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Memoirs of Frank P. Goulding and of Judge Horatio Rogers have been prepared by the biographer.
Herbert Baxter Adams was born in Shutesbury, Massachusetts, April 16, 1850. He was the third son of his parents, who were both of Puritan lineage, which they traced in this country back to the second quarter of the seventeenth century. When his father died in 1856, the family moved to Amherst, from where, after a preliminary year at Phillips Exeter Academy, Herbert graduated in 1872, as valedictorian of his class. No history, he tells us, was then taught at Amherst after the freshman year. During the latter part of his course he became much absorbed in his duties as editor of “The Amherst Student," and planned a journalistic career until a lecture by President Seelye, reviewing the course of civilization and urging that history was "the grandest study in the world,” to quote from Adams's note-book, caused him to resolve to devote himself to it. So, after teaching a year at Williston Seminary, Easthampton, as the successor of Dr. Charles N. Parkhurst, he went to Europe in the summer of 1873, settling finally in Germany and attending courses by Treitschke on politics, Ernst Curtius on Greek archæology, Hermann Grimm on early Christian art, Lepsius on Egyptology, Droysen on the French Revolution, Knies on economics, and others. He was most influenced, however, by Bluntschli, who called him his favorite student, and he finally took his degree summa cum laude at Heidelberg, July 14, 1876.
Before his return he had been appointed fellow in history at the Johns Hopkins University, which opened that year. Here Dr. Austin Scott, Yale 1869, Bancroft's coadjutor in the revised edition of his “History of the United States," came on from Washington twice a week as head of the department to conduct an historical seminary. Here Adams prepared his first printed monograph entitled “Maryland's Influence in Founding a National Commonwealth.” He also conducted a class of two members twice a week, and another of one once a week. In 1878, he accepted an invitation to become spring lecturer to the first three classes in Smith College. Meanwhile he was gradually promoted at Baltimore, and when Edward
A. Freeman visited America in 1881, he spoke with warm praise of Adams's department as a young and growing school, devoting itself to the special study of local institutions, as did James Bryce later. Re-enforced by their advice Adams conducted a sharp newspaper campaign, as a result of which the Legislature authorized the transfer of valuable colonial papers from the state archives at Annapolis to Baltimore, and their publication was begun at the state expense. In December, 1882, the valuable historic library of Bluntschli was presented by the German citizens of Baltimore to the University, and the department was then fitly installed in quarters of its own with Adams at its head. In 1884, he united with Justin Winsor, Andrew D. White, Charles K. Adams, and others in organizing the American Historical Association, of which he at once became, and remained until his death, the secretary. His associates have repeatedly testified that the initiative and early direction of the society was mainly his. In 1893, he published in two large octavo volumes the life and writings of Jared Sparks. “Sparks,” says J. M. Vincent, “never threw away a letter, even if it was simply an invitation to a dinner.” As his colleague during these years, I well remember the vast collection of files and cases which for years Adams spent his spare time in sifting. Dr. George E. Ellis said of this work in substance that it would have won from Sparks himself the warmest approval for ability, fidelity and good taste, and that this he considers the highest encomium for work of this kind.
As early as 1882, Adams began the “Johns Hopkins Studies in History and Political Science," and these now represent a library of forty volumes. It was for this work that he deserves to be called in some sense the founder of a new American school of history. Nearly every graduate who entered his department, and sometimes even undergraduates, if they showed capacity, were encouraged to begin at once to prepare themselves to write the history of whatever was of greatest value and interest within the field of their own knowledge and experience. Thus monographs multiplied upon the history of various states and territories, counties, cities, school systems, universities, history of industries, finance, taxation, charity, co-operation, the Chinese in California, the Swedes in New York, the Dutch in Pennsylvania. His Japanese students wrote
of historical themes pertaining to their own country, and thus a great number of themes more or less local, perhaps involving summer excursions, the perusal of archives, etc., indispensable to the future historian, are to be found in this series.
In 1887, he began to edit for the United States Bureau of Education a series of contributions to American educational history, beginning with a volume on the College of William and Mary, where existed the first school of history, politics and economics in this country. This led Adams to his plan for founding in Washington a civil academy, which should be in matters of political science and civil service training what West Point and Annapolis are for military and naval education. In this series he also wrote the comprehensive memoir on "Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia," and on the “Study of History in American Colleges and Universities." Twentynine other educational monographs appeared. During his later years his interest more and more inclined in this direction, for he held that for a democracy education was the first of all duties.
