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battery of six pieces, which was i went into them on a run, closely foltaken,
lowed by the 7th and 14th, with the Gen. Grant-not expecting this 25th Indiana, cutting down or chasstriking proof of Rebel vitality-was ing off their defenders; and the posome miles distant on a gunboat, con- sition thus gained was soon made ferring with Com. Foote, when Mc-secure against any effort to retake it. Clernand's cry for assistance reached So closed the work of that bloody headquarters. Gen. Lew. Wallace, day. commanding our center, ordered Col. Since the siege began, the weather Cruft, with his first brigade, to the had suddenly changed to cold, with rescue. Cruft, misdirected by his a light snow, followed by a piercing guide, took a wrong road; but it led N. W. wind, rendering the sufferings him nevertheless into the fight, and on either side fearful and almost uniserved to draw off some Rebel atten- versal. Our men were without tents, tion from McClernand's overmatched and at many points without fires; column. Meantime, Col. Thayer," while the Rebels, worse clad and litcommanding his 3d brigade, was or- tle better sheltered, shivered in their dered by Wallace to the further sup- fireless trenches through weary day port of McClernand; and his fresh and sleepless night. Hundreds on troops, admirably handled, uniting either side were frost-bitten; and it with Cruft's, succeeded in stopping is said that quite a number of the and turning back the Rebel advance. wounded, left uncared for by the
Gen. Grant reached the scene of shifting tide of battle, were actually conflict about 3 P. M., and, after a frozen to death. survey of the ground, ordered a gen- The night following the conflict eral advance; Gen. Lew. Wallace just described was one of anxiety leading the attack on the enemy's and trouble on the part of the Rebleft, while Gen. O. F. Smith, on our els. Gen. Grant's force had been inleft, should charge his right. This creased by the arrival of transport combined effort proved entirely suc- after transport, until it must have cessful. Wallace recovered all the amounted to 30,000, if not nearer ground lost during the day, resting 40,000 men, and was magnified by at 5 P. M. within 150 yards of the their apprehensions to 50,000.2 The intrenchments whence Buckner had effort to cut their way out through sallied, only to return baffled at our right had been gallantly made, night; while Gen. Smith's charge and had signally failed. Their outon our left, magnificently led by him numbered, roughly handled force, against breastworks whereof the de- had endured 84 hours of alternate fense had doubtless been weakened fighting and watching, while sufferto strengthen Pillow's effort, suc- ing all the hardships of a Winter ceeded with little loss. The 2d Iowa campaign, and were so outworn as to
26 Col. Hanson, 2d Kentucky, and Col. Cook, land. Col. Hanson says the way of escape re32d Tennessee, as well as Maj. Brown, 20th mained open till they were ordered back to the Mississippi, officially report that, after Buckner's trenches, late in the afternoon. defeat of McClernand, on the morning of the 27 John M., Ist Nebraska. 15th, there was no obstacle to the escape of 28 " Eighty-three regiments," says one of their their entire force southward or up the Cumber- / reports.
VOL. II. 4
fall asleep standing in line of battle, During the night, a negro had eswhen actually under fire. The posi- caped from the Rebel lines, and given tion gained by Smith would enable our leaders their first clear informahim to take other of their intrench tion of the straits of the enemy. Gen. ments in reverse, or to advance under Grant was therefore not surprised at cover of a ridge directly upon their receiving, about daylight, the followmost important battery and field-ing overture: work. Buckner declared that his "HEADQUARTERS FORT DONELSON, post would certainly be attacked in
6 Feb. 16, 1862.
“SIR: In consideration of all the circumthe morning, and that he could not
stances governing the present situation of hold it half an hour; he thought they affairs at this station, I propose to the commight yet fight their way out, with a
manding officer of the Federal forces the
appointment of commissioners to agree upon loss of three-fourths of their number,
terms of capitulation of the forces at this but did not deem it right to sacrifice post under my command. In that view, I so large a proportion. These repre
suggest an armistice until 12 o'clock to-day.
so I am, very respectfully, your obedient sentations being undisputed, a sur servant,
S. B. BUCKNER, render became inevitable. Yet Floyd,
“Brig.-Gen. C. S. Army.
