. § And wailing in this fashion and asking for the breast, saying "too, too,"|| as one who asks for something with great longing, and very urgently, they were changed into little animals,

*Vaguoniona in Peter Martyr. Bachiller y Morales, thinks the proper form is Guagoniona. See his discussion of this and the two following names, Cuba Primitiva, 275.

This name is omitted in Peter Martyr. (Usually identified with Martinique. This passage is convincing evidence that the Amazon legends in America were indigenous and not transmitted there or developed by the misapprehensions of the first discoverers. Ehrenreich is convinced that these legends are indigenous although he does not refer to this evidence. See his Mythen und Legenden, 65. Columbus early and frequently heard of the island of Matinino which was inhabited only by women.

$La letta, Apparently the Italian text used by the translator of the English version of the Historie read "la terra" in this passage for it is there rendered "to beg of the earth"!

llToa, toa, in Peter Martyr.

after the fashion of dwarfs* (frogs) which are called Tonat because of their asking for the breast, and that in this way all the men were left without women.


And later on another occasion women went there from the said Island Española, which formerly was called Aiti, and is so called by its inhabitants; and these and other islands they called Bouhi. And because they have no writing nor letters they cannot give a good account of what they have learned from their forbears; and therefore they do not agree in what they say, nor can what they relate be recorded in an orderly fashion.

When Guahagiona went away, he that carried away all the women, he likewise took with him the women of his Cacique whose name was Anacacugia, deceiving him as he deceived the others; and, moreover, a brother-in-law of Guahagiona Anacacuia, $ who went off with him went on the sea; and Guahagiona said to his brother-in-law, being in the canoe, see what a fine cobo is there in the water and this cobo is the sea snail, and him peering into the water to see the cobo Guahagiona his brother-in-law seized by the feet and cast into the sea; and so he took all the women for himself, and he left those of Matinino (i. e. at Matinino) where it is reported there are no people but women to-day. And he went off to another island which is called Guanin || and it received this name on account of what he took away from it when he went away.


That Guahagiona returned to Canta, (Cauta) mentioned above, whence he had taken the women. They say that being in the land whence he had gone Guahagiona saw that he had left in the sea one woman, and that he was greatly pleased with her and straightway sought out many washes (or washing places) to wash himself being full of those sores which we call the French disease. I She then put him in a Guanara

*Nane. The correct reading is rane, "frogs," as appears in Peter Martyr and from the context.

tUlloa's misreading rane as nane may have misled him in the latter part of the sentence. The version in Peter Martyr makes much better sense. Bachiller y Morales, questions the existence of such a word as Tona, p. 343. Brasseur de Bourbourg conjectured that Toa may have meant "frog" as well as "breast."

Apparently in the sense of homes or dwelling places. Buhi or Bohio ordinarily means cabin.

$The punctuation follows the text of the original. Perhaps it should be. Guahagiona, Anacacuia, making the second name that of the brother-in-law,

Guanın means an inferior kind of gold.

T That Ramon Pane, before 1496, should have recorded this legend of the culture hero Guahagiona (Guagugiona, Vaguoniona) is conclusive evidence that Syphilis had existed in the West Indies long before the arrival of the Spaniards-Cf. Iwan Bloch Der Ursprung der Syphilis, 202-205. The name mal Francese is no doubt Ulloa's translation of las bubas, the Spanish name of the disease.

which means a place apart; and so he was healed of these sores. Then she asked permission of him to go on her way and he gave it to her. This woman was named Guabonito; and Guabagiona changed his name and thenceforward he was called Biberoci Guahagiona. And the woman Guabonito gave Biberoci Guahagiona many guanins* and many cibet to wear tied on his arms. Because in those countries colecibit are of stones like marble and they wear them tied on the arms and on the neck and the guanins they wear in the ears making holes when they are children; and they are of metal as it were of a florin. And the beginnings (the originators) of these guanins they say were Guabonito, Albeborael, Guahagiona, and the father of Albeborael. Guahagiona remained in the land with his father whose name was Hiauna, his grandson (figliuolo) on his father's side (i. e. Guahagiona's son) was named Hia Guaili Guanin which means grandson of Hiauna; and thence thereafter he was called Guanin and is so called to-day. And since they have no letters nor writings they cannot relate well such fables nor can I write them well. Wherefore I believe I shall put down first what should be last and last what should be first. But all that I write is related by them as I write it and so I set it forth as I have understood it from the people of the country.


How there were women again in the island of Aiti which is now called Española.