Prominent among his methods was that of very comprehensive collections of clippings from the contemporary press likely to be of service to his own pupils or to the future historian. This work employed during his latter years the entire time of one or more assistants, so that his rooms became a source of supply and reference for those interested in any lines of historical inquiry which were to be continued to the present moment. Few have known so well how to use contemporary interests as incentives to historical research.
Shortly before his death he undertook to collect the titles of all books and articles written by those connected with his department, during the twenty-five years of his administration of it. These are published in a memorial volume from the Johns Hopkins Press in 1902,' and this bibliography alone comprises one hundred and sixty pages by one hundred and seventy men, eighty-two of whom became instructors or professors of history in various academic institutions. Among those in more or less pupilary relations to Herbert
1 Herbert B. Adams. "Tributes of Friends. With a bibliography of the department of History, Politics and Economics of the Johns Hopkins University, 18761901." Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902. pp. 67, 160,
Adams we may name Professor C. N. Carver, Davis R. Dewey of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, H. B. Gardner of Brown, C. H. Haskins of Wisconsin, G. H. Haynes of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, J. A. James of the Northwestern, J. F. Jameson of Chicago, Professors Mitsukuri and Nitobe of Japan, E. A. Ross once of Stanford, Albert Shaw, Professor A. W. Small of Chicago, Woodrow Wilson, and others.
Adams was an indefatigable worker, a hearty eater, took little exercise, was stricken down in 1899, with arterial sclerosis, and died at Amherst July 30, 1901, in the fulness of his power, a victim of overwork and insufficient attention to body-keeping. He was unmarried and bequeathed his library and practically all that he possessed to the University he had so faithfully served for twenty-five years. Others have excelled him in scholarship, produced works that are more monumental, perhaps had greater historic ability. But probably no teacher of history this country has produced has rendered so much personal service to so many young scholars, been more beloved by them all, or has inspired the writing of so much local history, much of which has been rescued from oblivion, and still more, material hitherto stored up in archives and local records has been made generally accessible.
G. S. H.
Horatio Rogers died in Providence, Rhode Island, November 12th, 1904, having been born in that city May 18th, 184, where he resided all his life.
He graduated at Brown University in 1855, attended Harvard Law School in 1856–1857, was admitted to the bar in 1858, and practised in Providence till 1873, having meantime served with distinction in the Civil war, in which he attained the rank of Colonel and Brevet BrigadierGeneral. On account of ill health he resigned in January, 1864, receiving high praises for his services from General Franklin, and a vote of thanks from the Rhode Island Assembly.
Resuming the practice of his profession he became Attorney General of the state and was also a member of the city council of Providence and of the Rhode Island Assembly.
From 1873 to 1891 he engaged in cotton manufactures.
On May 27th, 1891, he became Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Rhode Island and held that office till 1903, when he resigned it.
In a brief tribute to him at his death Judge Tillinghast said, "as a judge he fully exemplified those qualities which are the prime essentials in one who occupied this exalted position."
A “man of large views, of ardent patriotism, of high ideas, of liberal culture, he naturally took a high rank as a moulder of public thought and a leader of men."
Several of his addresses have been published, among them one on the private libraries of Providence, one at the unveiling of the statue of General Burnside, one at the laying of the corner-stone of the new city hall and one on Mary Dyer of Rhode Island, the Quaker martyr, besides many contributions to periodicals; and much of the work of the Record Commission of Providence was under his supervision as chairman.
In 1884 he published the Journal of Lieutenant James M. Hadden of Burgoyne's Army, which attracted wide attention, on account of biographical and personal notes, which the New York Nation said made Burgoyne's officers as well known to us as those of the patriot army.
For many years a member of the Rhode Island Historical Society, he was its president, 1889-1895.
He became a member of this Society in 1882.
Brief notices of him may be found in Lamb's “Biographical Dictionary of the United States,” Appleton's "Cyclopedia of American Biography," "The Historical Catalogue of Brown University," "The Providence Journal” November 13th, 1904, p. 17, line 1.
A fine tribute to him is in the preface to the “Early Records of Puritans," volume 18, page vii.
Sir John George Bourinot, who was elected a foreign member of the Society in April, 1893, died in Ottawa, Canada, on October 13, 1902. He was born in Sydney, Cape Breton, on October 24, 1837. His father, LieutenantColonel John Bourinot, vice-consul for France, was for several years a member for Cape Breton in the House of Assembly of Nova Scotia, and from the time of Canadian Confederation until his death a Senator of the Dominion