“To Brig.-Gen. U. S. GRANT, commanding the sunset of whose career as Secre
U. S. forces near Fort Donelson." tary of War had not appeared bril
The reply was hardly so diploliant at the North, at once protested
matic, but quite lucid—as follows: that he would never surrender. Buck
“ HEADQUARTERS ON THE FIELD, ner-who, for obvious reasons, was
* “FORT DONELSON, Feb.16, 1862. scarcely more popular with Kentucky" To Gen. S. B. BUCKNER: Unionists than was Floyd with those
“Sir: Yours of this date, proposing an
armistice and the appointment of commisof the Free States presented no such
sioners to settle on the terms of capitulaobstacle. Floyd, therefore, turned the tion, is just received command over to Pillow, who passed
“No terms, except unconditional and im
mediate surrender, can be accepted. it to Buckner, whose late superiors “I propose to move immediately on your now devoted their attention to the works.
“I am, very respectfully, your obedient means of escape. Two Rebel steam
servant, boats having arrived a little before
“Brig.-General Commanding." daylight from above, Floyd filled them
Gen. Buckner's response closed the with his soldiers, especially those of
correspondence thus: his own brigade, and, a little before
" HEADQUARTERS DOVER (TENN.), sunrise, cast off and steamed up the
“Feb, 16, 1862. river, leaving the residue to their fate.?!
“Brig.-Gen. U. S. GRANT, U. S. Army:
“Sir: The distribution of the forces unCol. Forrest, with some 800 cavalry, der my command incident to an unexpected escaped by the road up the immediate change of commanders, and the overwhelmbank of the river, which was partly
ing force under your command, compel me,
notwithstanding the brilliant success of the overflowed, and therefore deemed Confederate arms, to accept the ungenerous impracticable for infantry, but which and unchivalrous terms which you propose.
“I am, sir, your servant, Forrest's troopers appear to have tra
"S. B. BUCKNER, versed without difficulty or loss.
“Brig.-General C. S. Army."
U. Š. GRANT,
29 Maj. W. M. Brown, 20th Miss., in his official away about 1,500; but this is probably an unreport, says one of the boats did not appear to der-estimate. As all would naturally wish to go, have over 50 men on board, and that Floyd took | it is probable that all went who could.
The Rebel loss by this conflict and by current report, had never amounted capitulation must have been fully to 25,000 effectives, and had ere this 10,000 men, including 2,000 killed in good part been sent to the defense and wounded, 36 to say nothing of of Donelson, until it had been rearms and munitions. Our loss in duced to about 7,000 or 8,000 men. killed and wounded was probably As Mitchel advanced across Green the larger."
river from his camp at Bacon creek,
Johnston commenced his retreat on The blow so well struck at Donel- Nashville; so that, when Mitchel had son was swiftly followed by important reached 34 the north bank of Barren successes throughout Kentucky and river, and looked across into Bowlin Tennessee. . .
ing Green, sending over Col. TurGen. Don Carlos Buell had, at the chin's brigade during the night, at a then recent partition of departments, ferry a mile and a half below, he been assigned to that of the Ohio, found the railroad dépôt on fire, with including, besides three Free States, 7 locomotives, and a large amount of Tennessee, and all of Kentucky east corn and other provisions, with the of the Cumberland, with his head- bridges of course destroyed, and the
remained when his advance, consist- Texas Rangers, just moving off on ing of some 16,000 men, led by Gen. a railroad train, which had been reO. M. Mitchel, moved, 93 simulta- tained for the purpose. The river, neously with Gen. Grant's demon- being wide and at a high stage, stration on Donelson, upon Bowling could not here be crossed till next Green, the Rebel stronghold in Ken- day; so that Mitchel's forced march tucky, where Gen. Albert Sidney of 42 miles in 37 hours, clearing his Johnston had succeeded to the com- road of trees which had been felled mand, while Gen. Beauregard had across it, was rewarded by very been sent him from the east as a re- moderate captures, including a brass enforcement. But Johnston's force, 6-pounder, and some $5,000 worth enormously and purposely magnified of commissary stores; but it was
30 Gen. Pillow, in his supplemental report, ments we do not find the 20th Mississippi, whose says:
commander, Maj. W. M. Brown, officially reports "We sent up from Dover. 1.134 wounded. A that he surrendered 454; nor the 32d TennesFederal surgeon's certificate, which I have seen, see, Col. Cook, who reports that he surrendered says that there were about 400 Confederate pris 538. oners wounded in hospital at Paducah, making Gen. Grant's report makes his captures 12,000 1,534 wounded. I was satisfied the killed would increase the number to 2,000."