They say that one day the men went off to bathe and being in the water, it rained heavily, and that they were very desirous of having women, and that oftentimes when it rained, they had gone to search for the traces of their women nor had been able to find any news of them, but that on that day while bathing, they say, they saw fall down from some trees and hiding in the branches a certain kind of persons that were not men nor women nor had the natural parts of the male or female. They went to take them but they fled away as if they had been eagles, $ (eels) wherefore they called two or three men by the order of their cacique, since they were not able to take them for him in order they they might watch to see how many there were and that they might seek out for each one a man who was Caracaracol because they have their hands rough, and that so they held (could hold) them tightly. They told the Cacique that there were four, and so they brought four men who were Caracaracoli. This Caracaracol is a disease like scab which makes the body very rough. After they had caught them they took counsel

*Jewels of guanin.
Strings of beads. Bachiller y Morales, 251.

SAquile. Read anguille, "eels." A mistake of the translator Ulloa. Peter
Martyr has anguillae which is undoubtedly the right word.

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together over them what they could do to make them women since they did not have the natural parts of male or female.


How they found a device to make them women.

They sought a bird which is called Inriri, in ancient times Inrire Cahuuaial, which bores trees and in our language is called woodpecker (pico). And likewise they took these women without male or female organs and bound their feet and hands and took this bird just mentioned and bound him to the body and he thinking that they were logs began to do his accustomed task pecking and boring in the place where the natural parts of women are wont to be. In this fashion, then, the Indians say that they had women according to what the oldest men relate.* Since I wrote in haste and did not have paper enough I could not put down in its place that which by mistake I transferred to another place, but notwithstanding that I have in reality made no mistake since they believe it all as has been written.

Let us turn now to that which we should have recorded first, i. e.their belief as to the origin and beginning of the sea.


How they say the sea was made.

There was a man called Giaiat whose name they do not know and his son called Giaiael which means son of Giaia. This Giaiael wishing to slay his father, he sent him into exile where he remained banished four months, and then his father slew him and put his bones in a gourd and fastened it on the roof of his cabin where it remained fastened some time. And it came to pass that one day Giaia, longing to see his son, said to his wife, "I want to see our son Giaiel; and she was pleased at that; and he took down the gourd and turned it over to see the bones of his son, and from it came forth many fishes large and small. Wherefore, seeing that the bones were changed into fishes they resolved to eat them. One day, therefore, they say that Giaia having gone to his Conichit, which means his lands that were his inheritance there came four sons of a woman whose name was Itiba Tahuuaua, all from one womb and twins; and this woman having died in travail they opened her and drew out these for sons, and the first that they drew out was Caracaracol which means scabby. This Caracaracol had the name

. $. The others had no name. *Cf. Ehrenreich, Mythen und Legenden, 56 for some analogous legends. Iaia in Peter Martyr. Used by Ulloa as an Italian plural of the Haytian canuco, garden plot or farm. Diriuan is apparently the name omitted; see next chapter.


When the four sons, all born together, of Itiba Tahuuaua who died in travail with them, went to lay hold of the gourd of Giaia where his son Agiael* was who was changed into a fish; and none of them ventured to lay hands on it except Dimiuan Caracaracol who took it from its place and all satisfied themselves with fish; and while they were eating they perceived that Giaia was coming from his farms, and wishing, in this haste to fasten the gourd to its place again they did not fasten it well and so it fell to the ground and broke. They say that so great was the mass of water that came out of the gourd that it filled the whole earth, and with it issued many fish, and from this according to their account the sea had its beginning. These then departed from thence and found a man whose name was Conel and he was dumb.


Of the things which befel the four brothers when they fled from Giaia.

Now these (brothers) as soon as they came to the door of Bassamanaco and perceived that he carried Cazzabi,t said, “Ahiacauo Guarocoel” which means "let us know this our grandfather.” In like manner, Demiuan Caracaracol seeing his brothers before him went within to see if he could have some Cazzabi. And this Cazzabi is the bread that is eaten in the country. Caracaracol having entered the house of Aiamauacot asked him for Cazzabi which is the bread above mentioned; and he put his hand on his own nose and threw at him a guanguaios hitting him in the back. This guanguaio was full of cogioba || which he had had made that day; the cogioba is a certain powder which they take sometimes to purge themselves, and for other effects which you will hear of later. They take it with a cane about a foot long and put one end in the nose and the other in the powder, and in this manner they draw it into themselves through the nose and this purges them thoroughly. And thus he gave him that guanguaio for bread, and went off much enraged because they asked him for it.

*Giaiael. Cassava.

This name seems to be compounded of part of Bassamanaco and Ahiacauo. Bachiller y Morales in his version substitutes the latter for it in the form Ayacauo.

$Defined by Brasseur de Bourbourg, as a bag for holding tobacco.

||Tobacco. Las Casas uses the form Cohoba. On the various native words for tobacco see a valuable art, by Dr. A Ernst. On the Etymology of the word Tobacco. "The American Anthropologist, II, 133-141 (1889).

T'E Cirtose pan." These words I have not been able to explain.

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