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state officers' are canvassed by the legislature, but those cast for presidential electors are counted by a state board of canvassers, consisting of governor, secretary, auditor, treasurer, and attorney general. In case of a tie in the number of votes for an officer of a county or some smaller district, the two parties involved decide the matter by drawing lots at the county court house.

REVIEW

What are electors?
Who may be an elector?
Which qualifications of an elector are provided in the

constitution, and which are by statute?
Give the difference between citizens and electors.
What is an alien?
Describe how an alien may become a citizen.
Explain the meaning of naturalization.
What is the difference between a citizen of the United

States and a citizen of Nebraska? Who cannot be citizens of the United States? Of Ne

braska? Who cannot be electors? Why may not women be electors? What objections can you see to allowing soldiers and

sailors in the employ of the United States to vote? How are candidates for office nominated ? Describe the convention system. What systems in Nebraska besides nominations by con

vention? What is the use of having voters register? When did the Australian ballot law begin to be used in

Nebraska? What was used before that? What change was made in the ballot law in 1897? Why do you think the system of voting by booths was Describe the election system from nominations to election. Which system of arranging the names on the ballot do

adopted quickly throughout the United States?

1 Votes canvassed by legislature are those cast for governor, lieutenant governor, members of Congress, secretary of state, auditor of public accounts, state treasurer, state superintendent of public instruction, attorney general, commissioner of public lands and buildings, and district attorneys; also votes expressing choice of people for United States Senator.

2 State board canvasses votes for presidential electors, judges of supreme and district courts. and regent of university.

you think best, and why?

SUGGESTIVE TOPICS.

Derivation and meaning of alien, franchise, caucus

precinct, canvas. Origin of Australian Ballot system: Review of Re

views, III., 609, July, 1891. Should the right to vote be restricted by requiring

an educational test? Is there any property qualification for voters in the

United States? What is residence? If ope's business is in a different

precinct or ward from his family, where does he vote? May a state or county officer vote where he resides temporarily on account of his office? If he sleeps in one ward and eats in another, where does he vote?

LANDS

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IV.-EDUCATION. Mention has been made of the land set apart by the organic law for the maintenance of the schools.

The whole amount of land devoted to this SCHOOL

purpose is more than two and one-half millions of acres. Two sections out of every township in the State is a magnificent endowment for the common schools. Likewise the State has endowed its normal school and university.

The wealth thus set apart is never diminished, the interest only being used. When school lands are leased, the rent forms a part of the fund. From this source alone the revenue is not sufficient. The districts tax themselves for local school purOTHER poses, according to the length of term, MEANS OF SUP

number of teachers, cost of school buildPORT

ing, etc., desired. The State levies an 1 Nomber acres set apart in sections 16 and 36 in each township: 2,733,500. 2 Normal school, 12,804 acres.

University, 134 566 acres. 3 Limited to twenty-five mills on a dollar of valuation. See page 80. 1 Total expenditure, $4,123,799.54. Cost of hiring teachers, etc., $2,116,668.58. Buildings, etc., $749,642.89.

3

STATE
AND

SUPER-
IN-
TEND-
ENTS

additional tax yearly for educational purposes, but this may not exceed one and one-half mills. Besides this there are various fines and licenses that are paid into the general fund. Here are four sources of revenue. It is natural to inquire at this place how much this amounts to in a year. cost of During the school year ending with July, SCHOOLS 1891, the total expenditure for the common schools was over four million dollars, onehalf of which was paid to teachers.' At the head of the school system is the state

superintendent, who is recognized as the COUNTY leader in the work and the interpreter of

the school laws of the State, and whose

decision is authority, unless reversed by the courts. Next below him comes the county, superintendent, who may be said to be the manager of the county schools. His duties of laying out districts, visiting the schools, and holding institutes make him the center of that school system. Above the common schools are the two higher institutions, the normal school and the university

The first of these is mainly for the purpose of fitting students to be teachers.?

On the other hand, the state university is intended to give a student the choice of many

NOR.
MAL
SCHOOL

2 State Normal School at Peru:1.--Superintended by board of education, consisting of state treasurer,

state superintendent, and five others appointed by the governor

for terms of five years each. Board elects president and secretary, 2.-Managed by a principal, who is responsible for the condition of the

school.

UNI

courses." The unity of the whole plan of free

education is its important feature. VERSITY

Every part is made to work in harmony with the rest. The university and the normal school may be called public schools as well as the lower grades.

V.-PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.

CARE
FOR
SPE.

Not only does the State offer education generously to its citizens, but it extends its protection and care to the unfortunate. It is thus that the necessity arises for what the law calls charitable and

penal institutions. The blind are offered a

home and free instruction at the Institute CLASS. for the Blind at Nebraska City. Here they

are taught the rudiments of an English education and music, and instruction is also given in several trades, such as broom making, basket making, piano tuning, etc.

ES

3.-Completion of coinmon school course of study entitles a student to

a diploma good for two years. Completion of higher course of study and a certain amount of teaching after graduation entitles

a student to a life certificate. 4.- Tuition free.

1 State University at Lincoln :1.--Governed by a board of regents. (See Constitution, Art. VIII., Sec.

10.) 2.-Departments provided for:

(a) College of literature, science, and the arts. (0) Industrial college, embracing agriculture, practical science.

civil engineering, and the mechanic arts. (c) College of law. (d) College of medicine, only a preparatory course having been 98

tablished. (e) College of fine arts. 3.-Tuition free and advantages open to all without regard to sex or

color. 4.-Summer term for teachers is held.

The parents or guardians are expected to provide clothing, pay traveling expenses, and take charge of the pupils during summer vacation. Tuition, board, and medical attendance are free. In the autumn of 1896 there were soventy-six pupils at the institution. The deaf and dumb are offered similar advan

tages at the institute at Omaha. During OD JUL the two school years ending in 1896, 184

pupils attended the school. As in the

case of the school for the blind, the State pays for the instruction and board.

The pupils engage in printing, gardening, sewing, carpenter

PART

TION-
AL
SY 3.
TEM

ing, etc.

are

The feeble-minded youth of the State are also offered a home and instruction at the institution located at Beatrice. At all these institutions, which

as purely educational as the university and normal school, instruction is given in accordance with the highest scientific authority. Not only is the instruction free, but a good home is offered, Furthermore, when any of these wards are unable to provide proper clothing or to pay railroad fare, the authorities of the institutions are authorized to provide for such cases and charge the same to the county from which the ward comes.

The industrial or reform schools of the Statethe one for boys at Kearney and the one for girls at Geneva-should perhaps be classed as reformatory, but whatever reform is obtained, is through education. Youths sent to these places are given

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