to 15,000 prisoners, at least 40 pieces of artil
lery, and a large amount of stores, horses, mules, Pollard gives what he terms a correct list, by and other public property. regiments, of the Confederate prisoners taken at Fort Donelson, footing up 5,079; but he evi
31 Gen. Grant, speaking of the battle of the dently does not include in this total the wound
15th, says: “Our loss can not fall far short of ed, of whom many must have been left on the
1,200 killed, wounded, and missing," including field or in the hospital at the fort, as he says:
250 taken prisoners. The reports of Col. Cruft, “ The village of Dover, which was within our
Gen. W. H. L. Wallace, and Col. Lauman, show lines, contained in every room in every house
an aggregate loss of 1,306 in their three brisick, wounded, or dead men. Bloody rags were
gades, clearly indicating that Gen. Grant undereverywhere, and a door could not be opened estimate
estimated his casualties. without hearing groans.” And in his list of regi- | 32 Nov. 9, 1861. 33 Feb. 11, 1862.34 Feb. 14,
computed that the Rebels had been his Legislature, with the State arcompelled to destroy not less than chives and treasure, betook themhalf a million dollars worth of selves swiftly to Memphis; while munitions, including many arms. Confederate officers devoted their Large quantities of provisions and attention to moving as rapidly as posother stores, industriously collected sible, the vast stores of provisions throughout the preceding Fall and and munitions here accumulated. Winter, had been removed to Nash- ( Two fine gunboats, being built at the ville during the last three or four river-side, were prepared for instant days.
conflagration; and the magnificent Nashville had been electrified, and costly railroad and wire suspenduring the 15th (Saturday), with a sion-bridges over the Cumberland telegraphic dispatch from Dover, were likewise made ready for speedy announcing a Rebel victory; some destruction-a fate which overtook what tempered by reports from them two or three days later. A Bowling Green that Johnston would fortification had in the mean time be obliged to evacuate that post. been commenced on the Cumberland, Next morning, however, came news four miles below the city, calculated of the capture of Donelson, with most to dispute and prevent the passage of its defenders; and along with of our gunboats; but this was soon it a first installment of Johnston's abandoned upon information that army retreating from dismantled Gen. Johnston had decided not to Bowling Green. The general aston- fight for Nashville, but to continue ishment was only equaled by the his retreat; which he did, unassailed, general consternation. Churches were to Corinth, Miss., south of the Tenclosed, or failed to open; there were nessee river, and nearly 300 miles hurried consultations and whispered from Bowling Green. Six weeks adieus in every quarter, whence bank were consumed in that retreat; which, directors rushed to impel specie and with a green and undisciplined army, other valuables toward the cars, was probably quite as disastrous as a soon to bear them to Chattanooga, battle. 35 to Columbia, and other points of Directly after the capture of Fort comparative safety. Gov. Harris and Henry, Commander Phelps, with the
handoned upo had decided
35 " An Impressed New-Yorker," in his narra- | 5,000 horsemen, in the midst of rain and sleet, tive of personal adventures, entitled “Thirteen 1 day after day, camping at night in wet fields, or Months in the Rebel Army," says:
dripping woods, without sufficient food adapted
to their wants, and often without any tents; the "The army was not far from 60,000 strong, men lying down in their wet clothes, and rising after Gen. George B. Crittenden's forces were chilled through and through. And let this conadded to it at Murfreesboro'. The season of tinue for six weeks of incessant retreat, and the year was the worst possible in that latitude. you get a feeble glimpse of what we endured. Rain fell-sometimes sleet--four days out of The army suffered great loss from sickness, and the seven. The roads were bad enough at some from desertion; some regiments leaving best; but, under such a tramping of horses and Bowling Green with six or seven hundred men, cutting of wheels as the march produced, soon and reaching Corinth with but half of this numbecame horrible. About 100 regiments were | ber. The towns through which we passed were numbered in the army. The full complement, left full of sick men; and many were sent off of wagons to each regiment (24), would give to hospitals at some distance from our route." above 2,000 wagons. Imagine such a train of heavily loaded wagons passing along a single / Pollard makes Johnston's army at Murfreesmud road, accompanied by 55,000 infantry and / boro' but 17,000.
wooden gunboats Conestoga, Tyler, the 24th, but found no enemy preand Lexington, steamed up the Ten- pared to resist them. In fact, the nessee to. Florence, Ala., at the foot city had virtually surrendered alof the Muscle Shoals, where he cap- ready to the 4th Ohio cavalry, Col. tured two steamboats, and constrained John Kennett, being the advance the Rebels to burn six others; he hav- of Buell's army. Col. Kennett had ing burnt the railroad bridge near reached Edgefield Junction, 8 or 10 Benton on the way. The wholly un- miles from Nashville, and thence sent expected appearance of the National forward a detachment, under Maj. flag in North Alabama, where slaves H. C. Rodgers, who occupied withwere comparatively few, and at least out resistance the village of Edgefield, three-fourths of the people had stub- opposite Nashville, on the Cumberbornly opposed Secession, was a wel- land, and communicated with Mayor come spectacle to thousands, and was Cheatham, who surrendered the city greeted with enthusiastic demonstra- to Col. Kennett on his arrival, which tions of loyalty.
was before that of Gen. Nelson's comCom. Foote, with the gunboats mand. A small squad of the 4th Conestoga and Cairo, moved up the Ohio crossed over into the city and Cumberland from Donelson, three returned, their orders not contemdays after its surrender. At Clarks- plating its occupation; but the batville, he found the railroad bridge tery of the regiment had been planted destroyed; while the wealthier citi- where it commanded the heart of the zens had generally fled, and he en- city, and a reasonable fear of shells countered no resistance. As it would impelled Mayor Cheatham to proffer have been absurd to attack a city and hasten a surrender, by which he like Nashville with such a force, he agreed to protect and preserve the now returned to Cairo for addi- public property in Nashville until it tional boats; while Gen. Smith, with could be regularly turned over to the the advance of our victorious army, use of the United States. marched up to Clarksville; whence But, in fact, the spoils of victory Lieut. Bryant, of the Cairo, followed had already been clutched by the by 7 transports, conveying the brigade Nashville mob; so that, while the of Gen. Nelson, moved up the river Rebel loss was enormous," the posito Nashville, where they arrived on tive Union gain was inconsiderable.
36 Feb. 19.
ment stores enough to open respectable groce37 Pollard says:
ries. It was with the greatest difficulty that "Gen. Johnston had moved the main body Gen. Floyd could restore order and get his marof his command to Murfreesboro'--a rear-guard tial law into any thing like an effective system. being left in Nashville under Gen. Floyd, who Blacks and Whites had to be chased and caphad arrived from Donelson, to secure the stores tured and forced to help the movement of Govand provisions. In the first wild excitement of ernment stores. One man, who, after a long the panic, the store-houses had been thrown open chase, was captured, offered fight, and was in to the poor. They were besieged by a mob ray- consequence shot and badly wounded. Not less enous for spoils, and who had to be dispersed than one million of dollars in stores was lost from the commissariat by jets of water from a through the acts of the cowardly and ravenous steam fire-engine. Women and children, even, mob of Nashville. Gen. Floyd and Col. Forrest were seen scudding through the streets under exhibited extraordinary energy and efficiency in loads of greasy pork, which they had taken as getting off Government stores. Col. Forrest reprizes from the store-houses. It is believed that mained in the city about 24 hours, with only 40 hundreds of families, among the lower orders of men, after the arrival of the enemy at Edgehe population, secured and secreted Govern-| field."